spanish swords

this is the only thing i can upload this for today. its a fun style to draw in, ok. but tonight we had a theatre thing we had to watch with the whole class in a big theatre with many many peolpe and it was hot as hell. he acting was pretty good but a lot of jokes were seriously questionable (pedophelia and sexism, i wasnt offended but it was questionalbe since there were a lot of kids in the audience).

update: there is a party going on about two kilometres away from my house and i can hear the carnival music and drunk people here. thats cool though, i hope they have fun.

Goodnight.

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How effective was Native American weaponry and armor when compared to contemporary european equipment in 1500? • /r/AskHistorians

By /u/400-Rabbits



The Spanish Conquistadors regularly expressed their respect of both native weaponry and armor. Bernal Díaz del Castillo gives us our most vivid descriptions of combat when engaging with Mesoamerican forces. For instance, this passage from the second time the Spanish and Tlaxcalans clashed:

When, therefore, the attack commenced, a real shower of arrows and stones was poured upon us; the whole ground was immediately covered with heaps of lances, whose points were provided with two edges, so very sharp that they pierced through every species of cuirass, and were particularly dangerous to the lower part of the body, which was in no way protected.

There’s really two aspects to both native and foreign arms and armor being demonstrated here. One thing to note is that the Spanish who accompanied Cortés were very rarely wearing anything resembling full-body steel armor. Spanish accounts confirm that the “infantry” would have had at least a sword and shield, but armament beyond that was up to the individual soldier to supply for themselves. The most common pieces of armor mentioned are helmets, gorgets, and cuirasses, though the presence of these were not universal to all soldiers, nor did the initial arms and armor of the Spanish always last through the rigors of the campaign. To quote Díaz del Castillo again, he remarks that when a group was traveling back to the Gulf coast to confront Narvaez:

We were altogether in want of defensive armour, and on that night many of us would have given all we possessed for a cuirass, helmet, or steel gorget.

Even the steel cuirasses of the Spanish were not always protection from Mesoamerican weaponry, as the first passage quoted indicates. Díaz del Castillo himself writes about one instance where his steel cuirass was pierced by an atl-atl dart, and he was saved from serious injury only by the cotton armor he had taken to wearing underneath it. Indeed, the Spanish often took to adopting some form of the quilted cotton ichcahuipilli, sometimes paired with a Spanish cuirass but sometimes not, because of the both the protection and comfort it afforded.

Whatever steel armor the Spanish could afford for themselves did provide a more effective defense, but rarely did it protect the whole body. Ross Hassig notes, in his Mexico and the Spanish Conquest:

Clubs and swords had their effect, but Spanish steel armor was proof against most Indian projectile, except perhaps darts cast from very close range. Indeed, Spanish wounds were typically limited to the limbs, face, neck, and other vulnerable areas unprotected by armor…

Those unprotected areas could find themselves very vulnerable given the rain of arrows that accompanied assaults, and reports of injuries and deaths from volleys of arrows (and sling stones) are not uncommon in Conquistador accounts. Hassig, however, points to an advantage in the missile weapons of the Spanish, noting their crossbows and harquebuses were most effective at close range, with the inaccurate latter weapon even more effective against closely masses troops, as Mesoamerican military doctrine at the time tended to provide. Nevertheless, we see native forces sometimes retreating back to a point where the guns of the Spanish were largely ineffective, but that the bows of the indigenous archers could rain arrows down on the Spanish at a much greater rate then the Spanish crossbows could reply. If the Spanish were unlucky, as in the case of the Cordoba expedition in a Maya town, the arrow/sling barrage could keep them pinned down until more Maya forces arrived and swamped the Spanish, resulting in the loss of about 50 of the 100 Spanish soldiers, including Cordoba himself later dying from injuries.

