Mi sono seduta e ho pianto. Narra la leggenda che tutto ciò che cade nell'acqua di questo fiume, le foglie, gli insetti, le piume degli uccelli, si trasforma nelle pietre del suo letto. Ah, se solo potessi strapparmi il cuore dal petto e lanciarlo nella corrente, allora non ci sarebbero più dolore né nostalgia né ricordi.
L’orgoglio secondo Angelo è il mio più grande
difetto. Lui lo dice perché ogni volta che giochiamo a biliardo finisco sempre
per arrischiarmi in sponde impossibili con la presunzione di riuscire laddove potrei
accontentarmi di perder solo un punto. “È impossibile, non puoi farcela”“Tsk, ce la
faccio” e puntualmente non ce la faccio. Ma la verità è che l’incapacità di pronunciare
quelle quattro parole, fermarmi, chiedere aiuto, consiglio, la resa, mi trattiene
piccolo nel mondo e sarà sempre gioia delle mie rovine. Non so la disfatta all’ombra
d’un’umiltà che non possiedo, ho buttato relazioni incrinate per non doverne
accettare le crepe, e ho curato con lo stesso accanimento relazioni incurabili per
non doverne accettare la morte. Angelo mi sghigna un “Prendila mo” ed io non so
se a pungermi è lo stesso demonio sdentato che morsicava Marty McFly con la
faccina stronza di Flea, ma non esiste che io m’arrenda, no no non m’arrendo, io ce la
faccio io, mo ti faccio vedere, mo vi faccio vedere io a tutti, quanto sono
known as hydrolats, floral waters, distillates, or “water of
_____”) are the by-product or product (depending on the distiller’s
purpose) of the distillation process.
fragrant waters that contain the essence of a plant in a milder, more
accessible, and easier to use form than essential oils. They are
suitable for all manner of applications for which essential oils are
too strong – for example, they are clothing safe, non-comedogenic,
hypoallergenic, and pet safe (provided they are the hydrosols of
plants that are non-toxic and poisonous to pets, for example, lily
hydrosol would be dangerous to cats, but most medical grade essential
oils are dangerous to pets due to chemical burn concerns.)
They are quite like
essential oils, but are far less concentrated. During distillation,
the water-soluble constituents of the aromatic plant and the essence
of a plant is released as steam, which condenses into two products –
the essential oils, also offered through Haven Craft, and the
retain a small amount of essential oil. Every liter of hydrosol
contains between 0.05 and 0.2 milliliter of dissolved essential oil,
depending on the water solubility of the plant’s components and the
*Please Note: The
addition of essential oils to water is not at all the same as true
hydrosols, and it is recommended that you read the ingredients label
on products to ascertain whether or not you are getting a true
hydrosol. When water and essential oils are mixed together with or
without a dispersant, this is called a “spritzer” or “aromatic
spritzer,” and this product should not be confused with a true
Hydrosols do not
need to be shaken before use.
referred to as cold pressing, is a method of extraction specific to
citrus essential oils, such as tangerine, lemon, bergamot, sweet
orange, and lime. In ancient times, expression was done in the form
of sponge pressing, accomplished by hand. The zest or rind of the
citrus would first be soaked in warm water to make the rind more
malleable in the pressing process. A sponge would then be used to
press the rind, thus breaking the essential oil cavities. The sponde
would then absorb the released essential oil.
Once the sponge was
filled, it would then be pressed over a collecting container. The
expression would then stand to allow for separation of the essential
oil from any released water or juice. The essential oil would then be
A more modern method
of extraction, much less labor-intensive, has been termed the
“ecuelle a piquer” process. It involves a prodding, pricking,
sticking action to release the essential oil.
During the ecuelle a
piquer process, the rind of the fruit is placed in a container with
spikes that punctures the peel while the device is rotated.
The puncturing of
the rind releases essential oils that are then collected in a small
area below the container. The end process is the same as above.
