specific impulse

Preference; I’d Understand

Alec Volturi and Paul Lahote preference requested by anon! “Yoo hows my favorite blog?? I’m doin’ alright. Can i get a alec or paul imagine where they’re scared about reader leaving him. Due to alec being a vampire that likes human blood. Or if you do pauls about him being a hothead. Hopefully it makes sense” Hope you like it!

ALEC VOLTURI

In truth, you’d never been wholly comfortable with the meal-plan served in the Italian villa, given your awkward position as would-be appetizer. Despite your position in this so strange, vampiric court, despite your knowledge of the binding law protecting you from intentional harm, your stomach continued to twist and knot in fear. This discomfort, this terror stemmed not from your relations within the Volturi; no, even Aro had been kind, welcoming even, whispering about how overjoyed he was that his darling Alec had found such a promising mate. It was clear that he had a handful of particularly advantageous plans when the sunrise of your immortality broke the horizon, and thus took an affectionate liking to you. The subject of your mortality was a bit of a taboo, especially considering the diet of choice your new companions favoured, but your never felt discriminated for the beating of your heart.

It was never about your pulse, your necessary breath, the blood flowing through your veins, protected only by a thin layer of vulnerable flesh. Politically, you were fine. You were practically one of the guards, your transformation date set for sometime in the summer. It was never about you. It was about the thirty tourists you saw enter the throne room every week, it was their screaming that haunted your dreams, their horror that plunged the knife into your abdomen, churning your insides until you were reduced to nothing. It was your mate’s participation, his willing participation, that struck fear into your still-beating heart. If you had wandered into the villa, expecting a tour of Italian architecture, a history lesson on pillars or portraits, would he have slaughtered you as he slaughtered the others? Would he have spared you a second thought?

You were doubtful.

You stood with your back facing the entrance to your bedchamber, your eyes dissecting the intricate carvings laid into the marble of the walls. Though you had been distanced from the heart of the Volturi’s society, you could hear the echos reverberating down the hall nonetheless. Alec had noticed your discomfort and suggested a change of scenery, though you understood that even his residence in Verona would carry the weight of Volterra’s infractions. You were chewing the edge of your fingernail (a nervous habit you hoped would be kicked, finally, when you were torn from your human life) when your ears picked up on the subtlest wisp of movement, announcing the presence of your silent lover. Soon after, his hands were cooling your elbows, folding over your crossed arms, his honeyed breath polluting the air you inhaled. His lips pressed to your neck, your mind jumping from affection to unease as you noted the placement of his kiss. His voice, so soft, so sweet for so experienced a killer, sang against your ear, his hair brushing against your cheek.

“Darling, you’re troubled,” he observed, his icy fingers ghosting over your hands, lacing his fingers through yours, a tender gesture you were not expecting to be accompanied by the surprising warmth his frozen fingers carried. He’d fed recently, more recently than you cared to dwell on. A stranger’s blood warmed his frigid tissues. You flinched away from his touch, untangling yourself from his fingers, avoiding contact with his violent eyes, his angel’s lips parted in wounded confusion. “Y/n, what’s wrong? Is something the matter?” He extended his hand, and you once more slunk away from his touch. He ducked his head, slipping his hands into the pockets of his slacks, exhaling lowly. When he spoke, his voice had changed drastically, harbouring an injury you had yet to notice on his physical form. “Aro warned me this would happen.” You did not speak on the matter, but recalled easily the moment you had departed from Volterra, your hand sliding from Aro’s papery skin, his eyes reading your most recent thoughts, likely painting vivid imagery to accompany your internalized terror. Of course he would mention this to Alec. Your inability to cope directly affected him. “This is about the blood.” His voice did not lilt in inquiry; there was no question, no confusion muddying his understanding. You lifted your face to address him, his eyes a blazing crimson, burning from within with the glow of his most recent meal. Your words clung to the insides of your throat, scratching their way downward, refusing to surface. Alec’s jaw clenched, his gaze lowering to the floor’s mosaic, his brow furrowing the silken plane of his forehead. It was almost inhumane to witness, to cause, distress in so beautiful a creature.

“If I could avoid… the way that I feed, I would do it for you,” he continued, his voice softer, quieter than before, his words dripping with sorrow like an open wound, his tone ringing with a melancholic tenor. “Once you’ve turned, I believe, I hope, that you will understand the difficulty we face. This is not a choice, the way that we feed. Our thirst is not a decision; it’s a compulsion. I have very little control of how I ensure your safety… If I were to refrain, I’m afraid I would be unable to keep myself from causing you harm.” Your breathing grew shallow as he explained to you the honest truths behind his so frequent feasting, his plump lips downturned at the corners, his eyes projecting a most uncommon weakness in one of the most powerful man you had the pleasure of knowing. He pursed his lips before exhaling a broken sigh, his chest heaving unnaturally. “If this is not something that you can live with… I’d understand.” His voice, usually so determined, so confident, now drifted into silence. The only sound available to your feeble ears was your steady pattern of breathing. You turned your face away, unable to hold his gaze any longer, your heart breaking for the angel you’d reduced to ash and cinder before you. After a moment, Alec broke his uncharacteristic silence, his voice illustrating a heart, an organ you knew no longer beat within the chiseled stone of his chest, breaking. If he was capable of producing tears, you had no doubt they would have fallen freely from his scarlet eyes, painting glimmering trails against the alabaster of his complexion. “Will you leave me?” You turned, shocked by his inquiry. How was he able to fathom a universe where you did not see yourself at his side? Had your affections fallen flat? Were you unable to illustrate to him the depth of your love? You crossed to him, your fingers angling his chin upward, forcing him to meet your eye, his irises blooming dangerously beneath a broken brow.

