Mi sono seduta e ho pianto. Narra la leggenda che tutto ciò che cade nell'acqua di questo fiume, le foglie, gli insetti, le piume degli uccelli, si trasforma nelle pietre del suo letto. Ah, se solo potessi strapparmi il cuore dal petto e lanciarlo nella corrente, allora non ci sarebbero più dolore né nostalgia né ricordi.
—  Paulo Coelho

Summer Vocabulary | Russian

Nouns - Существительные

n - neuter
f - feminine
m - masculine 
s - single
f - plural

  • Summer - ‘лето [leto] n,s
  • Heat - жа’ра [zhara] f,s
  • Sun - ‘солнце [sontse] n,s
  • Rain - ‘дождь [dozhd’] m,s
  • Pouring rain - ‘ливень [liven’] m,s
  • Puddle - ‘лужа [luzha] f,s
  • Storm - гро’за [graza] f,s
  • Rain with the sunshine - гриб’ной ‘дождь [gribnoy  dozhd’] m,s
  • Cloud - ‘облако [oblako]
  • Vacation (for workers) - ‘отпуск [otpusk], (for students) - ка’никулы [kanikulyy]
  • Holiday - ‘праздник [praznik] m,s
  • Trip - по’ездка [payestka] f,s
  • Forest - лес [les]
  • Lake - ‘озеро [ozera] n,s
  • Pond - пруд [prud] m,s
  • River - ре’ка [reka]
  • Barbecue - барбе’кю, (or the more comon one) - шаш’лык [shashlyk]
  • Sunglasses - ‘солнечные оч’ки [solnechniye achki] p
  • Recreation/rest - ‘отдых [otdyh] m,s

Adjectives - Прилагательные

  • Hot - ‘жаркий [zharkij]
  • Warm - ‘теплый [teplij]
  • Humid - ‘влажный [vlazhnij]
  • Dry (air) - су’хой [suhoj]
  • Wet - ‘мокрый [mokrij]
  • Fresh - ‘свежий [svejij]

Verbs - глаголы

  • Relax - отды’хать [atdyhat’]
  • Have fun - весе’литься [veselit’sya]
  • To be on vacation - быть в отпуске, быть на каникулах
  • Travel - путе’шествовать [puteshestvavat’]

Phrases - фразы

  • I’m hot - мне жарко
  • It’s hot - жарко
  • I’m thirsty - я хочу пить
  • I’m relaxing - я отдыхаю
  • I want to go somewhere (meaning to have fun) - я хочу куда-то съездить
Non-ce-la-faccio (e invece sì)

L’orgoglio secondo Angelo è il mio più grande difetto. Lui lo dice perché ogni volta che giochiamo a biliardo finisco sempre per arrischiarmi in sponde impossibili con la presunzione di riuscire laddove potrei accontentarmi di perder solo un punto. “È impossibile, non puoi farcela” “Tsk, ce la faccio” e puntualmente non ce la faccio. Ma la verità è che l’incapacità di pronunciare quelle quattro parole, fermarmi, chiedere aiuto, consiglio, la resa, mi trattiene piccolo nel mondo e sarà sempre gioia delle mie rovine. Non so la disfatta all’ombra d’un’umiltà che non possiedo, ho buttato relazioni incrinate per non doverne accettare le crepe, e ho curato con lo stesso accanimento relazioni incurabili per non doverne accettare la morte. Angelo mi sghigna un “Prendila mo” ed io non so se a pungermi è lo stesso demonio sdentato che morsicava Marty McFly con la faccina stronza di Flea, ma non esiste che io m’arrenda, no no non m’arrendo, io ce la faccio io, mo ti faccio vedere, mo vi faccio vedere io a tutti, quanto sono coglione.  

Distillation of Essential Oils, Part Two

Hydrosols: A By-product of Distillation

Hydrosols (also known as hydrolats, floral waters, distillates, or “water of _____”) are the by-product or product (depending on the distiller’s purpose) of the distillation process.

Hydrosols are fragrant waters that contain the essence of a plant in a milder, more accessible, and easier to use form than essential oils. They are suitable for all manner of applications for which essential oils are too strong – for example, they are clothing safe, non-comedogenic, hypoallergenic, and pet safe (provided they are the hydrosols of plants that are non-toxic and poisonous to pets, for example, lily hydrosol would be dangerous to cats, but most medical grade essential oils are dangerous to pets due to chemical burn concerns.)

