space magnetic

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GIANT MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE UNIVERSE:
THE 100-METER RADIO TELESCOPE EFFELSBERG OBSERVES
MAGNETIC STRUCTURES WITH SEVERAL MILLION LIGHT-YEARS EXTENT

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light-years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal “Astronomy & Astrophysics.”

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light-years, i.e., 100 times the diameter of the Milky Way, they host a large number of such stellar systems, along with hot gas, magnetic fields, charged particles, embedded in large haloes of dark matter, the composition of which is unknown. Collision of galaxy clusters leads to a shock compression of the hot cluster gas and of the magnetic fields. The resulting arc-like features are called “relics” and stand out by their radio and X-ray emission. Since their discovery in 1970 with a radio telescope near Cambridge, UK, relics were found in about 70 galaxy clusters so far, but many more are likely to exist. They are messengers of huge gas flows that continuously shape the structure of the universe.

Radio waves are excellent tracers of relics. The compression of magnetic fields orders the field lines, which also affects the emitted radio waves. More precisely, the emission becomes linearly polarized. This effect was detected in four galaxy clusters by a team of researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn (MPIfR), the Argelander Institute for Radio Astronomy at the University of Bonn (AIfA), the Thuringia State Observatory at Tautenburg (TLS), and colleagues in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. They used the MPIfR’s 100-m radio telescope near Bad Münstereifel-Effelsberg in the Eifel hills at wavelengths of 3 cm and 6 cm. Such short wavelengths are advantageous because the polarized emission is not diminished when passing through the galaxy cluster and our Milky Way. Fig.1 shows the most spectacular case.

Linearly polarized relics were found in the four galaxy clusters observed, in one case for the first time. The magnetic fields are of similar strength as in our Milky Way, while the measured degrees of polarization of up to 50% are exceptionally high, indicating that the emission originates in an extremely ordered magnetic field. “We discovered the so far largest ordered magnetic fields in the universe, extending over 5-6 million light-years,” says Maja Kierdorf from MPIfR Bonn, the project leader and first author of the publication. She also wrote her master thesis at Bonn University on this subject. For this project, co-author Matthias Hoeft from TLS Tautenburg developed a method that permits to determine the “Mach number,” i.e., the ratio of the relative velocity between the colliding gas clouds and the local sound speed, using the observed degree of polarization. The resulting Mach numbers of about 2 tell us that the galaxy clusters collide with velocities of about 2,000 km/s, which is faster than previously derived from measurements of the X-ray emission.

The new Effelsberg telescope observations show that the polarization plane of the radio emission from the relics turns with wavelength. This “Faraday rotation effect,” named after the English physicist Michael Faraday, indicates that ordered magnetic fields also exist between the clusters and, together with hot gas, cause the rotation of the polarization plane. Such magnetic fields may be even larger than the clusters themselves.

“The Effelsberg radio telescope proved again to be an ideal instrument to detect magnetic fields in the universe,” emphasizes co-author Rainer Beck from MPIfR who works on this topic for more than 40 years. “Now we can systematically search for ordered magnetic fields in galaxy clusters using polarized radio waves.”

TOP IMAGE—The relic at the outskirts of the galaxy cluster CIZA J2242+53, named „Sausage“ because of its shape, is located at a distance of about two billion light years from us. The contour lines show the intensity of the radio emission at a wavelength of 3 cm, observed with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope. The colors represent the distribution of linearly polarized radio intensity at the chosen wavelength, in units of Milli-Jansky per telescope beam. The short dashes indicate the orientation of the magnetic field. The bright source at the bottom is a radio galaxy that belongs to the same galaxy cluster. © M. Kierdorf et al., A&A 600, A18

LOWER IMAGE—The 100-m radio telescope near Bad Münstereifel-Effelsberg. The observations of polarized radio emission from galaxy clusters were performed with this telescope at wavelengths of 3 and 6 cm. © Norbert Junkes/MPIfR

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The upper atmosphere of the Sun is dominated by plasma filled magnetic loops (coronal loops) whose temperature and pressure vary over a wide range. The appearance of coronal loops follows the emergence of magnetic flux, which is generated by dynamo processes inside the Sun. Emerging flux regions (EFRs) appear when magnetic flux bundles emerge from the solar interior through the photosphere and into the upper atmosphere (chromosphere and the corona). The characteristic feature of EFR is the -shaped loops (created by the magnetic buoyancy/Parker instability), they appear as developing bipolar sunspots in magnetograms, and as arch filament systems in . EFRs interact with pre-existing magnetic fields in the corona and produce small flares (plasma heating) and collimated plasma jets. The GIFs above show multiple energetic jets in three different wavelengths. The light has been colorized in red, green and blue, corresponding to three coronal temperature regimes ranging from ~0.8Mk to 2MK. 

