spiral arm

Black Hole Sculpts an Hourglass Galaxy

When it comes to galaxies, our home, the Milky Way, is rather neat and orderly. Other galaxies can be much more chaotic. For example, the Markarian 573 galaxy has a black hole at its center which is spewing beams of light in opposite directions, giving its inner regions more of an hourglass shape. 

Our scientists have long been fascinated by this unusual structure, seen above in optical light from the Hubble Space Telescope. Now their search has taken them deeper than ever — all the way into the super-sized black hole at the center of one galaxy.

So, what do we think is going on? When the black hole gobbles up matter, it releases a form of high-energy light called radiation (particularly in the form of X-rays), causing abnormal patterns in the flow of gas. 

Let’s take a closer look.

Meet Markarian 573, the galaxy at the center of this image from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, located about 240 million light-years away from Earth in the constellation Cetus. It’s the galaxy’s odd structure and the unusual motions of its components that inspire our scientists to study it.

As is the case with other so-called active galaxies, the ginormous black hole at the center of Markarian 573 likes to eat stuff. A thick ring of dust and gas accumulates around it, forming a doughnut. This ring only permits light to escape the black hole in two cone-shaped regions within the flat plane of the galaxy — and that’s what creates the hourglass, as shown in the illustration above.

Zooming out, we can see the two cones of emission (shown in gold in the animation above) spill into the galaxy’s spiral arms (blue). As the galaxy rotates, gas clouds in the arms sweep through this radiation, which makes them light up so our scientists can track their movements from Earth.

What happens next depends on how close the gas is to the black hole. Gas that’s about 2,500 light-years from the black hole picks up speed and streams outward (shown as darker red and blue arrows). Gas that’s farther from the black hole also becomes ionized, but is not driven away and continues its motion around the galaxy as before.

Here is an actual snapshot of the inner region of Markarian 573, combining X-ray data (blue) from our Chandra X-ray Observatory and radio observations (purple) from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in New Mexico with a visible light image (gold) from our Hubble Space Telescope. Given its strange appearance, we’re left to wonder: what other funky shapes might far-off galaxies take?

For more information about the bizarre structure of Markarian 573, visit http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12657  

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I HAVE A THEORY (SVTFOE)

Attention: spoilers below!


Remember when, in season 3 episode 1b Moon the Undaunted, young princess Moon made a “Queen deal” with Eclipsa and violet spirals envolved on the arms of the two queens?

Okay, now, Eclipsa has the characteristic violet veins and, when Moon use the Darkest Spell to cut Toffee’s finger, she gets violet veins too.


Eclipsa revealed to Moon the Darkest Spell but the deal also says that when the immortal will be dead, Eclipsa will be free. Now, focus on the end of Toffee (s03ep04): Eclipsa is still frozen in the crystal (even if we can see that is gonna cracking) but more important the violet veins on the Eclipsa’s arm are disappeared, instead on Moon they go up to the elbow and further!

Now, my theory is that the “freedom” requested by Eclipsa weren’t getting out the crystal but erasing traces of Dark Magic from her body. I think Dark Magic is gone definitively from Eclipsa to Moon. But why Eclipsa should have done something like this? Beacuse when you use the Darkest Spell, even only one time, you gonna die, and more you use that spell, less is your life course.



Repost to let know to others!

The Sunflower Galaxy, Messier 63 sports a bright yellowish core in this sharp composite image from space- and ground-based telescopes. Its sweeping blue spiral arms are streaked with cosmic dust lanes and dotted with pink star forming regions. A bright spiral galaxy of the northern sky, M63 is about 25 million light-years distant in the loyal constellation Canes Venatici. A dominant member of a known galaxy group, M63 has faint, extended features that are likely star streams from tidally disrupted satellite galaxies. M63 shines across the electromagnetic spectrum and is thought to have undergone bursts of intense star formation. 

