species migration

2

Look again at that dot. That’s here. That’s home. That’s us.

On it everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every “superstar”, every “supreme leader”, every saint and sinner in the history of our species lived there—on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.

The Earth is a very small stage in a vast cosmic arena. Think of the endless cruelties visited by the inhabitants of one corner of this pixel on the scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of some other corner, how frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds. Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that, in glory and triumph, they could become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot.

Our posturings, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the Universe, are challenged by this point of pale light. Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity, in all this vastness, there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves.

The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. There is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate. Visit, yes. Settle, not yet. Like it or not, for the moment the Earth is where we make our stand.

It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and character-building experience. There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image of our tiny world.

—Carl Sagan, Pale Blue Dot

California brown pelicans are permanent residents of the Pacific Coast, with their full range extending all the way from Canada to Mexico! 

These seafood fans follow fish species that migrate along the California current. Our West Coast national marine sanctuaries help provide healthy habitats for brown pelicans as they move throughout their range. 

(Photo: Peter Pearsall/USFWS)

Look again at that dot. That’s here. That’s home. That’s us. On it everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every ‘superstar,’ every ‘supreme leader,’ every saint and sinner in the history of our species lived there–on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.

The Earth is a very small stage in a vast cosmic arena. Think of the endless cruelties visited by the inhabitants of one corner of this pixel on the scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of some other corner, how frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds. Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that, in glory and triumph, they could become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot.

Our posturings, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the Universe, are challenged by this point of pale light. Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity, in all this vastness, there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves.

The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. There is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate. Visit, yes. Settle, not yet. Like it or not, for the moment the Earth is where we make our stand.

It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and character-building experience. There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image of our tiny world. To me, it underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another, and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot, the only home we’ve ever known.
—  Carl Sagan, Pale Blue Dot

anonymous asked:

Hi Blue!! I saw in the other ask you said something about a planet's orbit affacting the seasons? Could u explain?

Yes! What an excellent question. To have a little explanation of gravity and how you can use it in your stories, go here.

Planetary Seasons

A planet’s year is the time it takes for the planet to complete one orbit around the sun. Scientifically speaking, we call this a planet’s revolution period. The most obvious effect this has on a planet is it’s seasons. Seasons occur because a planet’s axis is generally tilted in respect to the plane of it’s orbit. For Earth, this tilt (or obliquity, scientifically speaking) is about 23.5°. Over the course of a year, each hemisphere is tilted alternately toward and away from the sun. During winter, when that hemisphere is tipped away from the sun, solar heating is less effective for two reasons: sunlight is hitting the earth at a shallower angle, and the days are shorter so the sun doesn’t shine as long. The opposite happens in the summer.

On a planet, the intensity of the seasons depends on the latitude, or the angular distance of a position on the planet north or south of the equator. On Earth, the conditions at the equator hardly change over the year, whereas the poles go from uninterrupted daylight to uninterrupted night. But even in temperate latitudes, the effects are not unnoticeable. At 40°N, for example, which is the latitude of Lisbon, San Francisco, Istanbul, and Beijing, the total heating on the summer solstice (the longest day of the year, somewhere between June 20-22) is three to four times as much as on the winter solstice. 

We use the obliquity and latitude to determine climatic zones. The Arctic and Antarctic circles, which define Earth’s polar regions, are 23.5° from the poles, a distance set by the 23.5° tilt of the axis. These circles are simply the outermost limit at which the sun does not rise or set on at least one day of the year. Similarly, the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, which are 23.5° from the equator, mark the latitudes farthest from the equator where the sun will be directly overhead on at least one day out of the year. This region is defined as the tropics, or “torrid zone” where the seasons are barely noticeable. Anywhere between these two extremes, we call the temperate zones.

Applying This To Science Fiction

The intensity of the seasons is set by the amount of axial tilt. From this we can deduce that seasons themselves are not inevitable. If a planet’s axis were upright, seasons wouldn’t even occur, and differences in the year and placement of the planet in it’s orbit would only be noticeable by the changing patterns of the constellations in the night sky. A small tilt (or no tilt) like in this example would have some subtle implications. For example, much of the water supply in Earthen temperate climates comes from snowmelt. If there’s no winter, there will be no snow, and this means deserts are likely to be more widespread. Because the poles would always receive minuscule amounts of heating, the climate zones would be much more extreme. Some tilt, like Earth’s moderate 23.5°, helps even out the heating over the whole planet. For a planet to receive a completely even heating for both the poles and the equator over the course of a year the value of the tilt would have to be ~54°.

But having a greater value obliquity would cause extreme seasons, and this would lead to extreme climate. For a planet with a tilt of 90°–which would mean lying on it’s side, much like Uranus–the Arctic and Antarctic circles  would coincide with the equator, meaning there would be neither tropical or temperate zones. Seasons would be extreme indeed: for over nearly half the planet, the sun would never set during the summer, and never rise during the winter. Only during spring and fall, when the sun would shine on the planet’s side, would the sun rise and set like we’re used to on Earth. 

What would this mean for my characters?

Well, such an extreme tilt could cause any intelligent species to migrate, in order to stay in more habitable regions. Such consistent mass migration would be a significant part of culture: everything would need to be mobile. This could also cause tensions between groups of people as they try to find space to settle or run into each other while migrating. A culture that depends solely on this nomadic lifestyle could be interesting to explore, and for a real-world comparison I would study the culture of the Mongols.

