spanish american war 1898

All The Topics to Know for the APUSH Exam (as told by my APUSH teacher)
  • Revolutionary War/Constitution/Articles of Confederation
  • The First Party System: Federalists and Republicans
  • Revolution of 1800
  • Jacksonian Democracy (1824-1840)
    • the Bank War
    • the spoils system
    • Indian Removal Act
  • Antebellum reform movements and the Second Great Awakening
  • Causes of the Civil War and sectional differences
    • political parties (Democrats vs. New Republicans)
    • economics
    • social differences
  • Reconstruction (1863-1877)
    • successes/failures
    • 13th - 15th amendments
      • connections to the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s
  • Industrialization and Big Business/The Gilded Age (1860-1910)
    • vertical and horizontal integration
    • trusts
    • steel, oil, and railroads
    • Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan
    • growth of cities
    • immigration
    • changes in politics and political machines
  • The Populist Movement and agrarian discontent
  • The Progressive Era (1890-1920)
    • an effort to deal with the adverse effects of industrial capitalism
    • the Progressive Presidents
  • The Indian Plains Wars (through 1890)
  • Spanish-American War (1898)
  • IMPERIALISM: Philippines, Hawaii, Panama, Cuba, etc.
  • World War I
    • causes/effects
    • the home front
  • The Red Scare
  • The 1920s
    • sources of conflict (economic, political, and social)
    • effects on women, African Americans, and immigrants
  • The 1930s, the Great Depression, and the New Deal
    • Hoover vs. FDR
    • economic, social, and political reforms
  • World War II
    • results, the home front
    • effects on women, African Americans, Native Americans (Navajo codetalkers, etc), Japanese Americans, and Mexican Americans
  • The Cold War
    • foreign policy
      • where and when
    • 1950s
      • conformity, suburbs, Baby Boom, domestication of women, challenges to conformity, expanding economy, consumer culture
      • similarities to the 1920s
    • 1960s
      • civil rights movement (who, what, when, where, why, successes and failures)
      • Lyndon B. Johnson and the Great Society (1963-1968)
        • domestic and foreign issues
    • 1970s
      • Richard Nixon (1968-1973)
        • foreign and domestic policies
        • detente and Vietnam
        • the Southern Strategy and Watergate
    • 1980s
      • Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)
        • foreign and domestic policies
        • tax cuts
        • military spending
        • shrinking of the government
        • the new right
      • George H.W. Bush and the end of the Cold War
  • Bill Clinton and Barack Obama

The Rough Riders by Mort Kunstler

“Teddy” Roosevelt leads the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry - “Rough Riders” - up Kettle Hill during the Spanish-American War. Limited logistical capacity meant that the Regiment left their horses behind, with only Col. Roosevelt mounted as the men charged the Spanish positions on July 1, 1898.

(National Guard)


Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th US Cavalry (USCT) in Philadelphia, 1898.

To celebrate the close of the Spanish American War, twenty-five thousand regular and volunteer troops of the Federal Army were reviewed by President William McKinley in Philadelphia on Thursday, October 17, 1898. This photo was taken at 13th and Market Streets.

The 10th Cavalry fought with distinction and honor in the Battle of Las Guasimas, the Battle of Tayacoba (where four members were awarded the Medal of Honor), with Colonel Theodore Roosevelt at the Battle of San Juan Hill and the Siege of Santiago de Cuba.

Photographic image made by Williams, Brown & Earle, dealers in stereoscopic views, 918 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia and is from our private collection.


The Fake Battle of Manila

 The Battle of Manila is a forgotten part of history and rarely mentioned as part of the Spanish American War. On May 1st, 1898 the US Pacific Fleet under the command of Admiral Dewey trashed the Spanish Far East Fleet in Manila Bay.  The US Fleet blockaded Manila, preparing for a long siege and waiting for US ground forces to arrive. In July, around 40,000 US soldiers and Marines arrived, around 11,000 of which were devoted to capturing Manila itself.