They are quite like essential oils, but are far less concentrated. During distillation, the water-soluble constituents of the aromatic plant and the essence of a plant is released as steam, which condenses into two products – the essential oils, also offered through Haven Craft, and the hydrosols.

Hydrosols also retain a small amount of essential oil. Every liter of hydrosol contains between 0.05 and 0.2 milliliter of dissolved essential oil, depending on the water solubility of the plant’s components and the distillation parameters.

*Please Note: The addition of essential oils to water is not at all the same as true hydrosols, and it is recommended that you read the ingredients label on products to ascertain whether or not you are getting a true hydrosol. When water and essential oils are mixed together with or without a dispersant, this is called a “spritzer” or “aromatic spritzer,” and this product should not be confused with a true hydrosol.

Hydrosols do not need to be shaken before use.


Expression, also referred to as cold pressing, is a method of extraction specific to citrus essential oils, such as tangerine, lemon, bergamot, sweet orange, and lime. In ancient times, expression was done in the form of sponge pressing, accomplished by hand. The zest or rind of the citrus would first be soaked in warm water to make the rind more malleable in the pressing process. A sponge would then be used to press the rind, thus breaking the essential oil cavities. The sponde would then absorb the released essential oil.

Once the sponge was filled, it would then be pressed over a collecting container. The expression would then stand to allow for separation of the essential oil from any released water or juice. The essential oil would then be siphoned off.

A more modern method of extraction, much less labor-intensive, has been termed the “ecuelle a piquer” process. It involves a prodding, pricking, sticking action to release the essential oil.

During the ecuelle a piquer process, the rind of the fruit is placed in a container with spikes that punctures the peel while the device is rotated.

The puncturing of the rind releases essential oils that are then collected in a small area below the container. The end process is the same as above.

The majority of modern expression techniques are accomplished by using machines using centrifugal force. The spinning centrifuge separates the majority of essential oil from the fruit juice and water.

Some aromatherapy and therapeutic oil companies sell both a distilled and an expressed citrus essential oil from the same species. The main differences between a distilled and an expressed citrus essential oil  are their toxicity, volatility, and aroma.

Distilled citrus oils deteriorate more quickly and are considerably more unstable than the expressed oils. Distilled citrus oils are not recommended for aromatherapy use.

The one exception would be for distilled lime essential oil, which is considered to be superior in aroma to its expressed counterpart.

Both the expressed and distilled essential oil of bergamot contains the phototoxic furanocoumarin, bergaptene. The aroma of distilled oil is considered to be of lower quality than the expressed oil.

Expressed lemon oil contains the phototoxic furanocoumarin, bergaptene, where as the distilled lemon oil is considered to be non-phototoxic. And like bergamot, the aroma of the distilled oil is considered to be of lower quality.

Expressed lime oil contains the phototoxic furanocoumarin, bergaptene, whereas the distilled oil is not considered to be phototoxic. The main difference with lime is that the distilled essential oil is considered to have the superior aroma. The distilled lime is considered the superior of the lime oils because it has greater similarity to the natural lime scent.

Extraction Techniques for Absolutes (Extracted Oils) & CO2 Extracts


Flowers were being processed via enfleurage in the Grasse region of Southern France long before the modern method of solvent extraction was in widespread use. In the antique perfume trade of France, many flower scents were extracted via enfleurage.

Enfleurage is now considered an ancient art that is passed down through family lines, from generation to generation.

Enfleurage is a cold-fat extraction process that is based upon the principles that fat possesses a high power of absorption, particularly animal fat. The fat used must be relatively stable against rancidity. It is a method used for flowers that continue developing and giving off their aroma even after harvesting (e.g., jasmine and tuberose).

This technique involves placing the flower petals on a layer of glass that is first spread with a thin layer of fat, called “chassis”. The volatile oil diffuses into the fat, then the fat is collected and the oil is extracted from the fat using alcohol.

Once the alcohol evaporates what is left behind is called the absolute.

Today, Grasse continues to be one of the few areas in the world that continues to employ enfleurage as a method of extraction, although it is rare in the aromatherapy market due to the expense. If one finds a jasmine enfleurage on the market, this would typically be considered an absolute.

Some of the therapeutic grade absolutes (extracted oils) carried by Haven Craft were created using enfleurage.