Otherwise, if migration wasn’t a culture norm for the citizens of your planet, then they would have to be prepared to survive in extreme heat and desert-like conditions, followed by a moderate time, followed by intense and everlasting winter and night. Challenges would include shelter and survival (a species that could survive both desert and arctic climates would be incredibly interesting to develop) and a food source. For humans to live on such a planet would require an abundance of technological advances that you would be free to create for yourself in the realms of your story!

Other Ways to Have Seasons

Believe it or not, axial tilt is not the only way to have seasons! According to Kepler’s Laws, planets travel in an elliptical orbit, which means it does not have to be perfectly circular. If a planet had an elliptical orbit, it would mean that the seasons were caused by differences in distances to the sun! What makes this interesting, is that a planet would experience the whole season at a same time. Which would make it more similar to ice ages and then moderate summers (think Game of Thrones, here). So the planet would have similar day/night cycles like Earth but much more extreme, and maybe even longer seasons depending on the severity of the ellipse. 

Notes:

Thanks for asking this question! I had such a fun time answering this. I love answering space questions. Also, tag me or send me links to your stories and fics so I can check out your science fiction in progress. 

love Blue

4

Climate change could force the displacement of nearly 3,000 species of animals in the coming years if Earth keeps warming and sea levels keep rising, according to research from the University of Washington and The Nature Conservancy. Scientists who worked on the research created a moving map of the forced migrations that could happen in the future.

follow @the-future-now

2

Saiga is a type of antelope. They are known for their huge, inflatable, and humped nose which help them to filter out airborne dust during the dry summer migrations, and filter out cold air before it reaches their lungs during winter. They are a migratory species, migrating in the summer and winter and can run up to 80 km per hour in a short time.

Local people kill saiga because of its meat and horns. Horns are used in traditional Chinese medicine. Saiga is listed as critically endangered species and were once in the millions but today only less than 50,000 left in the wild.

I find it really interesting that Njord is God of both whales and swans.

Even though Swans are often a symbol of tranquility and peace, Swans are fiercely protective of their children.

Whales have some of the deepest emotions in the entire animal kingdom. The emotional centers of an orca’s brain are way more developed and complex than our own. Whales have complex family systems, and “dialects” within the pods, perhaps even something we could call a language? Many species migrate, and family is everything for them.

[World Building June 2017: Luxson Cluster] Day 3: People & Races

[Day 3 Prompt] 🌐 [Full Prompt List]

There are many sapient species to be found in the Luxson Cluster, native to the islands or otherwise! 

Here we will focus primarily on the species that are indigenous to the islands, which includes: beatfoxes, de’moneres, centinels, combers, fungi constructs, masques, corvice, and the OBJ.

(Note: though the various species are drawn in grayscale, this is simply an artistic convention. Most species can come in virtually any colour combination .)

Keep reading

bloooooooodarnooop-deactivated2  asked:

I have very quickly developed an unyielding love of Lori... Can you tell me more about her?

Lori is from what could be called the country side in the Galra nation. A small mountain covered planet, they have terrible reception (I have this hc about the original Galra nation where it was a solar system with many planets and the main Garla species migrated to different planets in the system and over time adapted and evolved differently to the conditions. so the further the planet is from the sun the more fur the species have. made a rough drawing)

I thought about this waaaay too much (s2 gimme info i must know)

back to Lori. She is the 4th oldest out of 7 children, has 3 parents, is an auntie. Courted one of the head generals of Galra’s military and the sous chef of the royal Galra palace kitchen. loves em.

Loves being the Red Paladin, but gets homesick a lot. She becomes really close to Coran quickly, seeing him as family, even brought him over to her planet to introduce him to her family.

During the war against Galra’s empire, Lori was able to penetrate through Zarkon’s forces and Lori’s last transmission was she was going to go and try to talk some sense back into Zarkon

and that was the last time she was ever heard of…

;A;

“That’s here. That’s home. That’s us. On it, everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives.

The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization. Every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor, explorer. Every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every…superstar. Every supreme leader, every saint and sinner in the history of our species live there: On a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.

The Earth is a very small stage in a vast cosmic arena. Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that in glory and triumph they can become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot.

Think of the endless cruelties visited by one corner of this pixel on the scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of another corner; How frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds.

Our posturing, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the universe are challenged by this point of pale light.

Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity, in all this vastness there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves.

The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life, there is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to where our species could migrate. Visit? Yes. Settle? Not yet.

Like it or not for the moment, the Earth is where we make our stand.

It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and character building experience. There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image.

To me, it underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another and to preserve, and cherish, the Pale Blue Dot.”

–Carl Sagan

Carl Sagan // “Look again at that dot. That’s here. That’s home. That’s us. On it everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every “superstar,” every “supreme leader,” every saint and sinner in the history of our species lived there, on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam… The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. There is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate. Visit, yes. Settle, not yet… To me, it underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another, and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot…the only home we’ve ever known.”

Pokémon in our Biomes pt. 13: Prairies

“I’ve recently decided to make a series of posts with hypotheticalthinking and analyzing of what Pokémon species could potentially be found inthe world’s biomes. Not at all relative to the games, I will be focusing primarily of the elements, design, and relativity to real life flora and fauna of Pokémon to depict where different species would roam on our big blue marble.” 

