southwestern africa


Areal zones, linguistic areas of convergence or sprachbunds: they are areas that have different languages families but which, by prolonged contact, developed similar linguistc features, be it phonology or grammar. 

Northwest America (uvulars, aspirated consonants, ejectives, glotalized consonants, polysyntetic languages, 

Mesoamerican area (polysyntetic languages, uvulars, ejectives, rhotics, tones, nasal vowels, lateral fricatives)

Creole Caribbean (creole languages, analytical syntax)

The Andes region (highly agglutinative, uvulars, ejectives)

Standard Average Northwestern European (uvular rhotics, more analytic and fusional, obligatory subject pronouns/no null-subject, front rounded vowels)

North and Central Iberia (apical-alveolar sibilants and affricates, heavy verb conjugations, no b-v distinction)

The Balkans (definite articles as suffixes, simple vowel systems, romanian-slavic convergence)

The Caucasus (high number of phonemes, polysyntetic, ejectives, aspirates, retroflex consonants, ergativity)

Central and North Asia (correlated with Altaic) (SOV structure, vowel harmony, agglutination)

The Indian Subcontinent (retroflex plosives, split-ergativity, many cases and gendered classes or animated distinctions, vowel reduction)

China and Indochina (higly tonal languages, front rounded and back unrounded vowels, analytical syntax, few morphology)

Southern and Southwestern Africa (click consonants, simple noun class system)

Australian Aboriginal (no fricatives, no voicing distinction, many apical and retroflex distinctions, highly agglutinative)


Egyptian Vulture

The Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), also called the white scavenger vulture or pharaoh’s chicken, is a small Old World vulture and the only member of the genus Neophron. The genus Neophron is considered to represent the oldest branch within the evolutionary tree of vultures. Egyptian vultures feed mainly on carrion but are opportunistic and will prey on small mammals, birds, and reptiles. They also feed on the eggs of other birds, breaking larger ones by tossing a large pebble onto them. The use of tools is rare in birds and apart from the use of a pebble as a hammer, Egyptian vultures also use twigs to roll up wool for use in their nest. 

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Meerkat (Suricata suricatta) von Daniel Bauer
Über Flickr:
The Meerkat (Suricata suricatta) is a very social living mongoose species and live in dry savanna and semidesert regions from southwestern Angola through Namibia and southwestern Botswana to South Africa (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae).

Frankfurt Zoological Garden

List of paintrist by Isme

First part: Prehistoric art to Perednizhniki

Ism is is a derived word used in art, philosophy, politics, religion or other areas pertaining to an ideology of some sort, sometimes with a derogatory sense. In art it ussally discribes a group of artist with a common style.

Prehistoric Art

In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events. At this point ancient art begins, for the older literate cultures. The end-date for what is covered by the term thus varies greatly between different parts of the world.

The very earliest human artifacts showing evidence of workmanship with an artistic purpose are the subject of some debate; it is clear that such workmanship existed by 40,000 years ago in the Upper Paleolithic era, however there is evidence of artistic activity dating as far back as 500,000 years ago performed by Homo Erectus. From the Upper Palaeolithic through the Mesolithic, cave paintings and portable art such as figurines and beads predominated, with decorative figured workings also seen on some utilitarian objects. In the Neolithic evidence of early pottery appeared, as did sculpture and the construction of megaliths. Early rock art also first appeared in the Neolithic. The advent of metalworking in the Bronze Age brought additional media available for use in making art, an increase in stylistic diversity, and the creation of objects that did not have any obvious function other than art. It also saw the development in some areas of artisans, a class of people specializing in the production of art, as well as early writing systems. By the Iron Age, civilizations with writing had arisen from Ancient Egypt to Ancient China.