Solvent Extraction

Some plant material is too fragile to be distilled – the heat will break down the material to unusability long before oils are released – and so an alternative method must be used. Solvent extraction is the use of solvents, such as petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol, or hexane, to extract the odiferous lipophilic material from botanicals.

The solvent will also pull out the chlorophyll and other plant tissue, resulting in a highly colored and thick, viscous extract.

The first product created during solvent extraction is known as a concrete. A concrete is the concentrated extract that contains the waxes and the fats of the botanical material, as well as the odoriferous oils from the plant.

The concrete is then mixed with alcohol, which serves to extract the aromatic principle of the material.

The final product is known as an absolute or as an extracted oil.

Solvent extraction is used for jasmine, tuberose, carnation, gardenia, jonquil, violet leaf, narcissus, mimosa, and other delicate flowers.

Neroli (orange blossom) and rose can be distilled or solvent-extracted.

The name neroli typically implies the essential oil, whereas the name orange blossom is commonly used for the absolute or hydrosol of neroli. The name rose is used to describe either the essential oil or the absolute.

Companies selling essential oils should rightfully clarify whether the product you are purchasing is an essential oil or absolute. This information should be on the label and in the product catalog. It often isn’t, though, so reflect upon the price – if it seems too good to be true, it probably is.

After the solvent extraction process has been completed, the resulting absolute will have an extremely low concentration of solvent residue, approximately 5 to 10ppm (parts per million). The current European Union standards are for less than 10 parts per million solvent residues in a finished absolute.

This does not interfere in their use as therapeutic oils – some believe it does, but my teacher did not.

It may interfere in their use as medical grade essential oils. Even with such a potentially small residue (less than .0001%), many holistic herbalists disagree with the use of absolutes for individuals with a compromised immune system, due to the potential effect of the residual pesticide.

However, absolutes do have therapeutic value and are often used for psychological purposes and for animals, particularly horses. Many therapists incorporate absolutes, such as rose, jasmine, and tuberose absolutes, as a valuable part of their therapeutic applications of aromatherapy. Ultimately the decision to use absolutes is up to the practitioner and personal preferences.

Absolutes are used extensively in the cosmetic and perfume industries due to their strong aromas – they often smell more like the botanical material than essential oils do.

There are also different grades of absolutes.

The top grade is the uncut, which can be a thick or semisolid substance, making them difficult to work with.

Less expensive grades are diluted with alcohol or a carrier oil, called a “filler”, to make them more user friendly, although often the strength of aroma is slightly diminished.

If the absolute pours very easily and is thin or runny, it has likely been “cut” or “filled”.

Most bath oils and gels, candles, shampoos, toothpaste, fly spray, aromatherapy suppliers, and air fresheners (somewhere around 98 percent), use absolutes rather than medical grade essential oils.

CO2 Hypercritical Extraction

Hypercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction is a relatively new process, developed for for the extraction of aromatic products.

CO2 under pressure will turn from a gas into a liquid, which can then be used as an inert liquid solvent.

This liquid solvent is able to diffuse throughout the botanical material, thus extracting its aromatic constituents.

CO2 extracts contain most of the same constituents as their essential oil counterparts, although they can contain some elements not found in essential oils. For instance, the essential oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale) does not contain the bitter principles, however the CO2 extract does. Also, the CO2 extract of frankincense (Boswellia carterii) has immune enhancing and anti-inflammatory activity not found in the essential oil.

CO2 extracts are known for their strong similarity in aroma to the actual plant aroma, sometimes stronger than the abolutes produced from pressure extraction.

Other common CO2 extracts on the market include German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Calendula (Calendula officinalis).

The three main disadvantages for this process are cost, potential pesticide residue, and the lack of information regarding their safety, therapeutic benefits, and medical benefits.

With regard to pesticide residue, carbon dioxide extraction has been demonstrated to concentrate from 7 to 53 times more pesticide residues in the final extract. Therefore, it seems pertinent to only use organic plant material for CO2 extraction.

Perhaps as more CO2 extracts become available and more practitioners use them, further details regarding their applications will become apparent.

Two of the most common essential oils available via CO2 extraction include frankincense and ginger.

Phytonic Process

The Phytonic process is a one of the newest methods of extracting essential oils using non-CFCs (non-chlorofluorocarbons). It is also called Florasol Extraction. The oils produced are called phytols.

The oils are promising and are very close to nature; however, it does use fluoro-hydrocarbons which can be potentially harmful. The process also has some potentially negative environmental effects that need to be addressed.