Like I mentioned in the last post on beaches and coasts, a lot of major biomes have already been covered, so the rest may be pretty similar to each other and a lot more concentrated. For example, although deserts were already covered I may need to make further posts dividing them into semiarid and coastal deserts, as each are distinct biomes.

This post will focus on prairies. Prairies are actually considered to be part of the temperate grassland, savanna, and shrubland biomes based on their similarity in climates, and composition of grasses. This is where the Pokémon in our Biomes posts gets fuzzy, because all of the mentioned biomes are individual biomes, and because they are so similar it makes it a challenge to distinguish possible Pokémon between them. Prairies are however, a type of grassland, much like there are different types of deserts. Prairies are generally considered to be the huge rolling grasslands of the central United States and Canada, and in South America, Eurasia, and Africa they are all technically called different things but all more or less utilize the same characteristics.

Prairies have one feature I found quite interesting, is that unlike the Asian steppes, and South American pampas, prairies have considerably tall grasses, some areas having grasses as high as 9 feet. This feature is usually specified by the amount of rainfall. As you move away from the mountains near the west coast, the climate generally becomes drier as there isn’t a huge body of water to provide rainfall, and even when there is rainfall, there isn’t enough to support tree life, hence why the main type of plant species will be a grass or flower species. Due to this, the animals that live in the prairies have to either burrow to hide from predators, or herd together.

Let’s get started!

Keep reading

10

The Earth is a very small stage in a vast, cosmic arena.

          Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that in glory and triumph they could become the momentary masters of a fraction… of a dot. Think of the endless cruelties visited by the inhabitants of one corner of this pixel on the scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of some other corner.

           How frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds. Our posturings, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the universe, are challenged by this point of pale light.

          Our planet… is a lonely speck in the great, enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity, in all this vastness, there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves. The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. There is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate.

Visit, yes. Settle, not yet.

          Like it or not, for the moment, the Earth is where we make our stand. It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and character-building experience. There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image.

To me, it underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot, the only home we’ve ever known.

The Pale Blue Dot - Carl Sagan (x)

theatlantic.com
American Trees Are Moving West, and No One Knows Why
Climate change only explains at least 20 percent of the movement.
By Robinson Meyer

“Changes in land use, wildfire frequency, and the arrival of pests and blights could be shifting the population. So might the success of conservation efforts. But [researchers] argue that at least 20 percent of the change in population area is driven by changes in precipitation, which are heavily influenced by human-caused climate change.”

(So, uh, “No One Knows Why” is not strictly accurate.)

But what are the stakes?

“Forests are defined as much by the mix of species, and the interaction between them, as by the simple presence of a lot of trees. If different species migrate in different directions, then communities could start to collapse.”

Corvus

Common Raven (C. corax)

Genus Name: Corvus

Name Meaning: Raven or Crow

First Described: 1758

Described By: Linnaeus

Cape Crow (C. capensis

ClassificationDinosauria, Saurischia, Eusaurischia, Theropoda, Neotheropoda, Averostra, Tetanurae, Orionides, Avetheropoda, Coelurosauria, Tyrannoraptora, Maniraptoriformes, Maniraptora, Pennaraptora, Paraves, Eumaniraptora, Averaptora, Avialae, Euavialae, Avebrevicauda, Pygostylia, Ornithothoraces, Euornithes, Ornithuromorpha, Ornithurae, Neornithes, Neognathae, Neoaves, Passerea, Telluraves, Australaves, Eufalconimorphae, Psittacopasserae, Passeriformes, Passeri, Corvida, Corvoidea, Corvidae, True Crows

American Crow (C. brachyrhynchos

Referred Species: C. albus, C. albicollis, C. bennetti, C. brachyrhynchos, C. capensis, C. caurinus, C. cornix, C. corone, C. corax, C. coronoides, C. crassirostris, C. cryptoleucus, C. dauuricus, C. edithae, C. enca, C. florensis, C. frugilegus, C. fuscicapillus, C. hawaiiensis, C. imparatus, C. insularis, C. jamaicensis, C. kubaryi, C. leucognaphalus, C. macrorhynchos, C. meeki, C. mellori, C. monedula, C. moneduloides, C. nasicus, C. orru, C. ossifragus, C. palmarum, C. rhipidurus, C. ruficollis, C. sinaloae, C. splendens, C. tasmanicus, C. torquatus, C. tristis, C. typicus, C. unicolor, C. validus, C. violaceus, C. woodfordi, C. galushai (extinct), C. larteti (extinct), C. praecorax (extinct), C. simionescui (extinct), C. hungaricus (extinct), C. moravicus (extinct), C. pliocaenus (extinct), C. antecorax (extinct), C. betfianus (extinct), C. fossilis (extinct), C. neomexicanus (extinct), C. antipodum (extinct), C. impluviatus (extinct), C. moriorum (extinct), C. pumilis (extinct), C. viriosus (extinct)

Northwestern Crow (C. caurinus

Corvus is a huge genus of Neornithean dinosaurs that evolved around 17 million years ago, in the Burdigalian age of the Miocene epoch of the Neogene period. The group evolved in Central Asia, originally, but now has extended to almost all major landmasses, except for South America. A group of crows is called a flock or a murder, though I formally propose combining them into a Murder Flock. There are around 60 species both extinct and extant of the animal, around a third of the members of the group Corvidae, but they all do share some common features. 