Many indigenous peoples from around the world continued to produce artistics works distinctive to their geographic area and culture, until exploration and commerce brought record-keeping methods to them. Some cultures, notably the Maya civilization, independently developed writing during the time they flourished, which was then later lost. These cultures may be classified as prehistoric, especially if their writing systems have not been deciphered.


any period before the Middle Ages (476–1453), but still within the period of Western civilization-based human history or prehistory. The term is most often used of Classical antiquity, the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Southwestern Asia.

Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer (8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity (300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (600–1000). Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many disparate cultures and periods. “Classical antiquity” may refer also to an idealised vision among later people of what was, in Edgar Allan Poe’s words, “the glory that was Greece, and the grandeur that was Rome.”

The culture of the ancient Greeks, together with some influences from the ancient Near East, prevailed throughout classical antiquity as the basis of art,  philosophy, society, and educational ideals.  These ideals were preserved, imitated and spread over Europe by the Romans.  This Greco-Roman cultural foundation has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, art, and architecture of the modern world: From the surviving fragments of classical antiquity, a revival movement was gradually formed from the 14th century onwards which came to be known later in Europe as the Renaissance, and again resurgent during various neo-classical revivals in the 18th and 19th centuries.

“Ancient history” generally, and may be used of any historical period before the Middle Ages.

Ancient history is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.
The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (First Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used), the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history.
In India, ancient history includes the early period of the Middle Kingdoms, and, in China, the time up to the Qin Dynasty.

Medieval period

In European history, the Middle Ages, or Medieval period, lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: Antiquity, Medieval period, and Modern period. The Medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, the High, and the Late Middle Ages.

  • Jan van Eyck
  • Hans Memling
  • Albert van Ouwater
  • Geertgen tot Sint Jans
  • Rogier van der Weyden

Renaissance (Italy)

Italian Renaissance painting is the painting of the period beginning in the late 13th century and flourishing from the early 15th to late 16th centuries, occurring in the Italian peninsula, which was at that time divided into many political areas. The painters of Renaissance Italy, although often attached to particular courts and with loyalties to particular towns, nonetheless wandered the length and breadth of Italy, often occupying a diplomatic status and disseminating artistic and philosophical ideas.
The city of Florence in Tuscany is renowned as the birthplace of the Renaissance, and in particular of Renaissance painting.

  • Sofonisba Anguissola
  • Francesco Bassano
  • Jacopo Bassano
  • Leandro Bassano
  • Giovanni Bellini
  • Ambrosius Benson
  • Joachim Beuckelaer
  • Sandro Botticelli
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti
  • Bernardino Campi
  • Jan Wellens de Cock
  • Albrecht Dürer
  • Lavinia Fontana
  • Giorgione
  • El Greco
  • Catharina van Hemessen
  • Hans Holbein the Younger
  • Filippo Lippi
  • Andrea Mantegna
  • Antonello da Messina
  • Francesco Pesellino
  • Piero del Pollaiuolo
  • Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis
  • Raphael
  • Levina Teerlinc
  • Paolo Veronese
  • Leonardo da Vinci

Manierism (Italy)

Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it, but Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century. The word mannerism derives from the Italian maniera, meaning “style” or “manner”.

  • Pieter Aertsen
  • Lucia Anguissola
  • Giuseppe Arcimboldo
  • Hendrik Goltzius
  • Bartholomeus Spranger
  • Tintoretto
  • Vincenzo Campi
  • Joachim Wtewael

Baroque  (Italy)

The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe.

The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Catholic Church, which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent, in response to the Protestant Reformation, that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumph, power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, ‘baroque’ has resonance and application that extend beyond a simple reduction to either style or period.