If the Spanish were lucky, they could maintain a defensive formation and withdraw, using cavalry charges or artillery to break the lines of the opposing force. These are the tactics Cortés used in his clashes with the Tlaxcalans. No matter the defensive advantage of steel armor or the offensive advantages of crossbows, guns, and artillery on massed troops, the Spanish quite often found themselves having to maintain a defensive position and execute strategic withdrawals in the face of more numerous and better supplied foes who were quite capable of enacting grievous harm on them. Only with the alliance with native groups would the Spanish (and their allies) see a distinct military advantage. To quote Hassig again:

Thus, while the Spanish enjoyed greater firepower, which prevented their enemies from engaging them in organized formations, and although they could disrupt the enemy fron much more easily than could Mesoamerican armies, they were too few to exploit these breaches fully. If they joined forces with large Indian armies, however, these allies could exploit the breaches created by the Spaniards, while maintaining the integrity of their own units, because other Indian armies lacked the Spanish edge in arms and armor. Together they could wreak havoc on the enemy.

Ultimately, if we look at the clashes between Spanish and indigenous groups in Mesoamerica, neither guns, steel, or horses (or germs, for that matter), were decisive. While it is tempting to crudely lump the Aztecs into the “Stone Age,” while putting the Spanish further along some imaginary and arbitrary tech tree, we must keep in mind that the macuahuitl and tepoztopilli were not “crude” weapons, but the result of centuries of refinement and practical tests in Mesoamerican warfare. The Spanish rightly feared and respected those weapons. So to were the tactics of the Aztecs refined for the opponents they faced. Prior to the Spanish, the Aztecs had enjoyed a century of almost ubiquitous military victories, and though we can absolutely see how their tactics were thrown for stumble by the addition of never before seen weaponry like artillery and cavalry, particularly at early encounters like Otumba, this was an intelligent and adaptive war machine. By the time the Spanish licked their wounds from La Noche Triste and returned in force with the Tlaxcalans, the Aztecs had autochthonously invented cavalry counter-measures with pike-like spears and ensuring the chosen field of battle with marshy or strewn with stones. They had adopted tactics to blunt the guns and artillery of the Spanish with breastworks and zig-zag maneuvers.

Bottom line, both the Spanish and the Aztecs respected each other as deadly opponents.

Cuidando a Iván y Epona (Caring for Colin and Epona).

My Twitter here > https://twitter.com/beschworer :3

So…yeah, I dunno if anyone who speaks spanish is reading this…But let me show you a whole new world of the Magnus Chase fandom, the latin American fandom…
.
.
.
The Bliztstone is very poor…in the translation it looks like if the man who made the spanish version was like: «Man I can’t put this fanservice on a child’s books…I’m GOING TO CHANGE IT CAUSE I CAN AND I WANT »
My little shipper heart just feels useless.

Second: the time when the books are in the shop center’s.
Look, let me tell you an example.

You’re walking happily in a Mall, when your favorite book store post an announcement about Magnus Chase. Like a posses you run in the store, ask for the price and BAM.
The first punch, it’s very expensive.
(You will thinking that the coin in South America it’s like the dollar but no. Your 15 dollars are like 50 soles in my country which is Peru, now think about Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, etc.) So yeah the price of the book it’s like 60/70 soles (Peru) , second, your parents won’t let you buy it because is not “literature”.
Third, if you buy it, there will be a little or a BIG difference from that one and the original.

Oh, and if USA was published in 2015, here it would probably be on market 1 or 2 years later.

I still don’t know who is Alex Fierro because my parents are behind me throwing insults to the first book :v
I need Magnus Chase y el martillo de Thor ;-;

The personalities change a little or A LOT.
I need the original Hearthstone.
Blitzen is good. I love blitzen it’s a very nice character, also Sam and Magnus.

THE PROBLEM IT’S THE MONEY ;-; and well we enjoy searching a lot of the things we like about the book… But you come and spoil us everything ;-;
Spoiled. Spoiler. Etc.

Spanish Infantry in the Age of Pike & Shotte

The famed Tercio formations were made up of a variety infantry, all fulfilling different roles. The main defensive arm, and the Tercio’s signature, was its massed ranks of pikemen. These would act as a hard counter to heavy cavalry, but were capable of overrunning infantry as well. 

Firearm equipped troops, here depicted using the Harquebus, were the main offensive punch of the formation, relying on the pikemen to defend them during their long reload times. 

Other types of infantry supported the formation, like the Rodelero on the left. These sword-and-buckler men would engage enemy pikemen, using their swords to lop off the tips of pikes or their shields to brush them aside. Pikemen were usually poor troops, and bereft of high-quality arms or armor, could not withstand Rodeleros who closed the distance. 

