spain history

Mayan History (Part 56): Izamal

Izamal is in northern Yucatán, about 40km east of Mérida (the state’s modern capital), and about 40km north-west of Chichén Itzá.  It is the biggest city of the Northern Yucatán plains.  Its urban area covers at least 53 square km.

(The orange dot is Mérida.)

Izamal and Chichén Itzá (name wouldn’t show).

In Yucatán, Izamal is (currently) known as the Yellow City, because most of its buildings are painted yellow; and the City of Hills, which are the remains of ancient temple pyramids.

Izamal was founded during the Late Formative Period [750-200 BC].  It was occupied continously until the Spanish invaded.

In terms of building construction, it was at its peak between the Protoclassic [200 BC – 200 AD] and the Late Classic [600-800 AD]. When Chichén Itzá’s power began growing in the Terminal Classic [8000-1000 AD], Izamal was partially abandoned.  However, it was still a pilgrimage site, second only to Chichén Itzá.

Izamal was the home of two important Mayan gods – Itzamna (the creator god) and Kinich Ahau (the sun-god).  One of the largest pyramids in Central America is in Izamal, and it is dedicated to Kinich Kakmo (possibly a manifestation of Kinich Ahau).  Its base is over 8,000 square metres, and it has ten levels.

South-east of this pyramid is the pyramid Itzamatul.

Two raised sacbeob link Izamal with the Ruins of Ake (29km to the west) and Kantunil (18km to the south).  These were both important centres.

In 1633, a Spanish writer wrote that Izamal was a place of pilgrimage, accessible by “four roads running out to the four cardinal points which reached to all ends of the land, Tabasco, Guatemala, Chiapas, so that today in many parts may be seen vestiges of these roads.”

anonymous asked:

My history teacher says that the dictatorship of Fransisco Franco in Spain wasn't really a fascism per se, what do you think of that?

They can say whatever they want. If they mean that because Franco’s regime was much “shared” with the Catholic church unlike Mussolini’s or Hitler’s, fair enough. But let’s see if that little detail made it a non-fascist dictatorship:

- Ultranationalism: Check
- Autarchy and protectionism: Check
- Racism, belief in a superior race, and eugenics: Check
- Ultra-controlling State: Check
- One and only supreme leader: Check
- Devotion to said leader: Check
- Use of repression and violence: Check
- Censorship and propaganda:  Check
- Control over education in all stages:  Check
- Idealization of the agrarian life: Check
- Militarism: Check

“Portrait of Maria Luisa of Spain, Holy Roman Empress” (1770) (detail) by Anton Raphael Mengs (1728-1779).

“Portrait of Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Queen Consort of Spain” (1830) (detail) by Vicente López y Portaña (1772-1850).

December 20 1973 - The ETA blows up Spain’s fascist prime minister and successor to Franco, Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco in what was called Operación Ogro. 

Operación Ogro (Operation Ogre) was the name given by the Basque liberation group ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) to its assassination of Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, the Prime Minister of Spain, on 20 December 1973. 

Over five months an ETA commando unit using the code name Txikia dug a tunnel under the street from their rented basement flat in Madrid – telling the landlord that they were student sculptors to hide their true purpose. The tunnel was packed with 80 kg of explosives that had been stolen from a Government depot.

On 20 December, a three-man ETA commando unit disguised as electricians detonated the explosives by wire as Blanco’s car passed. The blast sent Blanco and his car 20 metres into the air and over a five-storey building. The car crashed to the ground on the opposite side of a Jesuit college, landing on the second-floor balcony. 

The gif is from a Spanish movie about the operation. [video]