  • Caravaggio
  • Agostino Carracci
  • Annibale Carracci
  • Antonio Carracci
  • Lodovico Carracci
  • Juan del Castillo
  • Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra
  • Anthony van Dyck
  • Domenichino
  • Gerrit Dou
  • Justus van Egmont
  • Georg Flegel
  • Francesco Furini
  • Artemisia Gentileschi
  • Orazio Gentileschi
  • Hendrik Goltzius
  • Abraham Janssens
  • Jacob Jordaens
  • Claude Lorrain
  • Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
  • Josefa de Óbidos
  • Rembrandt
  • Guido Reni
  • Francisco Ribalta
  • Hyacinthe Rigaud
  • Peter Paul Rubens
  • Karel Skréta
  • David Teniers the Younger
  • Tiberio Tinelli
  • Georges de la Tour
  • Diego Velazquez
  • Simon Vouet
  • Francisco de Zurbarán

Dutch Golden Age (Netherlands)

The Dutch Golden Age (Dutch: Gouden Eeuw) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. The first half is characterized by the Eighty Years’ War which ended in 1648. The Golden Age continued in peacetime during the Dutch Republic until the end of the century.
The Netherlands’s transition from a possession of the Holy Roman Empire in the 1590s to the foremost maritime and economic power in the world has been called the “Dutch Miracle” by historian K. W. Swart.

Dutch Golden Age painting was among the most acclaimed in the world at the time, during the seventeenth century. There was an enormous output of painting, so much so that prices declined seriously during the period. From the 1620s, Dutch painting broke decisively from the Baroque style typified by Rubens in neighboring Flanders into a more realistic style of depiction, very much concerned with the real world. Types of paintings included historical paintings, portraiture, landscapes and cityscapes, still lifes and genre paintings. In the last four of these categories, Dutch painters established styles upon which art in Europe depended for the next two centuries. Paintings often had a moralistic subtext. The Golden Age never really recovered from the French invasion of 1671, although there was a twilight period lasting until about 1710.

  • Ferdinand Bol
  • Hans Bollongier
  • Gerrit Dou
  • Frans Hals
  • Pieter de Hooch
  • Sir Godfrey Kneller
  • Gabriël Metsu
  • Willem van Mieris
  • Pieter  Mulier the Elder
  • Rembrandt van Rijn
  • Jacob van Ruisdael
  • Godfried Schalcken
  • Jan Steen
  • Abraham Storck
  • Johannes Vermeer
  • Jacob Ferdinand Voet
  • Gaspar van Wittel
  • Joachim Wtewael

Veduta (Italy)

A veduta (Italian for “view”; plural vedute) is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting or, actually more often print, of a cityscape or some other vista. The painters of vedute are referred to as vedutisti.

As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. By the mid-18th century, Venice became renowned as the centre of the vedutisti. The genre’s greatest practitioners belonged to the Canal and Guardi families of Venice. Some of them went to work as painters in major capitals of Europe, e.g., Canaletto in London and his nephew Bernardo Bellotto in Dresden and Warsaw. In other parts of 18th-century Italy, idiosyncratic varieties of the genre evolved.

  • Bernardo Bellotto
  • Giuseppe Bernardino Bison
  • Canaletto
  • Luca Carlevarijs
  • Francesco Lazzaro Guardi
  • Giovanni Paolo Panini
  • Giovanni Battista Piranesi
  • Gaspar van Wittel

Rococo (France)

Rococo , less commonly roccoco, or “Late Baroque”, is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre. It developed in the early 18th century in Paris, France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry, and strict regulations of the Baroque, especially of the Palace of Versailles. Rococo artists and architects used a more jocular, florid, and graceful approach to the Baroque. Their style was ornate and used light colours, asymmetrical designs, curves, and gold. Unlike the political Baroque, the Rococo had playful and witty themes.

  • François Boucher
  • Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
  • Jean-Honoré Fragonard
  • Thomas Gainsborough
  • Marguerite Gérard
  • François Lemoyne
  • Jean Antoine Watteau

Academic Classicism

Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies of art. Specifically, academic art is the art and artists influenced by the standards of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts, which practiced under the movements of Neoclassicism and Romanticism, and the art that followed these two movements in the attempt to synthesize both of their styles.