More research needs to be done into phytol oils and the process itself before Haven Craft will carry phytol oils.

Warm Oil Infusion

It is possible to extract the volatile oils from plants into warm carrier oil by gently macerating the botanical materials and placing them in a carrier oil and slowly bringing that oil up to heat. These are not considered essential oils or absolutes, but they are good for home therapeutic when a great deal of oil is called for, such as in producing a salve or balm to be used all over the body.

Freeze Distillation

There is a method of solvent extraction that can be done at home to obtain a kind of extracted oil. It would not be considered a therapeutic or medical grade essential oil or absolute, but it is considered an alchemic oil and suitable for use in magick.

The process generally uses undenatured ethyl alcohol or very high proof grain alcohol. It does not use rubbing alcohol.

The plant material is macerated in alcohol for some time, then the plant material is strained out. The alcohol is then placed into an environment below the freezing point. The oil will congeal on top of the alcohol, which will not freeze, and can then be extracted. This method is very good for delicate materials that will burn before steam distillation releases the oils, such as jasmine.

“Tanto più grande la ferita, tanto maggiore lo sforzo che l’Ego deve fare per proteggere l’Io. In altre parole, chi ha ricevuto un messaggio incoraggiante, chi ha trovato un ambiente amorevole e accettante, crescerà dotato di una buona autostima, e dovrà ricorrere a poche difese e manifestazione egoiche per dire al mondo che egli esiste. Al contrario chi è stato squalificato, denigrato, svilito, sviluppa un Io fragile, senza sponde sicure, e dovrà ricorrere a un Ego, che possiamo anche chiamare un falso Sé, di facciata, per nascondere la propria insicurezza.

Tale dinamica si evidenzia molto bene nelle persone dai comportamenti arroganti, autocelebranti, che hanno il bisogno di essere sempre sotto i riflettori, al centro dell’attenzione. Queste persone è come se chiedessero implicitamente al mondo intero: “dimmi che esisto, dimmi che valgo”. E spesso sono disposte a tutto pur di ottenere un briciolo di attenzione, un attimo di gloria.

“La criniera del finto leone nasconde la mano tesa del mendicante”.

Ed è come se egli avesse scritto in fronte, “temo di non esistere, perciò faccio tanto rumore.” Come in ogni fenomeno psichico, è importante sempre valutare quanto, in un’ipotetica scala da uno a cento, tale insicurezza condizioni e pervada la vita della persona.

Nella teoria freudiana tale sindrome viene definita “Narcisismo”. La ferita narcisistica porta l’individuo a comportarsi in maniera richiestiva, a cercare il proprio valore all’esterno, per coprire un vuoto interiore spaventoso. Andando oltre l’apparente supponenza, tracotanza, e arroganza, si scoprirà una persona estremamente infelice, sola, insoddisfatta, mai paga e mai sazia di riconoscimenti.”

“Nonostante lo scorrere degli eventi mi sento come se non stessi andando da nessuna parte, Lloyd”

“Se mi consente, sir, per quanto il fiume sia impetuoso la sua acqua non porta via il riflesso di ciò che rimane sulle sue sponde”
“Sulle sponde non si rischia di annegare, Lloyd”
“Ma si rischia di vivere senza mai vedere il mare, sir”
“Portami braccioli e paperella, Lloyd”
“Immediatamente e con piacere, sir”

Da qualche anno a inizio estate
come ragnatele colorate
nidi di vene sottili sottopelle
Guardo le gambe e mi dico
è così che si manifesta il tempo
Dove stavano prima
questi segni?
Perché vengono
a galla ora?
Seduta sulla sponda del mio corpo
affronto questi inizi d’estate
scrutando ciò che sale in superficie
dal profondo
Seduta sulle sponde del mio corpo
ho gli occhi di me bambina
sul corpo di mia nonna
eppure queste gambe sono mie
a me tocca affrontare ora
la mia parte di mistero
—  Alessandra Racca, Venuzze
C'è chi passa tutta la vita a leggere senza mai riuscire ad andare al di là della lettura, restano appiccicati alla pagina, non percepiscono che le parole sono soltanto delle pietre messe di traverso nella corrente di un fiume, sono lì solo per farci arrivare all'altra sponda, quella che conta è l'altra sponda, A meno che, A meno che, cosa, A meno che quei fiumi non abbiano due sole sponde, ma tante, che ogni persona che legge sia, essa stessa, la propria sponda, e che sia sua, e soltanto sua, la sponda cui dovrà arrivare,
—  José Saramago, La caverna, 2000, pagg. 76-77

Zeus - lord of sky and lightning, king of olympus

Poseidon- lord of sea, water and earthquakes

demigods gain    (control of earth)

Hades- lord of underworld and king of dead

demigods gain geocanysis (control of earth)

Hera- goddess of marriage and devotion and queen of olympus

Artemis- goddess of the moon, the hunt, and archery. patron of all wolves. 