“I could not leave you if remaining by your side ensured the end of my life. To be parted from you would cause me unbearable pain. You are not what I despise, and your thirst… I can’t blame you for that. It’s the executions, Alec, that bother me. You’re herding people to their deaths by the hundreds every year. I can’t help but be bothered by the deaths. I’m only human, for now. If there is another way that you can live, tell me, and we can pursue that path. Together.” His eyes softened, his breath flowing over your face. Though his brow remained furrowed, his lips formed a cautious grin. He glanced at the position of the sun through your veiled window, his eyes returning to your face. He lifted his palm to cradle your cheeks, his face alight with the force of the words he spoke next.

“There is a coven in America, the Cullens. If we leave now, we could reach their home by tomorrow. I never thought I would say this…” His thumbs stroked over your cheekbones, the weight of his decision weighing heavily on his shoulders. “I believe they may be able to help us.”

PAUL LAHOTE

You had been warned of this very scenario from the moment Paul’s realities had been revealed to you, the moment you became involved in the fiery universe that he was so ingrained in. You’d seen the evidence of a destructive temper on Emily’s face, scarring her for life, a warning sign to the other members of Sam’s pack: don’t get too close. You hadn’t had any issues as far as trust went; Paul was relatively calm when you were around, incredibly cautious to the point of over-protectiveness, and as kind and loving as the day you’d met him. He was well-prepared to prevent injuries similar to Emily’s, or worse, and handled his rage better than he had before you stumbled into him. According to his pack, he’d been a bit of a loose canon before imprinting, but your presence acted as a sedative to his usual rowdy, unpredictable nature. You’d been assured that his mannerisms, specifically his impulse to phase, had been quieted after he imprinted, but his actions spoke to combat the promises his brothers made.

Their observations had not been entirely false; Paul was, without doubt, a changed man, but he carried with him a fire that even you could not put out. While he wasn’t explosive, his fuse was relatively short. You hadn’t had the chance to argue, given the amount of time you’d known him, but you’d be witness to his quick temper. You’d never felt threatened in any way other than the typical back-away-if-he-starts-shaking, but that applied to any of the wolves. They all had off-days, but Paul was never someone to be feared, never someone to be wary of. He treated you with the utmost respect and care, but even he couldn’t put a stopper on the floodgates when you’d been approached by a group of men on First Beach. Their salutations had been more insult than greeting, their words slipping like an oil slick from between their unwashed teeth, their faces gleaming with a drunken sweat you could smell radiating from their bodies as you passed them by. Paul, of course, was not about to stand for this ill-treatment. You’d felt the vibrations rolling from his body through the hand that held his, heard his laboured breathing by your ear. You had enough time to extract your hand from his and press a palm to his chest before turning to the trio of vulgar men, warning them to leave before someone (here meaning them, but you couldn’t help but wonder if you also spoke in your own defense) was hurt. One look at Paul was enough to seal your threat in concrete. There was no question about his anger, and his bare torso was promise enough that any retribution would be undeniably painful. They fled, joining a throng of townspeople vacating the beach. Your eyes locked on his, his lips curling over his teeth. You’d attempted to whisper a few calming words before realizing how far gone he truly was. You backed away from his trembling form, every visible muscle tensing on his body as he too backed away from you.

“Y/n,” he snarled, his eyes flitting around as his convulsions intensified, watching the last of the beach’s crowd fade into the night. His unspoken plea was clear: run. You turned your back on him and joined the masses abandoning the darkness of the waters, their voices nearly masking the tear of clothing as Paul exploded from his skin. You turned in time to watch his tail disappear into the tree line. You headed for Emily’s place, hoping to find Sam or Jared holed-up in her kitchen. One of them must be willing to talk Paul down from his heated precipice. You knew they’d all done it before. Your trek was short-lived, and the harmonies reaching from Emily’s open windows carried promises of aid in the form of two, possibly three werewolves. You helped yourself in, your eyes finding Sam’s in the crowd surrounding Emily’s table. His face, lightened by Emily’s company, went dark when he met your gaze. It seemed he already knew. You cleared your throat, running a hand through your hair, watching as Jared, Quil, and Emily focused their attention on you.