The art influenced by academies in general is also called “academic art.” In this context as new styles are embraced by academics, the new styles come to be considered academic, thus what was at one time a rebellion against academic art becomes academic art.

Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained:.

  • Lawrence Alma-Tadema
  • Albert Aublet
  • Paul Barbier
  • Julius Victor Berger
  • Eugene de Blaas
  • Joseph Paul Blanc
  • Adélaïde Binart
  • William-Adolphe Bouguereau
  • Gustave Boulanger
  • Marie-Geneviève Bouliard
  • Karl Bryullov
  • Alexandre Cabanel
  • Marie-Gabrielle Capet
  • John Singleton Copley
  • Fernand Cormon
  • Jacques-Louis David
  • Paul Delaroche
  • Rose-Adélaïde Ducreux
  • Carolus-Duran
  • Marie Ellenrieder
  • Henri Fantin-Latour
  • Anselm Feuerbach
  • François Flameng
  • Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin
  • Eugène Fromentin
  • François Pascal Simon Gérard
  • Jean-Léon Gérôme
  • Henri Gervex
  • John William Godward
  • Christian Griepenkerl
  • Antoine-Jean Gros
  • Jean Auguste Ingres
  • Paul Joseph Jamin
  • Angelica Kauffman
  • Adélaïde Labille-Guiard
  • Thomas Lawrence
  • Jules Joseph Lefebvre
  • Emanuel Leutze
  • Konstantin Makovsky
  • Auguste Antoine Masse
  • Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier
  • Charles August Mengin
  • Alfred Munnings
  • Léon Bazille Perrault
  • Jean-François Portaels
  • Nicolas Poussin
  • Allan Ramsay
  • Joshua Reynolds
  • Giulio Rosati
  • Guillaume Seignac
  • Alfred Stevens
  • Virgilio Tojetti
  • Horace Vernet
  • Frederik Vezin
  • John Reinhard Weguelin
  • Franz Xaver Winterhalter

The Barbizon School (France)

The Barbizon school of painters were part of an art movement towards Realism in art, which arose in the context of the dominant Romantic Movement of the time. The Barbizon school was active roughly from 1830 through 1870. It takes its name from the village of Barbizon, France, near the Forest of Fontainebleau, where many of the artists gathered. Some of the most prominent features of this school are its tonal qualities, color, loose brushwork, and softness of form.

  • Jean Baptiste Camille Corot
  • Charles-François Daubigny
  • Narcisse Virgile Diaz de la Peña
  • Jules Dupré
  • Henri Joseph Harpignies
  • Charles-Émile Jacque
  • Emile van Marcke
  • Jean-François Millet
  • Théodore Rousseau
  • Constant Troyon
  • Félix Ziem

Düsseldorf school of painting(Germany)

The Düsseldorf school of painting refers to a group of painters who taught or studied at the Düsseldorf Academy (now the Staatliche Kunstakademie Düsseldorf or Düsseldorf State Art Academy) in the 1830s and 1840s, when the Academy was directed by the painter Wilhelm von Schadow. The work of the Düsseldorf School is characterized by finely detailed yet fanciful landscapes, often with religious or allegorical stories set in the landscapes. Leading members of the Düsseldorf School advocated “plein air painting”, and tended to use a palette with relatively subdued and even colors. The Düsseldorf School grew out of and was a part of the German Romantic movement. Prominent members of the Düsselorf School included von Schadow, Karl Friedrich Lessing, Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, Andreas Achenbach, Hans Fredrik Gude, Oswald Achenbach, and Adolf Schrödter.
The Düsseldorf School had a significant influence on the Hudson River School in the United States, and many prominent Americans trained at the Düsseldorf Academy and show the influence of the Düsseldorf School, including George Caleb Bingham, David Edward Cronin, Eastman Johnson, Worthington Whittredge, Richard Caton Woodville, William Stanley Haseltine, James McDougal Hart, Helen Searle, and William Morris Hunt, as well as German émigré Emanuel Leutze. Albert Bierstadt applied but was not accepted. His American friend Worthington Whittredge became his teacher while attending Düsseldorf.