Torresian Crow (C. orru

Corvus are usually all black or with some white and grey feathers, depending on the species. They’re usually quite large and stout, with strong beaks and legs, and have limited sexual dimorphism. They gather in large, communal roosts between 200 and tens of thousands of individuals. They usually gather during the nonbreeding months, especially winter, near large food centers. They make a wide variety of calls and vocalizations and even respond to calls of other species, which is a learned behavior depending on region. Though they have complex vocalization, it is unclear what these vocalizations mean, and there is no real clear understanding of Corvus language. 

Chihuahuan Raven (C. cryptoleucus

Corvus is the smartest genus of dinosaur, and certain species top the avian IQ scale. Many species of Corvus engage in play, an activity characteristic of high intelligence. They often can be seen sliding down snowbanks, engaging in games with other species, and performing spectacular displays in the air. They even can make toys, breaking off twigs to play with socially. Wild Hooded Crows have learned to use bread crumbs for bait-fishing, and many crows engage in mid-air jousting to establish pecking order. They engage in sports and games, tool use, and they hide and store food across seasons. They even have Episodic-like memory, encoding and retrieving information about what, where, and when events occurred. 

Tamaulipas Crow (C. imparatus

The New Caledonian Crow manufactures and uses tools in its daily search for food, mainly by plucking, smoothening and bending twigs and grass stems to procure food. Crows in Queensland have learned to eat cane toads by flipping the toxic amphibian onto its back and stabbing the throat in the thinner part of the skin, allowing access to nontoxic food in the frog itself, and they use their long beaks to get all of this food. Some species have Nidopallium, a region of the bird brain used for executive functions and higher tasks, similar in size and functionality as the neocortex in chimp and humans. 

Pied Crow (C. albus)

Crows can distinguish individual humans by recognizing their facial features. They are also capable of displacement, aka communicating about things that are happening in a different space or time from where they are. The smartest and type species of Corvus, the Common Raven, may be the second smartest species of animal in the world, only following humans - debate reigns due to differences between the Avian and Mammalian brains, and the difficulty in measuring absolute intelligence levels. Crows are capable of solving problems through invention rather than trial and error, and are also capable of deceiving other crows - while that may seem morally wrong to us, lying is an excellent measure of intelligence of animals, as the animal has to pretend that something else is happening than reality. I’m just saying, we don’t know what they’re saying, and they’re really smart - they’re plotting against us. 

White-Necked Raven (C. albicollis

Crows are an omnivorous type of dinosaur, with a very diverse diet. They eat other birds, fruits, nuts, mollusks, earthworms, seeds, frogs, eggs, nestlings, mice, and carrion. Scarecrows in crop fields supposedly work to stop crows from damaging and scavenging in the fields, though they actually often eat insects that are attracted to the crops and perhaps Scarecrow use does more harm than good. They are found in major cities across the world, and are very good at utilizing human-made habitats for their own survival. Because they’re geniuses. And plotting to take us over. 

Rook (C. frugilegus

Crows on the whole reach sexual maturity at 3 years old for females and 5 years for males. They lay between 3 and 9 eggs, which take 20 to 40 days to hatch. Many species of crow mate for life, and young from previous years help nesting pairs protect and feed the new hatchlings. These complex social groups, thus, oftentimes resemble our own. However, in urban environments nestlings face real threats from human-made materials being used in nests, and stunted growth due to poor nutrition. Some crows live up to the age of 20, and the oldest known crow in the wild was nearly 30. However, in captivity, the oldest crow died at 59. 

Collared Crow (C. torquatus

Though crows on the whole are not typically endangered or even threatened, there are many species that are rarer in the wild and threatened. The Hawaiian crow, or ‘alala, is extinct in the wild; conservation efforts in order to increase numbers of this species have not been widely successful. This sharp decline and wild extinction of this species can probably be attributed to, sadly, human causes, as the delicate and isolated ecosystem of Hawai’i was greatly negatively affected by invasive species (both purposeful and accidental) brought over due to human expansion into the region. 

Carrion Crow (C. corone

Given their high levels of intelligence, most species of the bird are adaptable and opportunistic despite human activity. They cause damage to crops and property, dig around through human trash, and very few cheap control methods are available. Hunting of the species is allowed in the United States, though their general intelligence and wariness makes it a difficult activity. To limit crow invasiveness and presence, scare tactics usually work best; trapping is less successful. Crows also may, however, prove useful to humans - an idea presented by Joshua Klein based on crow foraging behavior suggests that crows could be trained to pick up human garbage, deliver it to a vending machine of sorts, which would then give the crow a reward for cleaning up after our mess. While I don’t think we need to involve crows in human capitalism and should clean up our own messes, I doubt the crows would care about the easily available food. 

Little Crow (C. bennetti

Though the group Corvidae originated in Australia, Corvus and other closely related species had already migrated up to Asia by the time Corvus had diverged. However, their evolutionary relationships remain unclear; geographic region and close-relatedness might not actually be correlated, and many species are very similar in appearance. A thorough systematic review of the genus is, therefore, necessary to determine their evolutionary history. Crows are very common in the fossil record of Europe, however, it is unclear how extinct crows are evolutionarily related to modern species. 