“Anyone willing to track my boyfriend for me?” Jared cursed aloud, damning Paul to Hell as he dropped his half-eaten muffin onto his plate, clearly irritated with his friend’s lack of control. Quil offered an apologetic grimace, clapping you on the shoulder as he made his way to the door with Jared nipping at his heels. Sam said nothing outside of asking for Paul’s last-known location, departing with a a final glance at Emily, his fists balled around a pair of jean shorts. Emily’s hands fluttered about her table, sweeping crumbs from the surface, her eyes on your face. She nodded you over, inviting you to sit as she prepared her dinner, promising you that Paul’s episodes never lasted more than half an hour, and that was before you came along. She was almost certain he’d be back sooner. You chatted with her for the next fifteen minutes, your mind preoccupied, replaying the fading image of Paul ducking into the woods on the blank expanse of your eyelids. It wasn’t until Emily offered you a cup of tea that you noticed your hands were trembling. “Maybe I’m a wolf too,” you whispered, your voice failing your attempt at humour, Emily’s arms wrapping around your back as your body shuddered. She, of all people, knew the fear that now pooled in your stomach. Another ten minutes passed before you heard their approach, the sound of footsteps crunching against soil paired with Sam’s low, angry whispers. The three members of Paul’s rescue party had returned, and all three entered without a word, sitting at the table in absolute silence. Emily’s eyes focused on the doorway before finding yours, shooting you a sisterly glance you understood to be cautionary.

“Y/n,” your name was soft on his lips, a gentle tone meant to exhibit his level of calmness. You turned in your seat, abandoning your tea, your eyes falling on his form, propped-up against the open doorway. He gestured for you to join him outside, his hand running through his shorn hair. They did not tremble. You excused yourself and followed him onto Emily’s lawn, watching his shoulders heave with as he sighed, his back gleaming beneath the light of the moon. His hands were swinging at his sides, his muscles tensing and releasing as he paced. When he stopped, you were a good distance away from the house, out of earshot, you assumed, and away from any scrutiny. He turned, slowly, his every movement calculated, the effort behind his actions obvious. He was going out of his way to eliminate any perception you could have of him being a threat to your safety. He kept his distance, addressing you in a whisper from a handful of feet away, his bare feet digging into the earth as he spoke. “Y/n, I’m sorry. I don’t know what came over me. That was… I put you at risk, and I’m so, so sorry.” His eyes lifted to the stars, his head shaking with frustration. “And, you know, I can’t even promise that it won’t happen again. I’m not in control, not like that. This can happen again, and that…” his voice dropped off, his sentence hanging open, fluttering in the breeze. When his eyes returned to yours, his face was broken, his lips pursed to keep them from quivering. “I mean, I’d understand if it’s too much. As much as it kills me, I can understand if you need to go.” He raised his hands, surrendering. “I want you safe, that’s all. I can’t promise you’ll be safe around me. I can’t.” You shook your head, closing the distance between you, continuing even after he mirrored your first few steps, eager to keep you out of harm’s way.

“Paul, if anything, you went out of your way to keep me safe tonight. You warned me that you were losing control, and you backed up, and you gave me time to step back.” He opened his mouth to speak, but you refused to let berate himself further. “You are not a threat to me, and I’m not going anywhere.” He exhaled deeply, relieved, and closed his arms around your back, pulling you to the warmth of his chest.

This post started out as a response to @linkspooky​‘s meta about Mutsuki and it grew completely out of control so now it’s it’s own post. But please read that meta first [x]

First of all, I agree that Mutsuki’s sheer brutality, in parallel’s to Juuzou’s, is a way to further show the kind of institution the CCG is, though I’m not sure I used the exact same logic. Here’s how I see it:

In TG we are shown the CCG as supposedly hesitant to let Juuzou be an investigator, and we see a CCG that is doing it’s best to curb his violent impulses. The specific nature of Juuzou’s recruitment makes it seem like the CCG was hesitant to use his violence because of his lack of morals, and Shinohara was trying to give him a second chance. 

So we are set up to think that the CCG does care about the morals of its investigators, to an extent. 

Of course, even in TG, we see the CCG exploit Suzuya’s ability and test his potential. We see that they are willing to use it during the Aogiri raid.

But because of that recruitment scene, and because of Shinohara’s specific personality, we are set up to think this isn’t the sort of thing the CCG seeks out. Even if we know that the CCG takes advantaged of traumatized kids and their anger, in TG it isn’t so explicitly made clear exactly the lengths they will go. 

Mutsuki’s narrative shows us that. TG:Re started hammering that in even before we knew Mutsuki’s backstory. The Quinx were all kids from broken homes who all agreed to such a surgery for reasons any moral organization wouldn’t except. Saiko didn’t even sign her own consent papers. 

But Mutsuki’s actual backstory makes it even more clear. The CCG doesn’t actually care about morality or the moral character of its investigators. They just need people capable of committing the violence the CCG perpetrates. They don’t care why that violence is committed, as long as it is. 

Showing the extremes of Mutsuki’s instability and violence is a way of hammering home just how little the CCG actually cares about this stuff. 