The majority of
modern expression techniques are accomplished by using machines using
centrifugal force. The spinning centrifuge separates the majority of
essential oil from the fruit juice and water.
and therapeutic oil companies sell both a distilled and an expressed
citrus essential oil from the same species. The main differences
between a distilled and an expressed citrus essential oil are their
toxicity, volatility, and aroma.
oils deteriorate more quickly and are considerably more unstable than
the expressed oils. Distilled citrus oils are not recommended for
The one exception
would be for distilled lime essential oil, which is considered to be
superior in aroma to its expressed counterpart.
Both the expressed
and distilled essential oil of bergamot contains the phototoxic
furanocoumarin, bergaptene. The aroma of distilled oil is considered
to be of lower quality than the expressed oil.
Expressed lemon oil
contains the phototoxic furanocoumarin, bergaptene, where as the
distilled lemon oil is considered to be non-phototoxic. And like
bergamot, the aroma of the distilled oil is considered to be of lower
Expressed lime oil
contains the phototoxic furanocoumarin, bergaptene, whereas the
distilled oil is not considered to be phototoxic. The main difference
with lime is that the distilled essential oil is considered to have
the superior aroma. The distilled lime is considered the superior of
the lime oils because it has greater similarity to the natural lime
Techniques for Absolutes (Extracted Oils) & CO2 Extracts
Flowers were being
processed via enfleurage in the Grasse region of Southern France long
before the modern method of solvent extraction was in widespread use.
In the antique perfume trade of France, many flower scents were
extracted via enfleurage.
Enfleurage is now
considered an ancient art that is passed down through family lines,
from generation to generation.
Enfleurage is a
cold-fat extraction process that is based upon the principles that
fat possesses a high power of absorption, particularly animal fat.
The fat used must be relatively stable against rancidity. It is a
method used for flowers that continue developing and giving off their
aroma even after harvesting (e.g., jasmine and tuberose).
involves placing the flower petals on a layer of glass that is first
spread with a thin layer of fat, called “chassis”. The
volatile oil diffuses into the fat, then the fat is collected and the
oil is extracted from the fat using alcohol.
Once the alcohol
evaporates what is left behind is called the absolute.
continues to be one of the few areas in the world that continues to
employ enfleurage as a method of extraction, although it is rare in
the aromatherapy market due to the expense. If one finds a jasmine
enfleurage on the market, this would typically be considered an
Some of the
therapeutic grade absolutes (extracted oils) carried by Haven Craft
were created using enfleurage.
Some plant material
is too fragile to be distilled – the heat will break down the
material to unusability long before oils are released – and so an
alternative method must be used. Solvent extraction is the use of
solvents, such as petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol, or hexane, to
extract the odiferous lipophilic material from botanicals.
The solvent will
also pull out the chlorophyll and other plant tissue, resulting in a
highly colored and thick, viscous extract.
The first product
created during solvent extraction is known as a concrete. A concrete
is the concentrated extract that contains the waxes and the fats of
the botanical material, as well as the odoriferous oils from the
The concrete is then
mixed with alcohol, which serves to extract the aromatic principle of
The final product is
known as an absolute or as an extracted oil.
is used for jasmine, tuberose, carnation, gardenia, jonquil, violet
leaf, narcissus, mimosa, and other delicate flowers.
blossom) and rose can be distilled or solvent-extracted.