Western Jackdaw (C. monedula

There are many species of Corvus, and thus I will go through a brief overview of all of them. C. albus, or the Pied Crow, is an African crow species that is not endangered. It has a length of approximately 46 to 52 centimeters and live in pairs or small family groups, feeding on insects and other small animals. They have characteristic white patches of feathers on the chest and belly. They may be a modern link between Eurasian crows and the Common raven. White necked ravens, on the other hand, or C. albicollis, also are unthreatened and live in Africa. They are only about 50 to 54 cm long, but is one of the larger raven species, and they have a very large distinctive beak and a small patch of white feathers on the back of the neck. They obtain most of their food from the ground and mostly engage in scavenging. 

Thick-billed raven (C. crassirostris

Little crows, C. bennetti, live in Australia and are not endangered; they are only about 38 to 45 cm long with small bills, eating mostly food from the ground and nesting in small, loose colonies. The American Crow, C. brachyrhynchos, is a very common crow that, however, is highly susceptible to West Nile Virus. They live almost entirely in the United States, and there are four subspecies depending on location. They have iridescent black feathers all over the body, and live about 7-8 years in the wild, though in captivity they may live up to 30 years. They are ominvorous, and live in monogamous cooperative breeding families, with mated pairs staying together for many years while offspring help take care of the new young. 

Brown-Necked Raven (C. ruficollis

The Cape crow, C. capensis, is a not endangered crow from Africa, eating grains and other seeds and nesting near the tops of trees. They also can be seen eating small animals such as frogs. It is about 48 to 50 cm long. The Northwestern Crow (C. caurinus) is a very similar bird to the American crow, though it lives primarily in Northwestern Canada. It eats mainly stranded fish, shellfish, crabs and mussels, but they build typically solitary nests. It is about 33 to 41 cm long. The Hooded Crow, C. cornix, lives in Europe and Western Asia, as well as in Egypt. It has extensive white feathers all over the body and is approximately 48 to 52 cm long, eating an omnivorous diet. They nest near the ground, incubated by mated pairs, and is not endangered. 

Fish Crow (C. ossifragus

The Carrion Crow, C. corone, is also not endangered, native to Western Europe and Eastern Asia. It has a black plumage with green and purple sheens, about 48 to 52 cm long, smaller than the Common Raven; it is a very noisy bird, eating many types of carrion and adapting well to urban environments. They build nests in tall trees as well as cliffs and buildings, with older offsprings helping new hatchlings. The Common raven,C. corax, ultimately the most famous type of crow, is also not endangered. It lives extensively in the Northern Hemisphere and is the heaviest Passerine bird, at about 63 cm long. They coexist well with humans and often are kept as pets. They are the second smartest animal after humans (probably), and have large and heavy beaks. They travel in mated pairs while younger birds form flocks, and are omnivorous and highly opportunistic. Juveniles court other birds at a very young age but do not bond for two to three years, and need to gather a territory before breeding. They often steal and store shiny objects, and juveniles are particularly curious.

Little Raven (C. mellori

The Australian raven, C. coronoides, is also not endangered, and has prominent throat hackles (very thick feathers on the throat) that distinguish it from the Australian Crow. It lives in Australia in open woodland and transitional habitats and is an omnivorous animal, with very white irises in the adults. Juvenile Australian Ravens leave their parents and join flocks at 4 to 5 months of age, with adults forming breeding pairs, beginning at three years of age. They are, in general, 53 cm long. The Thick-billed raven, C. crassirostris, is a raven from the Horn of Africa. Its about 64 cm long and has a very large and distinctive bill, feeding on an omnivorous diet. It is not endangered. The Chihuahuan raven is also not endangered (C. cryptoleucus), living in southern United States and Mexico. It’s about 44 to 51 cm long and feeds on grains, insects and invertebrates, building nests in trees, shrubs, and buildings. 

House Crow (C. splendens

The Daurian Jackdaw, C. dauuricus, is not endangered and lives in Eastern Asia. It is about 32 cm long and is a very social species, eating grains, insects, berries, carrion, and nesting in trees. The Somali Crow, C. edithae, is about 44 to 46 cm long, living in Eastern Africa and building bulky nests on trees and telegraph poles. The slender-billed crow, C. enca, is not endangered and lives in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the PHilippines, nesting in tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests and mangroves. 

Hooded Crow (C. cornix

The Flores Crow, C. florensis, lives in Indonesia and is threatened. It lives in tropical dry forests and lowland moist forests, and its habitat is sadly threatened by human activity, leading to its endangerment. The Rook, C. frugilegus, is not endangered and lives in Europe and Asia. It’s about 45 to 47 cm long, with a distinctive blue and purple sheen to its feathers, which are very dense and silky. It eats mainly earthworms and insect larvae, nesting in colonial rookeries. Young birds collect into large flocks in the fall, and has been documented using tools - a rook near a tub of water with a worm at the top of the water that it could not reach figured out that to raise the water level, all it had to do was stick pebbles in the water. Nature is amazing. 

Hawaiian Crow (C. hawaiiensis

The Brown-headed crow, C. fuscicapillus, is a near-threatened bird from Indonesia that lives in moist lowland forests and mangrove forests. As such, it is near threatened due to habitat loss. The Hawaiian crow, C. hawaiiensis, or ‘alalā, is extinct in the wild. It is about 48 to 50 cm long with rounded wings and a thick bill. It has strong flying abilities and is resourceful, and probably has been made extinct due to introduced diseases from human movement into Hawai’i, such as avian malaria and fowlpox. It is omnivorous and a generalist, and its disappearance has had a major impact on the Hawaiian ecosystem, with many plants relying on it for seed dispersal. Restoration programs and breeding efforts have been unsuccessful, with low clutch size and many infections and diseases. Hopefully, new avenues will be tested to try and restore this species, given its importance to the Hawaiian ecology. 