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Venezuelan Officer’s Sword, c.1899-1908

A very high quality and rare infantry officer’s sword, from Cipriano Castro’s rule of Venezuela, between 1899 and 1908. The design of the sword shows various influences; British and Spanish principally. The general style of the hilt is that of a British 1822 infantry officer’s sword, with the arms of Venezuela. The shark skin grip and wire wrap is also basically in the British style, but with more turns of wire than you normally find on British swords. The blade is very high quality, with gilding on the national coat of arms, and it is of ‘Toledo’ style, with double-fullers for the first half, and then a sharp sabre blade with false edge for the second half. This style of blade was used on some special order swords in Britain, but it was a distinctly Spanish style originally. The execution of the whole sword is to a very high standard - I would presume for a senior officer or official under Castro. The steel scabbard is nickel plated and has very ornate brass fittings. The condition in general is very good. Flaws to mention are that some bits of the grip wire are missing and when sheathing the sword it sometimes gets a little stuck on something inside (but usually sheathes fine). The blade, which is about 31 inches long and about ¾ inch wide, is solid in the hilt and despite this looking like a dress sword, the blade is actually sharp. A very attractive sword or very high quality - probably Spanish manufacture I would say, or perhaps German. There cannot be many Venezuelan officers swords of 1899-1908 and this high quality around.

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My last minute Las Granadas Venenas kit for Monday night Swordcraft. I didn’t make anything new except for the hat I bought. Super happy I finally got to use my gold belt which I bought from a thrift shop two years ago. Also great swords are hella fun.

Photos by the truly amazing @theprohobby. You should totally go follow him because he posts super cool larp pictures.

fluffmiester  asked:

ooc: I've noticed Nelliel has more pronounced canines than any of the other arrancar, this despite her animal being herbivorous and her being more pacifistic. What are your thoughts on this?

Well first of all I wouldn’t go so far as to call her a pacifist. That word never sat right with me for Nelliel. People who identify as a pacifist consider “War and violence…unjustifiable” or are “opposed to war and violence of any kind”. Clearly that doesn’t fit Nel, considering she IS a soldier. She just needs to find the cause worthy

Moreover, despite her mask looking a bit like a ram, her sword is Spanish for “chamois”. It’s a type of goat, and while they’re herbivores like you said, they can be very aggressive. Males especially go head to head often, and once the males reach maturity they are kicked out of their mother’s herds and sometimes even killed. Her teeth are probably just a reflection of that latent aggression and animalistic roots that some hollow still show. I think it might even be a little bit of a COMPENSATION, since she would have needed them as she began to devour souls. 

Also, it may be they LOOK more pronounced because in this panel here it seems as though her lower front teeth might be missing. It’s possible that they were knocked out/chipped when Nnoitra threw her off of Las Noches (which would also explain her lisp in her child form) though Kubo doesn’t always draw her teeth like this so? 

What is consistency 

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La Noche Design Notes

My two biggest inspirations for La Noche were the Virgin of Guadalupe and the aztec moon goddess Coyolxauhqui.

The Virgin of Guadalupe (e) is of course an extremely important icon in mexican catholicism, and even Book of Life pays homage to her; she’s in the graveyard, the interior of the church, even a spot for her on the giant mural in book of life’s museum room.  What makes her so interesting to me, is that like the Santa Muerte that La Muerte is partially based on, historians believe the Virgin of Guadalupe is a converted aztec earth goddess (Tonantzin), from the time when worshipping the original goddess could result in spanish swords chopping native necks. La Noche pays homage to the blessed virgin with a blue star cloak and glowy star mandala.

Coyolxauhqui (figure f) led a rebellion against her mother and eldest brother and got chopped to bits then sent into the sky to become the moon in aztec mythology. La Noche isnt quite that violent, but there were several design details I wanted to transfer: the “bells” in her hair and on her face, the three tiered giant earrings, jade skull belt and elbow jewelry.  Coyolxauhqui literally means  “Face painted with bells”. Bells meaning tufts of eagle down, but simplified here into dots and sparkly bits.   