Keep reading

i was like 100% sure i had deleted my art blog during the last Depressive Episode™ hence why i was posting everything here but i just looked at my settings and It’s There

WELP IVE ALREADY NEGLECTED IT A TON I GUESS I’LL JUST STICK TO THE ART TAG,,

3

ill compile a proper eye tutorial on monolids and epicanthol folds and the basics of drawing “asian” eyes (notably in e/s.e asians however monolids and epicanthol folds can appear on people of other races too)

however this is the basic concept that i use for drawing any eyes: blue dots for the corners, green line is the top lid, red bottom lid. the idea is that the eye will generally look the same on everyone in some cases bigger/smaller, what im really trying to teach is how to draw the skin and fat that shapes the eye tbh

The Significance of the 8th House (Moon & Emotions)

Personal planets in the 8th House are personality traits hidden to the acquaintance of the native. The 8th House is hidden things, intimacy, and drastic change. 

Specifically, the moon occupying the 8th House links to hidden emotions, deep intuition, and need for intimacy in order to form a connection. A poorly aspected moon in the 8th House may have trust or intimacy issues, connecting back to one’s mother and how she chose to raise the native*. *The native demonstrates fear expressing thoughts and emotions to those who aren’t close.

  • Aries Moon, 8th: Impulse, specifically protectiveness and anger and jealousy, hidden and repressed. You’ll never see the fiery side of them if they don’t want you to.
  • Taurus Moon, 8th: The native is stable-minded, excellent at understanding the under-lying feelings in others, but encouragement from the mother or other female figures is needed to keep the self esteem stable.
  • Gemini Moon, 8th: Powerful manipulators. They’re capable of relating to and becoming anyone, and they’re most eager to delve into the secrets of others.
  • Cancer Moon, 8th: Trust and emotions are mostly expressed to family, but they may appear as very timid or unemotional on the surface. However, feelings are the most intense with this placement.
  • Leo Moon, 8th: The intense emotions of this placement are rarely shown, as vibrant and intense as they are. The native focuses the entirety of their emotions into how others perceive them and vice versa, and they may be the most sexual of these placements.
  • Virgo Moon, 8th: Every intense feeling is rationalized, and the need for intimacy is debated thoroughly before a decision to take such a risk is made. In my opinion, trust is lowest in this placement just because of all the logic and rationalizing.
  • Libra Moon, 8th: Expressing emotions is challenging with this placement due to needing acceptance. The native has issues opening up because of fear of rejection.
  • Scorpio Moon, 8th: The most mysterious and secretive of these placements. The native feels a need to get close to people while at the same time never telling a thing about themselves; if you ask them how they feel, you’ll never get a straight answer.
  • Sagittarius Moon, 8th: Though the native seeks inner and emotional freedom, the detachment that they experience due to lacking single connections leaves them feeling lonely. Intimacy issues are very apparent in the placement that’s most comfortable doing their own thing.
  • Capricorn Moon, 8th: Emotions are very poorly expressed yet intense; anger and frustration for one’s own failures is often shown or completely covered up. The native attempts perfection in the form of mental health; intuition/understanding the underlying feelings of others is at its weakest in this placement.
  • Aquarius Moon, 8th: The native keeps open-minded and unique friends around, and there is no need for immense emotional support. Intimacy is not often expressed in a single person; the native confides in the opinions of multiple people.
  • Pisces Moon, 8th: Intuition and empathy are expressed greatly in this placement, but the native may have issues putting their own feelings into words. In fact, the native may not express how they feel at all.
i struggle

Borderline Personality Disorder

What is Borderline Personality Disorder?

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious mental illness marked by unstable moods, behavior, and relationships. In 1980, theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Third Edition(DSM-III) listed BPD as a diagnosable illness for the first time. Most psychiatrists and other mental health professionals use the DSM to diagnose mental illnesses.

Because some people with severe BPD have brief psychotic episodes, experts originally thought of this illness as atypical, or borderline, versions of other mental disorders. While mental health experts now generally agree that the name “borderline personality disorder” is misleading, a more accurate term does not exist yet.

Most people who have BPD suffer from:

  • Problems with regulating emotions and thoughts
  • Impulsive and reckless behavior
  • Unstable relationships with other people.

People with this disorder also have high rates of co-occurring disorders, such as depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and eating disorders, along with self-harm, suicidal behaviors, and completed suicides.

Causes

Research on the possible causes and risk factors for BPD is still at a very early stage. However, scientists generally agree that genetic and environmental factors are likely to be involved.

Studies on twins with BPD suggest that the illness is strongly inherited. Another study shows that a person can inherit his or her temperament and specific personality traits, particularly impulsiveness and aggression. Scientists are studying genes that help regulate emotions and impulse control for possible links to the disorder.

Social or cultural factors may increase the risk for BPD. For example, being part of a community or culture in which unstable family relationships are common may increase a person’s risk for the disorder. Impulsiveness, poor judgment in lifestyle choices, and other consequences of BPD may lead individuals to risky situations. Adults with borderline personality disorder are considerably more likely to be the victim of violence, including rape and other crimes.