White-necked Crow (C. leucognaphalus) (it is, I swear…)

The Tamaulipas Crow, C. imparatus, is found in northeastern Mexico and Texas. It is not endangered and is about 34 to 38 cm long, with dark bluish plumage and a slender bill. It feeds on insects and fruits and berries, building nests in trees and large bushes. The Bismark Crow, C. insularis, is not endangered and lives in New Britain, Papua New Guinea. The Jamaican Crow, C. jamaicensis, is about 35 to 38 cm long and not endangered; it lies solely in Jamaica and is sooty grey in color, feeding on fruit and invertebrates and living in pairs and small groups, nesting in tall trees. The Mariana Crow, C. kubaryi, is critically endangered. About 38 cm long, it lives in Guam and Rota, inhabiting second growth and mature forests, eating many times of plants and animals. Its decline, sadly, can be attributed to the human introduced brown tree snake. 

Australian Raven (C. coronoides

The white necked crow C. leucognaphalus is about 42 to 46 cm long, and is vulnerable in its conservation status. It lives in the Caribbean, specifically Hispaniola. It is black with a bluish purple gloss, and has a dark grey patch of skin behind the eye. It eats large amounts of fruit and builds nests solitarily. The Jungle Crow, C. macrorhynchos, is an Asian species of crow that is not endangered and actually is considered a nuisance. It has a very large beak, and is about 46 to 59 cm in size, with glossy black wings. It is very versatile in its diet and has food cashing behavior. it makes nests out of platforms of twigs, and they are gregarious with many thousands of birds at roost sites. Breeding pairs may defend their territory during the day, but at night they roost with the group, and they have dominance hierarchies in the group based on the recognition of individuals. 

Daurian Jackdaw (C. dauuricus

The Bougainville Crow, C. meeki, is a non-endangered crow from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. It is a heavy crow, 41 cm long, with a huge black bill and living in lowland forests and montane forests. The Little Raven, C. mellori, is a non-endangered raven from Australia. Only about 48 to 50 cm long, it has all black plumage and forms large flocks, roaming over large areas looking for food. It has harsh vocalizations and eat mainly insects and invertebrates, using tools to find more food. They nest in loose colonies of up to fifteen pairs, living in communal groups mostly above the ground. The Cuban Crow, C. nasicus, is a non endangered crow from the Caribbean, about 40 to 42 cm long living in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud. It has a long, deep bill and eats fruit and insects, with a strange liquid bubbling song. 

Fan-Tailed Raven (C. rhipidurus

The Western Jackdaw, C. monedula, is a very common jackdawfrom Europe and Asia. It is an omnivorous and opportunistic feeder, eating many plants and invertebrates and waste from urban areas. It’s approximately 34 to 39 cm long, the second smallest member of Corvus, with shiny black and purpleish plumage. They show interest in shiny objects like jewellery, and are extremely gregarious, with communal roosting during the autumn. They form monogamous pairs, and have a linear hierarchical group structure, with mated pairs occupying the same rank in the hierarchy and higher ranked birds dominating the lower ones, establishing dominance via pecking orders. They have social displays such as supplanting, fighting, and threat displays as well, and they preen their mated partners on the head and neck. They feed mainly on the ground in open areas and mate for life, laying eggs in colonies. 

Flores Crow (C. florensis

The New Caledonian Crow, C. moneduloides, is an all black crow from new Caledonia, and not endangered. It has a distinctive call, like waa-waa or qua-qua. It is about 40 cm long and eats a wide range of food, using small trigs to dig out insects and larvae. They make many types of tools including leaves to probe out insects from crevices, and they show cultural evolution in tool manufacture like primates, passing on innovations to other members of the group. It also can make new tools from materials it did not encounter in the wild. They also have meta-tool use, using one tool on another tool to make a task easier, and rival primates in this ability; many birds can solve complex problems on the first try. They use tools to investigate dangerous objects and also can use mirrors to see things that they cannot see in the direct line of site, though they cannot recognize themselves. The Torresian Crow, C. orru, is also not endangered and lives in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, about 48 to 53 cm long and living in a wide variety of habitats. They are very aggressive, stealing food from other birds, eating just about anything and nesting in high trees. 

Slender-billed Crow (C. enca

The fish crow, C. ossifragus, is not endangered and lives in the Eastern United States. About 36 to 41 cm long, they have a very silky smooth plumage, with dark brown eyes and feeding mainly on crustaceans, crabs, shrimps, and stranded fish. They build nests in high trees and are somewhat resistant to West Nile. The palm crow, C. palmarum, is a small crow that’s near threatened in Hispaniola and Cuba; it is, however, almost extinct in Cuba. The Fan-tailed raven, C. rhipidurus, is not endangered in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, about 47 to 51 cm long with a thick bill, short tail and large wings. It eats lots of insects and invertebrates as well as fruit. The brown-necked raven, C. ruficollis, lives in the entirety of North Africa as well as the Middle East and Iran, living on carrion, snakes, locusts, and grasshoppers. It is fairly fearless and will often steal food from humans, nesting like common ravens. 