  • Eugen Dücker
  • James McDougal Hart
  • Hermann Herzog
  • William Stanley Haseltine
  • Emanuel Leutze
  • Adelsteen Normann
  • Lesser Ury
  • Frederik Vezin
  • Heinrich Vogeler
  • Thomas Worthington Whittredge

The Hudson River School (USA)

The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. The paintings for which the movement is named depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, including the Catskill, Adirondack, and the White Mountains; eventually works by the second generation of artists associated with the school expanded to include other locales in New England, the Maritimes, the American West, and South America.

  • Albert Bierstadt
  • John William Casilear
  • Frederic Edwin Church
  • Thomas Cole
  • Samuel Colman
  • Jasper Francis Cropsey
  • Thomas Doughty
  • Robert Duncanson
  • Asher Brown Durand
  • Sanford Robinson Gifford
  • Régis François Gignoux
  • James McDougal Hart
  • William McDougal Hart
  • William Stanley Haseltine
  • Martin Johnson Heade
  • Hermann Ottomar Herzog
  • Thomas Hill
  • David Johnson
  • John Frederick Kensett
  • Jervis McEntee
  • Thomas Moran
  • Robert Walter Weir
  • Thomas Worthington Whittredge

Luminism (USA)

Luminism is an American landscape painting style of the 1850s – 1870s, characterized by effects of light in landscapes, through using aerial perspective, and concealing visible brushstrokes. Luminist landscapes emphasize tranquillity, and often depict calm, reflective water and a soft, hazy sky.
The term luminism was introduced by mid-20th-century art historians to describe a 19th-century American painting style that developed as an offshoot of the Hudson River school.

  • Sanford Robinson Gifford
  • William Stanley Haseltine
  • David Johnson
  • John Frederick Kensett
  • Fitz Henry Lane
  • Robert Salmon

The Skagen Painters (Denmark)

The Skagen Painters (Danish: Skagensmalerne) were a group of Scandinavian artists who gathered in the village of Skagen, the northernmost part of Denmark, from the late 1870s until the turn of the century. Skagen was a summer destination whose scenery and quality of light attracted northern artists to paint en plein air, emulating the French Impressionists—though members of the Skagen colony were also influenced by Realist movements such as the Barbizon school. They broke away from the rather rigid traditions of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, espousing the latest trends that they had learned in Paris. The group gathered together regularly at the Brøndums Inn.

  • Anna Ancher
  • Michael Ancher
  • Oscar Björck
  • Holger Drachmann
  • Viggo Johansen
  • Christian Krohg
  • Oda Lasson Krohg
  • Johan Krouthén
  • Marie Triepcke Krøyer Alfvén
  • Peder Severin Krøyer
  • Carl Locher
  • Karl Madsen
  • Eilif Peterssen
  • Frits Thaulow
  • Laurits Tuxen

The Hague school (Netherlands)

The Hague School is the name given to a group of artists who lived and worked in The Hague between 1860 and 1890. Their work was heavily influenced by the realist painters of the French Barbizon school. The painters of the Hague school generally made use of relatively somber colors, which is why the Hague School is sometimes called the Gray School.

  • Gerard Bilders
  • Johannes Bosboom
  • Paul Gabriël
  • Johannes Hubertus Leonardus de Haas
  • Jozef Israëls
  • Jacob Maris
  • Matthijs Maris
  • Willem Maris
  • Anton Mauve
  • Hendrik Willem Mesdag
  • Willem Roelofs
  • Jan Hendrik Weissenbruch

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (UK)

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848. The group’s intention was to reform art by rejecting what it considered the mechanistic approach first adopted by Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. Its members believed the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art, hence the name “Pre-Raphaelite”. In particular, the group objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts, whom they called “Sir Sloshua”. To the Pre-Raphaelites, according to William Michael Rossetti, “sloshy” meant “anything lax or scamped in the process of painting … and hence … any thing or person of a commonplace or conventional kind”. In contrast, the brotherhood wanted a return to the abundant detail, intense colours and complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian art. The group associated their work with John Ruskin, an English artist whose influences were driven by his religious background.