Signs & Symptoms

According to the DSM, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, a person must show an enduring pattern of behavior that includes at least five of the following symptoms:

  • Extreme reactions—including panic, depression, rage, or frantic actions—to abandonment, whether real or perceived
  • A pattern of intense and stormy relationships with family, friends, and loved ones, often veering from extreme closeness and love (idealization) to extreme dislike or anger (devaluation)
  • Distorted and unstable self-image or sense of self, which can result in sudden changes in feelings, opinions, values, or plans and goals for the future (such as school or career choices)
  • Impulsive and often dangerous behaviors, such as spending sprees, unsafe sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, and binge eating
  • Recurring suicidal behaviors or threats or self-harming behavior, such as cutting
  • Intense and highly changeable moods, with each episode lasting from a few hours to a few days
  • Chronic feelings of emptiness and/or boredom
  • Inappropriate, intense anger or problems controlling anger
  • Having stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptoms, such as feeling cut off from oneself, observing oneself from outside the body, or losing touch with reality.

Seemingly mundane events may trigger symptoms. For example, people with BPD may feel angry and distressed over minor separations—such as vacations, business trips, or sudden changes of plans—from people to whom they feel close. Studies show that people with this disorder may see anger in an emotionally neutral face and have a stronger reaction to words with negative meanings than people who do not have the disorder.

Suicide and Self-harm

Self-injurious behavior includes suicide and suicide attempts, as well as self-harming behaviors, described below. As many as 80 percent of people with BPD have suicidal behaviors, and about 4 to 9 percent commit suicide.

Suicide is one of the most tragic outcomes of any mental illness. Some treatments can help reduce suicidal behaviors in people with BPD. For example, one study showed that dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) reduced suicide attempts in women by half compared with other types of psychotherapy, or talk therapy. DBT also reduced use of emergency room and inpatient services and retained more participants in therapy, compared to other approaches to treatment.

Unlike suicide attempts, self-harming behaviors do not stem from a desire to die. However, some self-harming behaviors may be life threatening. Self-harming behaviors linked with BPD include cutting, burning, hitting, head banging, hair pulling, and other harmful acts. People with BPD may self-harm to help regulate their emotions, to punish themselves, or to express their pain. They do not always see these behaviors as harmful.

Who Is At Risk?

According to data from a subsample of participants in a national survey on mental disorders, about 1.6 percent of adults in the United States have BPD in a given year.  BPD usually begins during adolescence or early adulthood. Some studies suggest that early symptoms of the illness may occur during childhood.

Diagnosis

Unfortunately, BPD is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.

A mental health professional experienced in diagnosing and treating mental disorders—such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, clinical social worker, or psychiatric nurse—can detect BPD based on a thorough interview and a discussion about symptoms. A careful and thorough medical exam can help rule out other possible causes of symptoms.

The mental health professional may ask about symptoms and personal and family medical histories, including any history of mental illnesses. This information can help the mental health professional decide on the best treatment. In some cases, co-occurring mental illnesses may have symptoms that overlap with BPD, making it difficult to distinguish borderline personality disorder from other mental illnesses. For example, a person may describe feelings of depression but may not bring other symptoms to the mental health professional’s attention.

Women with BPD are more likely to have co-occurring disorders such as major depression, anxiety disorders, or eating disorders. In men, BPD is more likely to co-occur with disorders such as substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. According to the NIMH-funded National Comorbidity Survey Replication—the largest national study to date of mental disorders in U.S. adults—about 85 percent of people with BPD also meet the diagnostic criteria for another mental illness. Other illnesses that often occur with BPD include diabetes, high blood pressure, chronic back pain, arthritis, and fibromyalgia. These conditions are associated with obesity, which is a common side effect of the medications prescribed to treat BPD and other mental disorders.

No single test can diagnose BPD. Scientists funded by NIMH are looking for ways to improve diagnosis of this disorder. One study found that adults with BPD showed excessive emotional reactions when looking at words with unpleasant meanings, compared with healthy people. People with more severe BPD showed a more intense emotional response than people who had less severe BPD.

Finally got Mad Max on dvd and sat down to watch it with my partner (who never got a chance to see it at the cinema).

Here are some semi-coherent thoughts from a classicist: 


By using the term ‘imperator’, the comparison to Rome is invited.
Immortan Joe, The Bullet Farmer and The People Eater as a triumvirate.
Men, emperors, concerned to make themselves gods even before they die. The imperial cult.

The mother’s milk, the women treated as cattle - Hera, Io, once again, the “Greek impulse to see female sexuality in terms of cows.” (Padel, 1992: 121), though perhaps it’s not such a specifically Greek impulse, in the end. The ‘humanisation’ of the rapist, the playing down of rape: the mental and emotional abuse on top of the physical abuse. The wives have it good, Immortan Joe tells them. If you ignore the slavery and the rape. Io will have it good, Prometheus tells her - Zeus will impregnate her with a gentle touch. Nevermind that it’s still rape. Nevermind that she has been dragged from her home and family and chased across the world until eventually she finds a place she can settle down. Just one more woman racing through a hostile world desperately looking for a place to call home. 