And of course no aztec-mayan goddess would be caught dead (hah) without a giant feather headdress.  Like Montezuma’s in figure b, hers is made of quetzal feathers and ringed in a mandala of stars that’s meant to echo the candles on La Muerte’s hat (and at her feet).  Figure a is an aztec woman from the land of the remembered Jorge R Gutierrez designed but didn’t get to use in the film, and I loved the way he rendered her feathers so much I stole it for figure d.

The front piece of the cloak/dress is a bit of a nod to jaguar cloaks as worn by mayan priest kings, particularly in the little golden claws tangling off the ends. Originally I wanted to give her little golden jaguar spots on her white chili pepper skin (Jorge said La Noche was spicy…) but when I tried it ended up too busy. So instead the goddess sisters share swirls. Which worked out, since now we know the land of the unknown is all about swirls and spirals.

Other little pieces: Where La Muerte has moon designs on the back of her hands, La Noche has moons (figure d). Her necklace and hair beads are made of turquoise. Her eyelids are the only orange in her design and symbolize her husband El Chamuco’s lava body. Her hair is pulled up (easier to see in figure d) like Maria’s because I love the headcanon that Maria looks just like La Noche’s human disguise (which is why Xibalba’s jaw dropped when he saw her).   

The gold circles going down her tunic are supposed to be phases of the moon, but I haven’t rendered them out fully yet :P

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Scipio Africanus - Second Punic War