The name neroli
typically implies the essential oil, whereas the name orange blossom
is commonly used for the absolute or hydrosol of neroli. The name
rose is used to describe either the essential oil or the absolute.
essential oils should rightfully clarify whether the product you are
purchasing is an essential oil or absolute. This information should
be on the label and in the product catalog. It often isn’t, though,
so reflect upon the price – if it seems too good to be true, it
After the solvent
extraction process has been completed, the resulting absolute will
have an extremely low concentration of solvent residue, approximately
5 to 10ppm (parts per million). The current European Union standards
are for less than 10 parts per million solvent residues in a finished
This does not
interfere in their use as therapeutic oils – some believe it does,
but my teacher did not.
interfere in their use as medical grade essential oils. Even
with such a potentially small residue (less than .0001%), many
disagree with the use of absolutes for individuals with a compromised
immune system, due to the potential effect of the residual pesticide.
do have therapeutic value and are often used for psychological
purposes and for animals, particularly horses. Many therapists
incorporate absolutes, such as rose, jasmine, and tuberose absolutes,
as a valuable part of their therapeutic applications of aromatherapy.
Ultimately the decision to use absolutes is up to the practitioner
and personal preferences.
Absolutes are used
extensively in the cosmetic and perfume industries due to their
strong aromas – they often smell more like the botanical material
than essential oils do.
There are also
different grades of absolutes.
The top grade is the
uncut, which can be a thick or semisolid substance, making them
difficult to work with.
grades are diluted with alcohol or a carrier oil, called a “filler”,
to make them more user friendly, although often the strength of aroma
is slightly diminished.
If the absolute
pours very easily and is thin or runny, it has likely been “cut”
Most bath oils and
gels, candles, shampoos, toothpaste, fly spray, aromatherapy
suppliers, and air fresheners (somewhere around 98 percent), use
absolutes rather than medical grade essential oils.
dioxide (CO2) extraction is a relatively new process, developed for
for the extraction of aromatic products.
CO2 under pressure
will turn from a gas into a liquid, which can then be used as an
inert liquid solvent.
This liquid solvent
is able to diffuse throughout the botanical material, thus extracting
its aromatic constituents.
CO2 extracts contain
most of the same constituents as their essential oil counterparts,
although they can contain some elements not found in essential oils.
For instance, the essential oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale) does
not contain the bitter principles, however the CO2 extract does.
Also, the CO2 extract of frankincense (Boswellia carterii) has immune
enhancing and anti-inflammatory activity not found in the essential
CO2 extracts are
known for their strong similarity in aroma to the actual plant aroma,
sometimes stronger than the abolutes produced from pressure
Other common CO2
extracts on the market include German chamomile (Matricaria recutita)
and Calendula (Calendula officinalis).
The three main
disadvantages for this process are cost, potential pesticide residue,
and the lack of information regarding their safety, therapeutic
benefits, and medical benefits.
With regard to
pesticide residue, carbon dioxide extraction has been demonstrated to
concentrate from 7 to 53 times more pesticide residues in the final
extract. Therefore, it seems pertinent to only use organic plant
material for CO2 extraction.
Perhaps as more CO2
extracts become available and more practitioners use them, further
details regarding their applications will become apparent.
Two of the most
common essential oils available via CO2 extraction include
frankincense and ginger.
The Phytonic process
is a one of the newest methods of extracting essential oils using
non-CFCs (non-chlorofluorocarbons). It is also called Florasol
Extraction. The oils produced are called phytols.
The oils are
promising and are very close to nature; however, it does use
fluoro-hydrocarbons which can be potentially harmful. The process
also has some potentially negative environmental effects that need to
More research needs
to be done into phytol oils and the process itself before Haven Craft
will carry phytol oils.
Warm Oil Infusion
It is possible to
extract the volatile oils from plants into warm carrier oil by gently
macerating the botanical materials and placing them in a carrier oil
and slowly bringing that oil up to heat. These are not considered
essential oils or absolutes, but they are good for home therapeutic
when a great deal of oil is called for, such as in producing a salve
or balm to be used all over the body.
There is a method of
solvent extraction that can be done at home to obtain a kind of
extracted oil. It would not be considered a therapeutic or medical
grade essential oil or absolute, but it is considered an alchemic oil
and suitable for use in magick.
generally uses undenatured ethyl alcohol or very high proof grain
alcohol. It does not use rubbing alcohol.