Image Credit & Copyright: Data - Hubble Legacy Archive, Subaru Telescope (NAOJ), Don Goldman Processing - Robert Gendler, Roberto Colombari, Don Goldman

Glittering Frisbee Galaxy: This image from Hubble’s shows a section of a spiral galaxy located about 50 million light-years from Earth. We tend to think of spiral galaxies as massive and roughly circular celestial bodies, so this glittering oval does not immediately appear to fit the visual bill. What’s going on? Imagine a spiral galaxy as a circular frisbee spinning gently in space. When we see it face on, our observations reveal a spectacular amount of detail and structure. However, the galaxy frisbee is very nearly edge-on with respect to Earth, giving it an appearance that is more oval than circular. The spiral arms, which curve out from the galaxy’s dense core, can just about be seen.

Although spiral galaxies might appear static with their picturesque shapes frozen in space, this is very far from the truth. The stars in these dramatic spiral configurations are constantly moving as they orbit around the galaxy’s core, with those on the inside making the orbit faster than those sitting further out. This makes the formation and continued existence of a spiral galaxy’s arms something of a cosmic puzzle, because the arms wrapped around the spinning core should become wound tighter and tighter as time goes on - but this is not what we see. This is known as the winding problem.

Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA

For more information on this image, visit: https://go.nasa.gov/2niODGL

anonymous asked:

I have a character (healthy 16 year old) who gets his wrist fractured by someone grabbing and twisting it. Later, said character is brought to a hospital, and for reasons has to say that he broke his wrist by falling. Is it reasonable to expect that the same type of fracture could occur from both instances, or that the medical professionals treating him wouldn't be able to tell that he's lying about how he got hurt? And if they could would they confront him about it?

Hey there nonny! 

Your character’s doctors are going to know that he is a liar-liar-pants-on-fire, and because of his age, Child Services is going to get involved. 

The reason is this: torsional (twisting) forces that produce fractures usually cause something called a spiral fracture. It’s basically like a set of circular stairs. It’s very different from the kind of fracture you’d expect if someone fell. 

Teens are naturally recalcitrant when it comes to telling doctors what happened, but the X-ray isn’t going to lie, and because of that lie, the doctors are going to have all the questions about how this happened. This is going to send up red flags for abuse, because pediatricians are taught over and over that if they miss the signs of potential abuse, they’re at fault if that kid dies from abuse later on. 

We live in a world where terrible things happen to children, and this is a very common one. 

That said, if the doctor chooses to confront the teen about it, they’re going to do it sympathetically. It’s not a “who hurt you” interrogation. They’ll probably sit down with them, look over the X-ray together. The doctor will explain the kind of fracture – spiral – and then explain exactly how that kind of fracture has to happen. They’ll explain that this only happens with twisting injuries. And then they’ll likely ask if the teen wants to tell them what happened. 

The conversation with the parents may take a different tack. Basically regardless of what gets said, unless the kid makes a very good explanation for what happened, Child Services is going to have to get contacted, especially if there are other signs of abuse. 

Hope this helped!! 

xoxo, Aunt Scripty

(Samantha Keel)

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Luna and Tattoos
  • Ok but, Luna and tattoos
  • She has a ton
  • Everywhere
  • Little doodles of flowers spiralling up her arms that flutter whenever she kisses Ginny
  • A teeny little square on her ankle bone that changes colour to reflect her emotions
  • Pink when she’s feeling loved, pastel yellow when she’s happy, things like that
  • Her shoulder tattoo though, is the one that’s really special. 
  • It’s not there usually
  • But when Ginny is thinking of her, a design will form and spread the longer she permeates her thoughts.
  • Ginny has a matching one
  • And lots of times, they’ll be at their respective jobs
  • Luna at her art studio and Ginny in training
  • And they will each feel the heat start at a prickle
  • And they’ll smile
  • Because they are so in love 
  • And they can’t stop thinking about each other
  • And they don’t need to
  • They can live their intertwined lives and love each other and be happy
  • And it’s sad
  • But that’s a novel idea for both of them
  • Being happy
  • Before each other, that was elusive, drifting on the wind, always too far away to grab
  • Sure they pretended everything was fine
  • But now they don’t have to pretend
  • Because they are in love
  • And Ginerva Weasley and Luna Lovegood
  • Are finally happy