The Spanish dug in with 13,000 troops of their own, but it was clear that they could not hold out.  Along with the American soldiers were 30,000 Filipino fighters of the Philippine Revolutionary Army. Spanish general Fermin Jaudenes saw the writing on the wall. Surrender was an inevitability, but the last thing he wanted to do was surrender to his former Filipino subjects.  Thus, he secretly began negotiations with Admiral Dewey to not only negotiate a surrender, but to stage a mock battle so that the Spanish could save face while the Americans could take all the glory.

Without informing their Filipino allies of the faux assault, the Americans began the battle on August 13th.  Although a peace accord had been signed the day before, neither side had yet received news that the war was over.  The Americans began by shelling Spanish forts, the gunners taking care to only hit abandoned buildings. Then US troops advanced, firing above the heads of the Spanish while the Spanish did likewise. For the most part the mock battle went off without a hitch. The shooting stopped when the Spanish raised the white flag of surrender, and US troops quickly occupied Manila before the Philippine Army could enter the city.  Only two thing went wrong. First, the gunners of one of the American ships had not been informed that the battle was staged, purposely shelling Spanish fortifications. Second, a group of Filipino fighters joined the battle thinking it was a genuine battle, causing a real firefight with Spanish troops leading to the death of 49 Spaniards, 1 American, and an unknown number of Filipino fighters.

After the Spanish American War, the Americans would claim possession of the country.  Enraged at the American’s unwillingness to grant them independence, the Filipinos rebelled.  What resulted was a long and bloody war which lasted decades.  Americans responded brutally, committing many atrocities, leading to the death of thousands.

The idea of Fort Drum was created after the Spanish–American War in 1898 when the Board of Fortifications decided that the United States needed to better fortify overseas territories, especially harbors. One of the primary areas that the Board of Fortification decided to focus on was Manila Bay in the Philippines. Originally, the fort was to be the control center for a mine network across the Bay. However, due to inadequate defenses in the area, a plan was devised to level the island and then build a massive fortification.

I realized that a lot of my FRUS headcanons revolve around their relationship becoming more established in the late 19th/early 20th century so I decided to summarize some of their history in that time frame as I interpret it relating to the characters. I wrote most of this from memory so I apologize if I miss anything major/over-simplify anything here.