The Citadel = agriculture
Gas Town = commerce
The Bullet Farm = war

Who killed the world? Ask the wives. Men like Immortan Joe, the camera tells us, framing him in front of their written question. The world ended. There was an apocalypse. Where are the four horsemen? What happens to them afterwards? This would not be the first work that has replaced their horses with cars. (Good Omens, Supernatural).

the Bullet Farmer (The Bullet Farm) as war
Immortan Joe (the Citadel) as famine
The People Eater (Gas town) as pestilence (pollution, Good Omens)

But Death is always different. Death is not like the others. (again, Good Omens, Supernatural). Death is Furiosa, and Death comes even for her brother horsemen, in the end.

Mad Max as Odysseus - the City Sacker, but an Odysseus without hope. An Odysseus who cannot return home no matter how far he wanders. There is no Penelope in this world - no woman beset by men trying to force her to take their hand in marriage, whose only hope is to hold them off until her husband returns. No. Instead these women are Medeas and Amazons. In this world the suitors already took them. They could not hold them off. And now they will not wait for a man to save them. They will save themselves or die trying.

Furiosa as Persephone? She left and the Green Place died. Now she returns to the Many Mothers - the Many Demeters, who hold the seeds, who are ready to replant and revitalise the world, to make the crops grow again, if only they could. She cannot revive the Green Place with her return, but she can take them back with her to a new Green Place, her city, a city of Famine and Death. In the post-apocalyptic world, the borders and boundaries break down - the imaginary borders of countries, the borders between the world, between Olympus, and the earth, and Hades. Now Hades is the Green Place. Persephone no longer ocillates between her roles, she is both, all the time. Time has no meaning in the post-apocalypse. Season are one more boundary that has disappeared.

New technology that will change the world(s):

1. Ion Propulsion

(Image credit: NASA/JPL)

Technically not upcoming, ion propulsion is already a reality. Since it propels a spacecraft one particle at a time (as opposed to chemical propulsion, which explodes, generally, out the back), this propellant is hugely efficient.

The trick is what’s known to physicists as “specific impulse”. When a chemically propelled vehicle propels, it causes an explosion out the back, pushing the object forward. After exiting the vehicle however, the explosion immediately spreads in all directions, meaning that much of the energy of the explosion is lost on direction other than the one the spacecraft wishes to move.

Ion propulsion takes a long time to build speed but is so efficient that NASA’s Dawn spacecraft, being an ion propelled machine, is the first to be able to orbit multiple things in the solar system.

With ion propellant, a spacecraft may be able to even generate enough speed to allow for interstellar space exploration (meaning it could enable us to leave the Solar System). Though speculative, the possibility is undeniable.

2. Solar Sailing

(Image credit: NASA)

This technology is still controversial. The science is this:

Light has momentum. When light hits a highly reflective surface, the surface, is pushed. With gradual building of velocity, a spacecraft could easily attain vast speeds, again leading to aspirations toward interstellar exploration.

The advantage over ion propulsion though, is that this is exploration without propellant.

Such methods of discovery haven’t been relevant since our ancestors explored the Earth on boats driven by the wind.

Though the science is known, the engineering applications are still somewhat mysterious.

The momentum gained from a single photon is very small. The area of material needed for a solar sail that could carry something like a generation starship is many orders of magnitude larger than any tested solar sail concept. It’s arguable whether or not this technology would ultimately turn out to be the most efficient way to go.

That space exploration is expensive means that when someone bothers to pay for a launch, the first thing they would hate to do is lose their spacecraft because it turns out to not be able to propel itself. Most bankrollers of space travel tend to favor tried and true methods.

That said, the testing of solar sails is underway.

Agencies like NASA, JAXA and even the Planetary Society (holla) are currently undergoing mission preparation, or already have a mission underway, testing solar sails.

3. Renewable Rocketry

(Image credit: SpaceX)

This one’s a biggie.

Imagine, you buy a car. You go buy groceries, come home and then your car explodes.

Every. Single. Time.

Tell me, could you afford to buy a new car every week to buy groceries, or would you figure something else out?

Personally, I wouldn’t be able to travel by car. I just don’t have the money to buy a new one every week.

Space exploration faces the same problem. Rocket technology was mostly driven and invented by military ventures that didn’t care about getting the rocket back. In fact, for a military rocket - if you see it coming back at you then you’ve probably done something wrong.

New efforts are underway to change this.

Companies like SpaceX, Reaction Engines and Blue Origin are devising groundbreaking new technologies that are fundamentally different from the rocketry of yesteryear.

Soon SpaceX will be carrying people into low Earth orbit, dropping them off and returning to a landing pad in Florida.

Reaction Engines Ltd has invented a hybrid rocket engine which breathes oxygen from the atmosphere like a jet engine, then becomes a spacecraft engine once the air becomes too thin (meaning it needs a fraction of the fuel to get to space as most others).

Blue Origin plans on carrying tourists to the edge of space, with the rocket then returning to the landing pad softly on a plume of fire.