Jasper: Ok dear god @rareypotter you have ruined my life because you introduced me to Linny and what a lovely way to ruin a life indeed. Anyway I live for these pastel cuties

Messier 63: The Sunflower Galaxy 

 A bright spiral galaxy of the northern sky, Messier 63 is about 25 million light-years distant in the loyal constellation Canes Venatici. Also cataloged as NGC 5055, the majestic island universe is nearly 100,000 light-years across. That’s about the size of our own Milky Way Galaxy.

Known by the popular moniker, The Sunflower Galaxy, M63 sports a bright yellowish core in this sharp composite image from space- and ground-based telescopes. Its sweeping blue spiral arms are streaked with cosmic dust lanes and dotted with pink star forming regions. A dominant member of a known galaxy group, M63 has faint, extended features that are likely star streams from tidally disrupted satellite galaxies. M63 shines across the electromagnetic spectrum and is thought to have undergone bursts of intense star formation. 

Credit: Data - Hubble Legacy Archive, Subaru Telescope (NAOJ), Don Goldman, Processing - Robert Gendler, Roberto Colombari, Don Goldman

Astronomy From 45,000 Feet

What is the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, up to?

SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, as our flying telescope is called, is a Boeing 747SP aircraft that carries a 2.5-meter telescope to altitudes as high as 45,000 feet. Researchers use SOFIA to study the solar system and beyond using infrared light. This type of light does not reach the ground, but does reach the altitudes where SOFIA flies.

 Recently, we used SOFIA to study water on Venus, hoping to learn more about how that planet lost its oceans. Our researchers used a powerful instrument on SOFIA, called a spectrograph, to detect water in its normal form and “heavy water,” which has an extra neutron. The heavy water takes longer to evaporate and builds up over time. By measuring how much heavy water is on Venus’ surface now, our team will be able to estimate how much water Venus had when the planet formed.

We are also using SOFIA to create a detailed map of the Whirlpool Galaxy by making multiple observations of the galaxy. This map will help us understand how stars form from clouds in that galaxy. In particular, it will help us to know if the spiral arms in the galaxy trigger clouds to collapse into stars, or if the arms just show up where stars have already formed.

We can also use SOFIA to study methane on Mars. The Curiosity rover has detected methane on the surface of Mars. But the total amount of methane on Mars is unknown and evidence so far indicates that its levels change significantly over time and location. We are using SOFIA to search for evidence of this gas by mapping the Red Planet with an instrument specially tuned to sniff out methane.

Next our team will use SOFIA to study Jupiter’s icy moon Europa, searching for evidence of possible water plumes detected by the Hubble Space Telescope. The plumes, illustrated in the artist’s concept above, were previously seen in images as extensions from the edge of the moon. Using SOFIA, we will search for water and determine if the plumes are eruptions of water from the surface. If the plumes are coming from the surface, they may be erupting through cracks in the ice that covers Europa’s oceans. Members of our SOFIA team recently discussed studying Europa on the NASA in Silicon Valley Podcast.

This is the view of Jupiter and its moons taken with SOFIA’s visible light guide camera that is used to position the telescope.  