Jungle Crow (C. macrorhynchos

The Sinaloa Crow, C. sinaloae, lives in Western Mexico and is not endangered. It has purple, glossy plumage and takes food from the ground and trees, nesting in tall coconut palms. The House Crow, C. splendens, is not endangered and is about 40 cm long, a relatively slim crow living in the Indian subcontinent and portions of Africa. It lives on small reptiles, insects, and human garbage, nesting in trees and telephone towers, often living near human created habitats. The Forest Raven, C. tasmanicus, is not endangered and lives in Tasmania and Australia. It lives in many habitats but is restricted to forests in Australia proper, and is about 50 to 53 cm long. They are territorial, omnivorous, and forage in pairs or groups of up to 10 birds. They form monogamous pairs in tall trees, and often feed on roadkill. 

Forest Raven (C. tasmanicus

The Collared Crow, C. torquatus, is near threatened and lives in China, about 52 to 55 cm long, feeding mainly on the ground on things such as insects, mollusks and other invertebrates, as well as rice. The Grey Crow, C. tristis, is non threatened, about 42 to 45 cm long and living mainly in New Guinea, feeding on the ground and in trees. The Piping Crow, C. typicus, lives in Indonesia and is nonthreatened. The Banggai Crow is critically endangered, living in Indonesia, with only about 500 individuals remaining. The Long-billed crow, C. validus, is near threatened and lives in Moluccas, with glossy plumage and a long bill. The Violet Crow, C. violaceus, is a crow from Seram. The White-billed crow, C. woodfordi, is a non endangered crow about 40 to 41 cm long, with very glossy black plumage and found in the Solomon Islands, feeding on insects and fruits and remaining hidden in the canopy. 

Sinaloa Crow (C. sinaloae

Though there are many extinct species of Corvus, only four are well described. The Puerto Rican Crow, C. pumilis, lived on Puerto Rican and the US Virgin Islands. It is only known from an almost fossilized ulna. The Chatham Raven, C. moriorum, lived in New Zealand and was probably a fruit eater. The High-billed crow, C. impluviatus, was a crow on Maui and Hawai’i that was pushed to extinction due to humans and human brought pests like rats. Finally, the New Zealand raven, C. antipodum, was a raven in New Zealand that went extinct in the 16th century, and they had long,b road bills that were not very arged like the Hawaiian crow. 

Sources:

All images come from Wikipedia and are used under a Creative Commons license 

Text based on all pages linked here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Corvus_species and the main Corvus page https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corvus_(genus)

Shout out goes to @saladcreamisthebestcream​!

Evolving Different Skin Tone

@iamnotoneofthem asked:

I don’t know if this is a question you can answer (with it being more of a biology-related one), but maybe a follower can help! In my fantasy world, a (humanoid) species migrated to a different continent about ten to five thousand years ago. They came from a continent where skin colour varied greatly, resulting in diversity, and the group I’m asking about settled down in a desert. They each live for about 400-500 years. Would their skin colour adapt over twenty-two generations (max.) or not?

I’m pretty sure my dad is wondering why I didn’t go into hard sciences right now, for all I end up researching biology. Anyway! This is a topic I know a little about, so I will attempt to at least give you factors to consider.

Your question actually has a lot of layers in it, to the point I can’t really give a solid answer. My instinct is “maybe to no”, but my answer depends, based on how your species actually works.

First is why humans evolved diverse skin tones in the first place: sun protection. Dark skin means less vitamin D and ultraviolet light gets into the skin, which in turn lowers the risk of cancer and vitamin D poisoning (among others, but those are off the top of my head) when you get a lot of sun; this is why you find darker skin in populations in hot regions with minimal tree cover. Meanwhile, light skin lets in a lot of vitamin D, which is an advantage in northern regions that have weaker sun; they have a lower risk of cancer and don’t receive as much vitamin D because of their environment. If your humanoid group doesn’t need sun protection and/or doesn’t rely on vitamin D, then asking if they’ll evolve lighter or darker skin is completely moot.

Second is how evolution works. The basic principle is “evolution favours those who can pass on their genes more easily and more often.” As a result, people who hit age of maturity are favoured, and those who live in their age of maturity for an extended period of time and reproduce frequently are really favoured. You have a very long lived species, here, and we don’t know anything about how long it takes for them to be able to reach maturity and have a second generation (or how many kids they can produce), so ask yourself questions along those lines. Is there anything about their skin tone that would make it they struggle (or thrive) in their environment? Do they blend in better/worse so predators do/don’t find them, feel better/worse so they have/don’t have many children, don’t/do develop cancer so they die young or after a small amount of kids? All of those are valid reasons.

Third, you have to consider how quickly their genes mutate. As a general rule, long lived species are either really adaptable, really simple, or have a lot of advantages against shorter lived species from the gate, just because if they’re not one of the three then they struggle to survive if a major change hits. Really adaptable opens up the possibility they will mutate to fit their environment more quickly, which can either mean “body changes while alive” or “body has ways of making sure offspring get everything good I have,” so evolution happens faster. And having a lot of advantages means there just plain old isn’t much that kills them naturally, but it also means they don’t need to evolve much if at all.

Fourth, desert environments actually favour those who cover up. Take a look at those who live in the Sahara, and you’ll find they are a lot paler than you’d expect for being in the sun all day because their cultural clothing is billowy to trap cool air and make it they don’t get sandblasted in wind.

All that said, five to ten thousand years is actually the blink of an eye in evolutionary standards. The Inuit traveled to Canada’s North from Asia about that long ago, and their skin hasn’t changed at all. However, it is very important to note that their diet is extremely heavy in fish— which means they’re getting all the vitamin D they need through diet instead of their skin, so have had no genetic incentive to get naturally paler. 