The plant material
is macerated in alcohol for some time, then the plant material is
strained out. The alcohol is then placed into an environment below
the freezing point. The oil will congeal on top of the alcohol, which
will not freeze, and can then be extracted. This method is very good
for delicate materials that will burn before steam distillation
releases the oils, such as jasmine.
“Tanto più grande la ferita, tanto maggiore lo sforzo che l’Ego deve fare per proteggere l’Io. In altre parole, chi ha ricevuto un messaggio incoraggiante, chi ha trovato un ambiente amorevole e accettante, crescerà dotato di una buona autostima, e dovrà ricorrere a poche difese e manifestazione egoiche per dire al mondo che egli esiste. Al contrario chi è stato squalificato, denigrato, svilito, sviluppa un Io fragile, senza sponde sicure, e dovrà ricorrere a un Ego, che possiamo anche chiamare un falso Sé, di facciata, per nascondere la propria insicurezza.
Tale dinamica si evidenzia molto bene nelle persone dai comportamenti arroganti, autocelebranti, che hanno il bisogno di essere sempre sotto i riflettori, al centro dell’attenzione. Queste persone è come se chiedessero implicitamente al mondo intero: “dimmi che esisto, dimmi che valgo”. E spesso sono disposte a tutto pur di ottenere un briciolo di attenzione, un attimo di gloria.
“La criniera del finto leone nasconde la mano tesa del mendicante”.
Ed è come se egli avesse scritto in fronte, “temo di non esistere, perciò faccio tanto rumore.” Come in ogni fenomeno psichico, è importante sempre valutare quanto, in un’ipotetica scala da uno a cento, tale insicurezza condizioni e pervada la vita della persona.
Nella teoria freudiana tale sindrome viene definita “Narcisismo”. La ferita narcisistica porta l’individuo a comportarsi in maniera richiestiva, a cercare il proprio valore all’esterno, per coprire un vuoto interiore spaventoso. Andando oltre l’apparente supponenza, tracotanza, e arroganza, si scoprirà una persona estremamente infelice, sola, insoddisfatta, mai paga e mai sazia di riconoscimenti.”
“Nonostante lo scorrere degli eventi mi sento come se non stessi andando da nessuna parte, Lloyd”
“Se mi consente, sir, per quanto il fiume sia impetuoso la sua acqua non porta via il riflesso di ciò che rimane sulle sue sponde” “Sulle sponde non si rischia di annegare, Lloyd” “Ma si rischia di vivere senza mai vedere il mare, sir” “Portami braccioli e paperella, Lloyd” “Immediatamente e con piacere, sir”
Da qualche anno a inizio estate
come ragnatele colorate
nidi di vene sottili sottopelle
Guardo le gambe e mi dico
è così che si manifesta il tempo
Dove stavano prima
a galla ora?
Seduta sulla sponda del mio corpo
affronto questi inizi d’estate
scrutando ciò che sale in superficie
Seduta sulle sponde del mio corpo
ho gli occhi di me bambina
sul corpo di mia nonna
eppure queste gambe sono mie
a me tocca affrontare ora
la mia parte di mistero
C'è chi passa tutta la vita a leggere senza mai riuscire ad andare al di là della lettura, restano appiccicati alla pagina, non percepiscono che le parole sono soltanto delle pietre messe di traverso nella corrente di un fiume, sono lì solo per farci arrivare all'altra sponda, quella che conta è l'altra sponda, A meno che, A meno che, cosa, A meno che quei fiumi non abbiano due sole sponde, ma tante, che ogni persona che legge sia, essa stessa, la propria sponda, e che sia sua, e soltanto sua, la sponda cui dovrà arrivare,
Tra volti di pietra tra strade di fango
cercando la luna, cercando
danzandoti nella mente,
sfiorando tutta la gente
a volte sedendoti accanto
un canto di sponde sicure
di bimbi festanti in un prato
voce che sale più in alto
di un sogno mancato