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comprehensive rating of every octopus emoji

for your reading pleasure

the ratings are off to a notably curvy and rounded start.  not sure what’s going on with those eyes, but this octopus is making up for it with a very generous squish quotient.  7/10; would pet

such zazz!  such a definitive swagger!  i am particularly endeared to that ‘raise the roof’ gesture he’s got going on with his arms.  excellent octopus.  very good indeed.  10/10; would throw a party with

ah, the full-frontal approach to octopus imagery.  that classic octopus head shape is very well-represented here.  a good, solid octopus for all your octopus needs.  8/10; would introduce to my parents

to be perfectly frank, i’m ambivalent.  there’s some unfortunate shading going on here and all i can see is a rubbery pink stick-man with a disproportionate head wearing a cape.  despite it all, i can’t bring myself to say mean things about this octopus; she has a vivacious charm to her.  3/10; would give points for effort

i’m pretty sure this isn’t what an octopus looks like.  nice try.  1/10; would maybe wear as a novelty hat in an emergency

a wonderful and pleasing octopus.  htc is really shaking it up with these cool colours.  her eyes are wide with childlike wonder.  9/10; would read a bedtime story to

i cannot say a single bad thing about this octopus.  he is anatomically correct and possesses a lightness of spirit; an inexorable zest for life.  a swell guy and a fantastic cephalopod. 12/10; would leave him all my worldly possessions and wisdom in the event of my death, whenever that day shall fall

the manic pixie dream girl of the octopus emojis.  the many curls and spirals of her arms hold within themselves undeniable cosmic truths and wise tidbits of advice.  points earned for those delightful purple shades.  10/10; would go on a life-changing roadtrip with

twitter has gone for a unique twist in taking the cirrate octopod approach to octopus imagery- a roaring success in octopuses such as the dumbo and the flapjack- but have fallen short.  where are his little ears?  he needs those little ears.  give him the ears.  6/10; would fashion him a pair of little ears to wear

heavens to betsy!  what happened to his arm? why is it so long?  the poor baby looks so bewildered.  2/10; would subject mozilla to a brutal interrogation as to avenge this poor boy’s honour

remarkably angular for an octopus.  it’s lacking that important element of squish.  has a lovely, albeit biologically impossible, winning smile though.  5/10; would not criticise to their face

this is a shiny one.  on a closer look, her skin glistens with visions of half-remembered dreams.  her beguiling eyes and exuberant mouth-thing are only there for a false sense of security.  a very mysterious octopus.  where is she from?  8/10; would see in glimpses on the backs of my eyelids whenever i blink

Resembling festive lights on a holiday wreath, this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image of the nearby spiral galaxy M74 is an iconic reminder of the impending season. Bright knots of glowing gas light up the spiral arms, indicating a rich environment of star formation.

Messier 74, also called NGC 628, is a stunning example of a “grand-design” spiral galaxy that is viewed by Earth observers nearly face-on. Its perfectly symmetrical spiral arms emanate from the central nucleus and are dotted with clusters of young blue stars and glowing pink regions of ionized hydrogen (hydrogen atoms that have lost their electrons). These regions of star formation show an excess of light at ultraviolet wavelengths. Tracing along the spiral arms are winding dust lanes that also begin very near the galaxy’s nucleus and follow along the length of the spiral arms.

M74 is located roughly 32 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Pisces, the Fish. It is the dominant member of a small group of about half a dozen galaxies, the M74 galaxy group. In its entirety, it is estimated that M74 is home to about 100 billion stars, making it slightly smaller than our Milky Way.

The spiral galaxy was first discovered by the French astronomer Pierre Méchain in 1780. Weeks later it was added to Charles Messier’s famous catalog of deep-sky objects.

This Hubble image of M74 is a composite of Advanced Camera for Surveys data taken in 2003 and 2005. The filters used to create the color image isolate light from blue, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum, as well as emission from ionized hydrogen (known as HII regions).

A small segment of this image used data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Gemini Observatory to fill in a region that Hubble did not image.

For additional information, contact:

Ray Villard
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.
410-338-4514
villard@stsci.edu

Keith Noll
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.
410-338-1828
noll@stsci.edu

Lars Lindberg Christensen
ESA/Hubble, Garching, Germany
011-49-89-320-06-306
lars@eso.org

Object Names: M74, NGC 628

Image Type: Astronomical

Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration

Acknowledgment: R. Chandar (University of Toledo) and J. Miller (University of Michigan)

Time And Space