In 219 bc, when Hannibal Barca first led his Carthaginian army against the Iberian city of Saguntum, a Roman ally located south of the Ebro River, in the opening campaign of
the Second Punic War, Publius Cornelius Scipio was 17 or 18 years old. His father, also named Publius Cornelius Scipio, was elected a Roman consul in 218 bc, and the young Scipio accompanied him in a confrontation with Hannibal’s invasion force near the Ticinus River in Northern Italy shortly after the Carthaginian commander had completed his famous crossing of the Alps.
In the melee that ensued, the elder Scipio became surrounded and was seriously wounded. Perceiving his father’s danger, Scipio the younger urged his troops into the thick of the fighting. When they hung back, the boy rode into the enemy cavalry alone, compelling his men to follow. That attack broke the Carthaginian formation, and the elder Scipio later saluted his son before the army as his rescuer.
As Hannibal continued to ravage Roman armies sent to meet him in Italy, the elder Scipio became convinced that the key to Roman victory lay in Spain. Accordingly, as soon as his wounds would permit it, he left Rome to join his brother Gnaeus Scipio, who had been holding a defensive line at the Ebro River. From there, the two brothers pursued a guerrilla war against the Carthaginians, who were based at New Carthage on the Spanish coast. In 212 bc, however, both elder Scipios were killed in the course of a series of battles in the Baetis Valley, and by 211 bc, only 9,000 legionaries held the Ebro line against three Carthaginian armies totaling more than 45,000 men. Back in Rome, experienced generals shrank from taking command in Spain. Almost by default, therefore, the Senate bestowed the rank of proconsul upon the dead Scipios’ son and nephew. Although not quite 25, he unhesitantly left Rome with 10,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry to take control of the beleaguered legions on the Ebro.
Upon his arrival in Spain, Scipio began to train his men in tactics he had learned by studying Hannibal’s battles in Italy. He experimented with a smaller infantry unit, the cohort, which allowed greater flexibility of maneuver than the legion. In addition, Scipio armed his men with short Spanish swords (the gladius hispaniensis), replacing the unwieldy weapons used in the past.
In 210 bc, Scipio crossed the Ebro with 25,000 infantry and 2,500 cavalry, leaving Marcus Silanus to hold the river defenses with 3,500 men. Sending a portion of his army by sea along the Spanish coast toward New Carthage, Scipio led the remainder of his troops on a march of 325 miles in seven days to reach the walls of the enemy stronghold before the Carthaginian field commanders had time to react.
During a short, vicious siege, Scipio led a breaching column through a supposedly impregnable lagoon located on the landward side of the city; a strong northerly wind combined with the natural ebb of the tide left the lagoon shallow enough for the Roman infantry to wade through. New Carthage was soon taken, forcing the Carthaginians to fall back upon Gades as a base.
The next year, Scipio attacked the army of Hannibal’s brother, Hasdrubal Barca, near Baecula. In a departure from standard Roman practice, Scipio divided his army in the face of the Carthaginian force and employed his lighter armed troops as a screen in the center while the main force fell upon the enemy flanks. Hasdrubal, severely beaten, slipped away with the remainder of his army and marched into Italy, hoping to join Hannibal, only to be intercepted and destroyed by a Roman army at the Metaurus River. Hannibal learned of his brother’s death when Hasdrubal’s head was thrown into his camp.
In the meantime, with Hasdrubal Barca’s army out of Iberia, Scipio completed his conquest by crushing the last Carthaginian forces under the command of Hasdrubal, son of Gisgo, at the Battle of Ilipa in 206 bc. That success was followed by the capture of the last Carthaginian stronghold at Gades, ensuring the Roman occupation of Iberia for the next seven centuries and winning Scipio the Roman con-
sulship for 205 bc.
Scipio next lobbied the Senate for permission to invade the Carthaginian homeland in North Africa. The senators were reluctant, but Scipio was convinced that such an expedition would either force the Carthaginians to recall Hannibal or at least leave him isolated in Italy. When Scipio threatened to appeal directly to the Roman people if the Senate failed to support him, it voted to give him command of Sicily, which he could use as a base of operations against Carthage.
Scipio spent 205 bc preparing for his campaign. He sent Gaius Laelius into Africa to seek an alliance with the Numidian chiefs Syphax and Masinissa, who were on the verge of revolt against their Carthaginian overlords. Syphax, however, decided to stay with the Carthaginians, and drove Masinissa into the desert. When Scipio attacked Utica on the African
coast in 204 bc, the Numidian cavalry harassed his own line of communications and forced him to abandon the siege. In the next year, however, the Romans defeated Syphax and his Carthaginian allies in two battles, convincing Masinissa to join with Rome.
The Carthaginians panicked and sued for peace. While negotiations were under way, Hannibal slipped out of Italy with the remnants of his once-proud army, returned to Africa and convinced the Carthaginian government that all was not yet lost. In 202 bc, Hannibal had several initial successes against the Numidians, but Scipio still tried to link up with Masinissa to augment his own cavalry strength. Responding to that threat, Hannibal left his base at Hadrumatum in an attempt to cut Scipio off.
Despite Hannibal’s concerted efforts, Scipio finally joined Masinissa near the town of Zama, about a five days’ march from Carthage. When Hannibal learned of the location of the Roman camp, he detailed three spies to obtain information. The three were captured, but instead of putting them to death, as was customary, Scipio appointed a tribune to take all three men on an inspection tour of the camp.
Scipio’s unusually generous treatment of his spies so impressed Hannibal that he arranged to meet the young Roman commander a few days later—alone except
for two interpreters. Their parley was cordial, but they failed to negotiate a peaceful settlement—17 years of warfare between the Romans and Carthaginians had left wounds that could not be healed in an afternoon’s discussion.
On the day of battle, Scipio drew his legions into a classic Roman formation of three lines, but in another departure from the conventional practice of the time, he arranged the maniples of each line to form directly behind those of the line in front, creating lanes that passed vertically through his infantry formations. He then had each of those lanes masked behind a formation of lightly armed skirmishers, or velites, so that the Roman army appeared as a solid mass. The Italian cavalry, under the command of Laelius, was positioned on the left wing of the infantry lines, and Scipio’s Numidian cavalry, commanded by Masinissa, was stationed on the right wing.
Hannibal also drew his battle formation into three lines. His first line consisted of about 12,000 Ligurian, Celtic and Moorish mercenaries. Masking this front line was a corps of 80 elephants supported by lightly armed skirmishers. In his second line, Hannibal placed the majority of his native Carthaginian forces, with his “Old Guard” troops from Italy forming a reserve force in the third line. Like Scipio, Hannibal placed his cavalry on the wings.
As soon as the last of the Carthaginian forces were in formation, Hannibal ordered his elephants to charge the Roman infantry. The sound of bugles and trumpets piercing the air from the Roman front line, however, caused the elephants to panic. Most of them turned tail and drove straight into Hannibal’s own Numidian cavalry, leaving his left flank dangerously exposed. Any elephants not stampeded by the Roman musicians passed harmlessly down the lanes in Scipio’s formation. Taking advantage of the confusion, Laelius launched a charge against the Carthaginian cavalry on Hannibal’s right wing, driving them off in headlong retreat.
At that point, the front two lines of Hannibal’s infantry pressed forward into Scipio’s line. Superior Roman equipment and discipline soon overcame Hannibal’s mercenary troops, who found themselves trapped between the advancing Roman army and their own Carthaginian allies, who would not open ranks to let them pass. As the infantry lines closed for combat, Laelius’ and Masinissa’s cavalry suddenly appeared in the rear of Hannibal’s army, and in the ensuing struggle, the remaining Carthaginian force was destroyed. Hannibal and a few of his men escaped to their base at Hadrumatum, but nearly 20,000 Carthaginians and their allies were slaughtered, compared to Roman losses of 1,500 men.
Following his triumphal return to Rome, Scipio presented the Senate with 123,000 pounds of silver. In return, he became the first Roman general to be honorarily bestowed with the name of the land he conquered, as Scipio Africanus.
Scipio’s popularity soon came to be marred by controversial behavior. His love of Greek customs, literature and art soon brought him into direct conflict with the traditional Roman party, led by the Censor (senior magistrate) Marcus Porcius Cato. In 187 bc, his brother Lucius Scipio was accused of accepting bribes, to which Africanus responded by tearing up the incriminating documents before the tribunal. Later, Scipio Africanus himself was called to the Senate to answer corruption charges—a summons that he simply refused to obey. Retiring to his estate outside Rome at Liternum, Scipio spent his final years complaining of his countrymen’s ingratitude, until his death in 184 bc.