Each of these ventures has already proven their technology. They’re each on the road to implementing it now, with both SpaceX and Blue Origin currently launching with the technology.

Let me give you an idea of how much this is going to change humanity:

The cost of a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch is around $61 million.

Of that, the cost of fuel is about $200,000 (according to SpaceX).

In two years, SpaceX will be regularly launching seven astronauts at a time to the space station.

If all you need to pay for (approximately) is the cost of fuel (similar to fueling up your car), the cost of fuel between seven to get to space drops to a potential $28,500 or so.

Though still expensive, it’s easily within the bounds of startup companies to launch to space on commercial endeavors, meaning there will be private sector astronaut positions opening up in the very near future (they already exist actually).

Some vacations cost more than this. It’s within the bounds of reason to expect such entertainment prospects to carry into orbit.

Imagine: zero-gravity theme parks and floating hotels where you can watch, romantically as the Sun sets on the Earth below 16 times a day and you can see the Northern lights, lightning storms and the artificial spark of city lights spread out below you like some wondrous surreal painting.

With companies already developing espresso machines and cups for microgravity, and astronauts already testing greenhouses that grow vegetables in orbit, it seems inevitable that humanity is on the cusp of realizing the experience of the final frontier.


(More technologies to come in a later post)

9

Turbojet and Turbofan Jet Engine Overview

Part of a series of Jet Engine Overviews

Turbojet/Turbofan engines are the most common type of jet engines in use today. From commercial airliners to jet fighters, the vast majority of production jet aircraft utilize at least one of these types of engines. These engines are relatively simple air breathing designs which follow the basic layout of a jet engine.

Turbojet Engines

The turbojet engine is considered to be the most basic jet engine design.  It consists of an intake, a compression chamber, a combustion chamber, a turbine and an exhaust nozzle.

Air enters the intake and immediately passes into the compression chamber. In the compression chamber air is compressed by spinning fans as it passes through a narrowing duct into the combustion chamber. Just before the air reaches the combustion chamber, it is mixed with fuel. Inside the combustion chamber, the fuel/air mixture is ignited. The hot, high-pressure air expands out of the combustion chamber where it passes through a set of turbines. The passing air spins these turbines which, in turn, spin the compressive fans at the fore of the engine, sustaining the flow of air. After passing the turbines, the air exits the back of the engine through the exhaust nozzle. In engines with an afterburner, air is reheated between the turbine and the exhaust nozzle. Afterburners are typically about 4 times less efficient than the primary combustion chamber due to the decreased air pressure aft of the turbine.


The following graphs allow an easier visualization of the air temperature, pressure and velocity during the operation of a turbojet engine.


Turbofan Engines
The turbofan engine is an augmentation of the turbojet engine. As the name would imply, the turbo fan adds a fan which functions similarly to a prop on a propeller driven plane. The turbofan engine contains a standard turbojet engine at its core but adds a duct around the outside of this engine for some air to pass through.

The flow that passes through the integral turbojet is called core airflow while the air that moves through the outer duct is called bypass flow.
In General, there are 2 different types of turbofan engines, they are…

  1. Low Bypass Turbofan Engines
    In low bypass engines, a relatively large portion of the air that passes through the engine is core airflow. To put it another way, there is a lower amount of bypass flow. The ratio of bypass airflow to core airflow is usually around 2:1 or less, with low bypass engines being optimized for efficient flight at higher Mach numbers. Most modern fighter jets utilize low bypass engines. Fighters like the F-16 and F/A-18 have bypass ratios of around .35:1.
  2. High Bypass Turbofan Engines
    Conversely, high bypass engines allow lots of air to bypass the integral turbojet. High bypass engines usually have ratios between 5:1 and 10:1. These engines are optimized for efficient subsonic flight, usually around Mach .8. Most modern commercial airliners and some military transports use this type of engine.

Turbojet/Turbofan History

  • In 1939, the He 178 was the first turbojet aircraft to fly. 
  • Shortly thereafter, in 1944, the Me 262 became the first operational jet fighter, followed closely by the Gloster Meteor in the same year.
  • By the 1950s, jet engines were nearly ubiquitous on military aircraft, and some had even been approved for civilian use, such as those mounted on the de Havilland Comet.
  • By the 1970s, jet engines had become all but ubiquitous in the commercial air industry due to the introduction of the high bypass turbofan.
  • In 2003, the Concord makes its last flight, marking the end of the turbojet engine in the commercial airline industry.
  • As of writing, all current production fighter planes use some form of turbofan engine, along with most bombers and most commercial airliners.