Image Credit: SDO/U. Aberystwyth

It’s easy to look back to the past, and laugh at those morons who used to think that the sun revolved around the Earth. One of the first things you learn in school is that planets revolve around the sun - not the other way around - because the sun is the real star of our solar system, in every sense of the word. And yet that’s not entirely accurate: Remember those solar system models, with the sun stuck on an immobile pillar, while all the other planets spin around it on wires? You know, every model of the solar system you’ve ever seen?

It’s wrong, and so is that diorama your stupid kid made that won second place at the science fair, losing out to a baking soda volcano. In reality, the sun is just another orbiting object, which also rotates around the true center of the solar system, the barycenter. What’s there? Nothing. Absolutely nothing.

5 BS Science Myths Your Entire View Of The World Rests On

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Mostly Mute Monday: Stunning Pictures Of The Milky Way’s Magnetic Field

“From the light’s polarization, we can reconstruct the galaxy’s magnetic field. And by superimposing it over the foreground emission map, we can see for the first time how our galaxy’s structure and magnetic field are interrelated. What we found was an intricate relationship between dust grains — the precursors to stars – and the giant magnetic structures we find, some of which extend for over a thousand light years in diameter.”

If you want to view the Milky Way in all its true splendor, you need to go beyond visible light, as the cosmic dust that gives rise to new stars also absorbs visible light, robbing us of a view of our galaxy. But those other wavelengths that are more transparent to the dust — infrared and microwave — are absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere. If we want to see what’s going on, we’ve got to go to space. With nine different frequency maps covering the entire sky, the ESA’s Planck satellite not only can determine what’s through that dust, but it can measure the effects of the Milky Way’s magnetic field due to the polarization of light, showing the future of star birth in our own galaxy.

After a short hiatus while we worked to figure it out, our Mostly Mute Monday series is back!

432hz vibrates on the principals of the golden mean PHI and unifies the properties of light, time, space, matter, gravity and magnetism with biology, the DNA code, our higher Consciousness. 432hz Natural Tuning has profound effects on our consciousness and also on the cellular level of our bodies. By retuning musical instruments and using concert pitch at 432 hertz instead of 440 hertz, your atoms and DNA starts to resonate in harmony with the PHI spiral of nature ~ Brian.T.Collins

Powerful magnetic forces above an active region on the Sun twisted and pulled at a blob of plasma until it lost its connections and blew out into space (Mar. 26, 2014). The resultant swirling presented its own kind of graceful, almost ballet-like bends and sweeps. To offer some kind of size perspective that blob, before it broke away, was easily larger than several Earths. The event was observed in extreme ultraviolet light over about 5.5 hours. 

Credit: Solar Dynamics Observatory/NASA

FINISH!! This took me like four days, but I’m really happy with the result. Enjoy!!

@im-so-2460-done @doodlecipher @pastel-chaos @ask-the-healthy-gang @skullcatin @gooey-draws-shit @raddical-radio @skylordlysander @acuterandomcat @attractiveparrot @bugsywuzy @benediktbendylamp @dragonheadskilax @drunklampteacher @miss-gl00my @pseudonym52 @arena-doom-team @creepypuppetbrigade @trashycat2242 @lelem00n @shilo-morkaisin @tyranttooner @imjustawaffle @flushie 

The Complete 'Lonely Astronaut Playlist':

Spiritualized - Ladies and Gentlemen We are Floating in Space
Wilco - How to fight loneliness
Radiohead - Subterranean Homesick Alien
Disassociative - Marilyn Mason
Hum - Apollo
Across The Universe - Fiona Apple
Spacewalk (Lost Horizons) - Lemon Jelly
Stars - Noctilucent
Galaxies - Owl City
The Fall - Cat Like Thief
Orchestral Maneuvers In The Dark - Apollo XI
Space Lord - Monster Magnet
D'Yer Wanna Be a Spaceman - Oasis
Souvlaki Space Station - Slowdive
Space travel - Bush

Space Oddity - David Bowie The Commander Thinks Aloud - The Long Winters Moondust - Jaymes Young Leave The Planet - Galaxy 500 Lost in Space - Aimee Mann

(Disclaimer: The list may have some changes and mistakes, but all of the songs as of now should be there. Please let me know of the songs I missed.)