  • France’s 3rd Republic was established in 1870, after decades of on-and-off political turmoil & numerous changes in governments. Relations between the US and France had been tense on several occasions since the American Revolution, but they still would refer to their alliance as unbroken in later years & have touted the fact that they’ve never been at war with each other since America became independent (because they both collectively act like the quasi-war didn’t happen; Francis was in a pretty bad mental place at the time so they likely wrote it off due to that; same with Alfred and the tension that arose during the American Civil War)
  • France & America became increasingly close once the 3rd Republic was established. America tended to view France as a ~bastion of democracy in Europe~, and therefore started favoring France over other European allies in a lot of ways.
  • The Statue of Liberty was presented to America to commemorate the US centennial.
  • They were definitely huge drama queens about being ~beacons of liberty and democracy~.
  • America was experiencing rapid industrialization & economic growth at a rate that was probably shocking to the European nations, making America an increasingly attractive trade/political partner.
  • The Spanish-American War occurred in 1898, in which America picked a fight with Spain and then took a bunch of his colonies, effectively ending the Spanish Empire. (America then turned around and granted Cuba independence, even though Cuba actually wanted to become a US state. They remained close allies until the Cuban Revolution.) This is the point when the Europeans collectively said “holy crap when did that American kid become so strong”.
  • Going into the 20th century, America & France were also engaging in a lot of collaboration/exchange of ideas in the development of film, aviation, etc. I really feel like they would have bonded a lot over film, and I tend to view film history as a very big part of Alfred bc of the way that American cinema has affected cultural consciousness)
  • By the turn of the century, America would have been interacting with European nations way more than ever before. Not just because they would have been more invested in developing their relationships with him do to the way he was growing into a world power, and because of the large influxes of immigrants that America was experiencing, but also because travel and communication between Europe & North America advanced considerably. During the American Revolution, it took an average of 3 months to sail from France to the US. By 1912, it took an average of 7 days. The first transatlantic telephone call was from the US to France in 1915.
  • America was understandably reluctant to get involved in WWI because it was a hot mess & even England would have stayed out of it if France and Russia hadn’t threatened to kick his ass if he rescinded on his alliance with them.
  • However, there was a not insignificant public sentiment that America should be helping France, and America would try to provide aid to them in whatever ways he could get away with while maintaining his neutrality. When America did get involved in the war, it was very much framed as “going to help France specifically” because America was wary of monarchists. There was a lot of rhetoric about “repaying the debt to Lafayette” & standing by France due to the history of their alliance. 
  • America showed up to WWI not knowing his way around Europe for shit and getting lost a lot, but he was also overzealous and full of energy. America’s arrival caused the trench warfare to finally shift into a mobile war, pushing the Germans out of France & being a bit more rough with the Germans than was strictly necessary in the process. England was super bitter about America taking so much control over the Allied war efforts.
  • American soldiers were very popular with French women so I am 100% about Francis fawning over Alfred for being so tall and buff and rich
  • Based on the literature from this period, I tend to imagine that America stuck around in Paris for a while after the end of WWI, with he and France trying to cope with their mutual PTSD from WWI by spending a lot of time drinking and smoking and seeing films together, with Alfred writing angsty novels while Francis draws/paints.
  • I headcanon that Alfred went full Jay Gatsby mode in the 1920s, throwing a lot of big parties to show off his money & generally being wildly overindulgent. I also imagine that Francis very much enjoyed those parties & having someone to drink excessive amounts of champagne with.
  • As WWII started, America was once again reluctant to get involved in a war, but also very much wanted to be able to help France, and would emphasize that to rationalize having to ally himself with dirty monarchists & commies. Even though America declared war on Japan before anyone else, he made “liberating France” his #1 priority. America was eager to rush into France but England basically had to hold him back, and throughout their time in North Africa & Italy there was a lot of tension between England and America over who got to call the shots, with England insisting that they take a more cautious approach in fighting the Germans.
  • Not gonna get into Cold War-era stuff yet because this post is long, ask me in a couple weeks
DBQ/FRQ First Aid (Precolonial to Imperialism)

Tomorrow, you will be taking the APUSH Advanced Placement Exam. Determining on what college you want to go to, at least a three is commonplace. I don’t know about you guys, but my biggest problem is going the length of an entire essay (for example if they want me to talk about Colonial Times through the Revolution, but they just write “1763-1781” I wouldn’t know what to write about). Furthermore, I’m going to list eras, what happening during them in chronological order and a very brief description of what they did. Keep in mind that many eras (such as the 1960’s) are important both in foreign policy and domestic affairs. I will divide them accordingly. The DBQ will not ask for specific years, but it’s better to have a general understanding of the era they are asking you about so you can throw in some “specific evidence” to get that 7-9 essay. This chart is also particularly helpful with the FRQ. Anyway, let’s begin.

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Facts From Episode 8

While The Knick is a work of fiction, it is based on exhaustive historical research. Below, the show’s writers share some of the true facts of the era that are depicted in this episode.

When inviting Lucy to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bertie refers to its controversial exhibition of Paul Gaugin’s work.

From 1899-1902 the US was at war with the Philippines, which they gained during the Spanish-American War of 1898. (Image courtesy of the Burns Archive.)

Jacob Schiff, a banker with Kuhn and Loeb, was a Jewish financier and philanthropist who helped settle immigrants in America.    

Mount Sinai Jews Hospital was a real place and survives today. It was one of the many hospitals that moved uptown.

Karl Koller, the first doctor to use cocaine as a local anesthetic, was a physician at Mt. Sinai Hospital. (Image courtesy of the Burns Archive.)

Zinberg’s “Intrascope” is really an endoscope, which was invented around this time, and allowed surgeons to take a peek inside the human body. (Image courtesy of the Burns Archive.)

Thackery’s patient is suffering from actinomycosis on his jaw. The Burns Archive provided a photo used by the FX department. (Image courtesy of the Burns Archive.)

Treaty of Paris

Treaty of Paris usually refers to one of many treaties signed in Paris, France. It can refer to:


 Link (thanks, stuffthings!)