So, really, it depends! If they don’t need dark skin as a species because they don’t rely on vitamin D and/or are immune to cancer (long lived species usually are, or at least have quite the resistance— cancer comes from a mutation of a cell’s replicators, and the older you get the more your cells replicate, so the more likely it is they will scramble; cancer is basically another name for ‘broken cell replication that causes them to duplicate way too fast’. Certain lives-over-100 species of whales don’t get cancer, for example, so it’s more than plausible your species doesn’t), then they end up not having any incentive to change their skin tone. Also, if they end up with environmental factors that allow them to sustain whatever skin tone they had previous, such as diet or clothing, then it’s also moot.

But in general, 22 generations really is not that long. We’ve seen some level of extreme change in the past 3 generations, where we are getting significantly taller, but that is mostly medicinal and diet factors (both “we are eating better quality food thanks to genetic modification of food, and we are using growth hormones in food that in turn impact us”). I would say they’re more likely to have changed body shape and height based on environmental factors, but, it’s still really not a long time for anything to happen. There might be some beginnings of noticeable change in the newer generation, but nothing super drastic. 

Of course, if any more biologically inclined followers have input, please feel free to chime in!

~Mod Lesya

4

Look again at that dot. That’s here. That’s home. That’s us. On it everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every “superstar,” every “supreme leader,” every saint and sinner in the history of our species lived there- on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.

The Earth is a very small stage in a vast cosmic arena. Think of the endless cruelties visited by the inhabitants of one corner of this pixel on the scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of some other corner, how frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds. Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that, in glory and triumph, they could become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot.

Our posturings, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the Universe, are challenged by this point of pale light. Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity, in all this vastness, there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves.

The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. There is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate. Visit, yes. Settle, not yet. Like it or not, for the moment the Earth is where we make our stand.

It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and character-building experience. There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image of our tiny world. To me, it underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another, and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot, the only home we’ve ever known.

- Carl Sagan

2

[My own art/character design/Mi-ru] 탄주(Tan-Ju)

These water-like skin colored creatures are species that build civilization in deep sea trenches and dwell in those habitats. They breath mostly with their gills, or with primitive lungs, which allows them to breath above the ground, but imperfectly. Their skin is covered with hard scales and usually is tinged with colors like aquamarine that makes them quite inconspicuous. However, during mating seasons or in a battle, the skin color change gorgeously which looks like . Gills, which has advanced into a tentacle that hold paralysis sting that can be used in emergencies.

Tanjus are species that migrate in a family unit. Generally the family group consists one male Tanju along with 3 to 5 female Tanjus. Most of the hunting and nomads(large fishes such as Tuna) is the females duty, while the male usually protects the herd, or do other duties that inquire a large amount of strength. Because of that, male Tanjus have various threatening colors unlike female Tanjus. But the leader of the family is usually the oldest female Tanju.
Originally, all Tanjus are born as females. If the male Tanju of the herd dies, however, the largest and strongest female Thanju undergo a sex change into a male which takes about a week or so. Also, if the herd is under an attack, they all transform, leaving few female Tanjus.
They trade their youngest member of the family with other family groups once, which seems to be a tradition to prevent some sort of incest.

Part extracted from 사미(Sa-mi)(’s universal pictorial book.

[사미 (Sa-mi) : a 바리(Ba-ri) expert 차페나(Cha-fe-na)‘s direct disciple who continued 차페나(Cha-fe-na) ’s work and compiled the universal pictorial book.]

—————————————————————————————————–

First I want to express @uber-the-man‘s gratitude for wonderful translation! Thank you so much!!

And This is one of my own designed creature for my own universe called 미르(mi-ru). And I really excited about introducing in tumblr. This creature means a lot for me and there are more creatures like this so I will introduce one by one like this. Please enjoy!


And you know what I’ll say next…..

Thank you and LOVE YOU!!!!!

“That’s here. That’s home. That’s us. On it everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every “superstar,” every “supreme leader,” every saint and sinner in the history of our species lived there-on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.

The Earth is a very small stage in a vast cosmic arena. Think of the endless cruelties visited by the inhabitants of one corner of this pixel on the scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of some other corner, how frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds. Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that, in glory and triumph, they could become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot.

Our posturings, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the Universe, are challenged by this point of pale light. Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity, in all this vastness, there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves.

The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. There is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate. Visit, yes. Settle, not yet. Like it or not, for the moment the Earth is where we make our stand.

It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and character-building experience. There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image of our tiny world. To me, it underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another, and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot, the only home we’ve ever known.”

-Carl Sagan

The family of nautilids has been around, and mostly unchanged, for hundreds of millions of years, but researchers still have a lot to learn about them. Here are a few facts we do know about these mysterious mollusks. 

1. The nautilus moves by forcing powerful jets of water out through an organ called the siphon, propelling itself in the opposite direction of the jet flow.

2. Modern nautiluses are sometimes called living fossils, due to their close resemblance to ancient ancestors like the ammonite.

3. Some species of nautilus migrate vertically, rising to shallow water to feed at dusk and moving back to the depths they call home near dawn.

Learn more about the nautilus. 

See more ‪#‎CephalopodWeek‬ content: sciencefriday.com/cephalopodweek

Image courtesy of T.B. Smith