Rodeleros (“shield bearers”), also called espadachines (“swordsmen”) and colloquially known as “Sword and Buckler Men”, were Spanish troops in the early 16th (and again briefly in the 17th) century, equipped with steel shields or bucklers known as rodela and swords (usually of the side-sword type). Originally conceived as an Italian attempt to revive the legionary swordsman, they were adopted by the Spanish and used with great efficiency in the Italian Wars during the 1510s and 1520s, but discontinued in the 1530s.

The majority of Hernán Cortés’s troops during his campaigns in the New World were rodeleros: in 1520, over 1000 of his 1300 men were so equipped, and in 1521 he had 700 rodeleros, but only 118 arquebusiers and crossbowmen. Bernal Díaz, the author of an account of Cortés’ conquest of the Aztecs, served as a rodelero under Cortés.

When the Spanish adopted the colunella (the first of the mixed pike and shot formations), they used small groups of sword and buckler men to break the deadlock of the push of pike.

schangia  asked:

So I just randomly found out this morning that apparently there's a Spanish hairdresser that uses swords to cut his clients' hair and I just couldn't stop laughing?? Like imagine Zoro doing that, or even better Mihawk, straight face and all and acting like "I'll cut your head off if you don't stop moving". And Zoro's out there screaming "I'm gonna be the world's best hairdresser, just you watch!!" and I'm just trying not to laugh but I can't. x"DDD

Zoro would be complete and utter shit at cutting hair, to be honest. Have you seen his? The length and style hasn’t really changed. 

Mihawk, however, is a god. Why? Have you SEEN his facial hair? DAMN, he’s good. xD
It’s just that everybody would be too scared to ask him/etc. Plus, he’d be a lot more flashy, but completely nonchalant about it.

Personally, I wouldn’t let either of them near my hair. One because I don’t want a really shitty haircut/”style”, and the other because I’d most likely be traumatized for life.

Originally posted by dope-gif

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Lamborghini Espada, 1968. A Lamborghini that did make it, though a market sector that they have subsequently abandoned. The front-engined 4-seater coupe was designed by Marcello Gandini at Bertone drawing on two previous concept car, the Lamborghini Marzal and the Jaguar Piraña. “Espada” means “sword” in Spanish, referring to the sword that the Torero uses to kill the bull. During ten years of manufacture three series were produced though exterior changes were minimal. In total 1217 Espadas were made but it was not replaced when sales ceased in 1978

I’ve posted about both the Marzel and the Piraña previously
http://carsthatnevermadeit.tumblr.com/post/114349104070/lamborghini-marzal-1967-designed-by-marcello

http://carsthatnevermadeit.tumblr.com/post/98666885459/bertone-jaguar-pirana-1967-presented-at-the