Turbojet/Turbofan pros and cons

Turbojet Pros

  • Smaller engine circumference means more compact engine
  • Capable of attaining high speeds
  • Good specific impulse at lower Mach numbers

Turbojet Cons

  • Misses many improvements in power and efficiency when compared with turbofan
  • Loud

Turbofan Pros

  • Excellent specific impulse at useful range of speeds
  • Quieter than turbojet and many other jet engines

Turbofan Cons

  • Larger diameter
  • More complexity
  • More vulnerable to ice damage

PSA
Thanks for reading. It’s always nice to hear feedback, questions and/or suggestions. Tell me what you liked, what you didn’t like, and don’t forget to smash that mf follow button. If you suggest a topic that I end up covering I will make sure to tag you in the post so you don’t miss it. Stand by for more jet engine overviews.

ninjaxenomorph  asked:

For a sci-fi webcomic, I've been working on the specs of a class of power-armor clad enforcers (called Jotunns) and their weaponry; they have a specific handgun they use. For ammunition I was thinking of two types they carry: 12.7mm hollowpoint for soft targets and shorter range, and tungsten-tipped sabot rounds as 'high-power' rounds, for anti-armor/anti-giant-mutant and long-range use. Is this just me going way off the mark for firepower, or could this be justified for a man-scale tank?

So, 12.7mm is a real round (well, several different rounds), and it makes this entire question a little strange. We talked about the idiosyncrasies of firearms a couple weeks ago, and I had to check, but 12.7mm did come up as an example. 12.7mm is half an inch, so .50. Occasionally, you’ll see .50 BMG listed as 12.7x99mm instead of the imperial caliber.

I’ve seen 12.7 come up as a distinct round in, basically, two places. There’s a 12.7x108mm Chinese AM round, which is their answer to the .50 BMG, and, Fallout: New Vegas.

Ironically, the reason New Vegas calls it a 12.7mm is actually in the above paragraph. The game includes an Anti Materiel rifle patterned off the Barret which fires .50 BMG rounds. Because of how New Vegas formats ammunition names, this creates an immediate problem. There’s two different .50 rounds. The BMG and the AE. The AE is a handgun round (12.7x33mm), the BMG rifle round (again, 12.7x99mm). So, if you include a .50 pistol, and a .50 rifle, people who aren’t very firearms savvy are going to wonder why they don’t share ammunition. “I mean, it’s all .50, right?”

What Obsidian (I think this was specifically J.E. Sawyer’s call, but I’m not completely certain) chose to do was label one as 12.7mm, and the other one .50. Since the Barret has slightly more name recognition it got to keep the imperial name, and the pistol got the metric.

The other thing weighing on giving the pistol the metric name was, it’s a returning design from the first two Fallout games. They had something called a 14mm pistol (externally based on a SIG sporting pistol, if I’m remembering correctly), which was an upgrade from the .44 Desert Eagle, in game terms.

All of that said? .50AE isn’t a great round, and, while I could be wrong, I don’t see it having a real future. It fits with Fallout because it’s chromed steel excess meshes well with 1950s consumer design.

Hell, the Desert Eagle is an excellent example of that era’s design aesthetics. Big, heavy, more steel and chrome than is practical. It’s a four pound pistol. Even though it’s Israeli and didn’t actually enter production until the 1980s, it’s an excellent flash card for that era of Americana.

So, here’s the hard part. For someone who’s not wearing a powered exosuit, a .50 is an annoying round to control. In an exosuit, and against the kind of targets where you’d really need that kind of firepower, I’m inclined to think it would be kind of anemic. Why use a .50 round, when you could simply have a standardized 19mm or 25.4mm high explosive round? With varying payloads depending on what you’re shooting. Sure, no normal human could use it, but if you’re in powered armor, that’s not an issue.

A sabot round is, basically, a dart loaded into a shotgun shell. Now, that’s not completely accurate, but if you’re dead set on using one. I’d recommend just using solid darts, rather than having a distinct tip. For serious AP capability in a high power rifle, I’d actually be more inclined to point at man portable gauss weapons, rather than wasting space on a sabot.

All of this is going to be predicated on the technology your characters have access to. So, it’s possible your setting just doesn’t have portable gauss weapons. Also, feel free to ignore the bolter calibers I listed back up there. That is a Warhammer 40k reference. But, for ways to load out a suit of powered armor, 40k is a fantastic thing to look at.

Some quick primers for powered armor:

Starship Troopers by Robert Heinlein is probably the patient zero of SciFi space marines in powered armor. I deeply dislike the politics that Heinlein was advocating, but the book is worth reading. I’m much more partial to the film, but that’s a brutal takedown of the military jingoism that Heinlein was celebrating.

Armor by John Steakley is written as a rebuttal to Starship Troopers. I’m inclined to say it’s actually a better book, but that’s my bias seeping in. Either way, Steakley does some good worldbuilding.

If you haven’t, Warhammer 40k’s Space Marines are something you really should be looking at. You can check the Lexicanum to get a quick overview, and some basic statistical data; it will also work as a good quick litmus test to tell if the setting’s zealotry dialed to 11 and played for laughs is something you can actually get into and enjoy. For specific recommendations, first impulse here is to actually point at the THQ games. The generically titled Space Marine is a surprisingly good third person action title. Dawn of War was my first real introduction to the setting, and Dawn of War 2 specifically isn’t a bad starting point.

Generally speaking, when you’re looking at characters in powered armor, it can trace it’s lineage back through one of these sources. So it’s probably worth looking at them, if you’re working with this sub-genre.

-Starke