Apollo- god of sun, music, and archery

Hermes- god of thieves and messengers

Dionysus- god of party, wine, and pleasure

Athena- goddess of wisdom and battle strategy

Ares- god of war

Demeter- goddess of agriculture, horticulture, and harvest

Hephaestus- god of the forge, fire, metalworking, sculpture, and stone masonry

Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty

Hestia- goddess of the hearth, home, and cooking

Nyx- goddess of night

Erebos- god of shadow and darkness

Thanatos- god of death

Hecate- goddess of magic

Janus- god of doorways, beginnings, and endings

Chronos- god of time (NOT THE TITAN)

Hypnos- god of sleep

Persephone- godess of spring, queen of underworld 

Melinoe- goddess of ghosts

Pan- god of the wild (first satyr of world)

Deimos- god of terror

Phobos- god of fear and phobias

Triton- god of ships

Zealus- god of rivalry and jealousy

Nemesis- goddess of revenge and balance

Ananke- goddess of inevitability

Bia- goddess of force

Nike- goddess of victory

Eris- goddess of discord and chaos

Hebe- goddess of youth

Moros- god of doom

Cratos- god of strength and power

Attis- god of rebirth

Cybele- goddess of caverns, mountains, walls, and fortresses

Iris- goddess of rainbow

The horae- (all female)

-Thallo- flowers

-Auco- plant growth

-Carpo- autumn

-Dike- moral justice

-Eunomia- law and legislation (order)

-Irene- peace

-Pherusa- farm and estates

-Euporia- abundance

-Orthosie- property

The 9 hours

-Auco- hour 1

-Eunomia- hour 2

-Pherusa- hour 3

-Carpo- Hour 4

-Dikee- hour 5

-Auporia- Hour 6

-Irene- hour 7

-Orthose- Hour 8

-Thallo- hour 9

The 12 hours

-Auge- 1- first light

-Anatolia- 2- sunrise

-Musica- 3- the morning hour of music and study

-Gymnasia- 4- the morning hour of education and training

-Nympha- 5- The morning our of absolutions

-Mesembria- 6- noon

-Sponde- 7- Libations poured after lunch

-Elete- 8- Prayer, the first of the afternoon work hours

-Acte- 9- eating and pleasure, the second of the afternoon work hours

-Hesperis- 10- end of the afternoon work hours, start of evening

-Dysis- 11- sunset

-Arctus- 12- night sky and constellation (only male of horae)

Mania- goddess of insanity

Mormus- god of satire and mockery

Morpheus- god of deep sleep and dreams

Peitha- goddess of persuasion

Plutus- god of wealth

Rhea- goddess of nature

Themis- goddess of law and custody

Aeolus- god of winds

Borius- god of the north wind

Eurus- god of east wind

Notus- goddess of south wind

Zephyrus- god of west wind

Asclepius- god of health and medicine

Ata- goddess of mischief 

Caerus- god of luck, opportunity, and fortune

Ceto- goddess of sea monsters

Enyo- goddess of war

Khione- goddess of snow and winter

Pontus- goddess of the deep sea.

Quando vai via, amore,
mi disfi il cuore.
La valigia è colma di
umori stropicciati
baci alla rinfusa
dita aggrovigliate al
candore quotidiano.

Tu, però, torna,
te ne prego.
Rendimi le istruzioni per
imparare a respirare.
Ho nel petto un sibilo
che claudica e
s'assopisce, poi, sulle sponde
del nubiloso Noi.

—  Maria Girardi

Sono stato definito “cercatore”, non so se fosse un complimento. Ringrazio il destino di avere benevolmente impedito alla mia barca di approdare sulle aride sponde di una raccapricciante conclusività.

Chi cerca trova, e colui che sempre cerca, sempre trova. Per questo sono felice di non vedere alcuna conclusività da nessuna parte, bensì un’oscura distesa piena di misteri e di avventura.