  • Philip Hermogenes Calderon
  • James Collinson
  • John Atkinson Grimshaw
  • William Holman Hunt
  • John Everett Millais
  • Dante Gabriel Rossetti
  • Hans Thoma
  • John Wilson Carmichael

Pre-Raphaelite Painters non-members

  • Henry Meynell Rheam

Macchiaioli (Italy)

The Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century, who, breaking with the antiquated conventions taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light, shade, and colour. This practice relates the Macchiaioli to the French Impressionists who came to prominence a few years later, although the Macchiaioli pursued somewhat different purposes.

  • Giuseppe Abbati
  • Vito D’Ancona
  • Odoardo Borrani
  • Vincenzo Cabianca
  • Giovanni Fattori
  • Silvestro Lega
  • Telemaco Signorini
  • Serafino de Tivoli

Peredvizhniki (Russia)

Peredvizhniki (Russian: Передви́жники; IPA: [pʲɪrʲɪˈdvʲiʐnʲɪkʲɪ]), often called The Wanderers or The Itinerants in English, were a group of Russian realist artists who in protest at academic restrictions formed an artists’ cooperative; it evolved into the Society for Travelling Art Exhibitions in 1870.

In 1863 a group of fourteen students decided to leave The Imperial Academy of Arts. The students found the rules of the Academy constraining; the teachers were conservative and there was a strict separation between high and low art. In an effort to bring art to the people, the students formed an independent artistic society; The Petersburg Cooperative of Artists (Artel). In 1870, this organization was largely succeeded by the Association of Travelling Art Exhibits (Peredvizhniki) to give people from the provinces a chance to follow the achievements of Russian Art, and to teach people to appreciate art. The society maintained independence from state support and brought the art, which illustrated the contemporary life of the people from Moscow and Saint Petersburg, to the provinces.

From 1871 to 1923, the society arranged 48 mobile exhibitions in St. Petersburg and Moscow, after which they were shown in Kiev, Kharkov, Kazan, Oryol, Riga, Odessa and other cities.

  • Abram Efimovich Arkhipov
  • Alexander Karlovich Beggrov
  • Alexey Petrovich Bogolyubov
  • Mikhail Konstantinovich Clodt
  • Nikolay Dubovskoy
  • Alexander Kiselev
  • Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi
  • Arkhip Kuindzhi
  • Isaac Ilyich Levitan
  • Alexander Dmitrievich Litovchenko
  • Konstantin Yegorovich Makovsky
  • Vladimir Yegorovich Makovsky
  • Grigory Grigoryevich Myasoyedov
  • Nikolai Vasilyevich Nevrev
  • Leonid Pasternak
  • Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov
  • Ilya Yefimovich Repin
  • Konstantin Apollonovich Savitsky
  • Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin
  • Vasily Ivanovich Surikov
  • Nikolai Alexandrovich Yaroshenko

July 15, 2016 - Pale-winged Starling (Onychognathus nabouroup)

These starlings are found in arid habitats of southwestern Africa, including Angola, Namibia, and South Africa. They eat fruit, nectar, pollen, seeds, and arthropods, foraging on the ground and picking food from plants or catching prey in the air. They also sometimes pick parasites from large mammals, such as Zebra. Pairs build nests together from sticks and dry grass and may raise two broods a year. Females incubate the eggs and both parents feed the chicks.

The view from the most southwestern point of Africa, Table Mountain National Park (or Cape Point, as most people call it). Photo by this week’s featured instagrammer, @lapantin #southafrica #takemethere (at Table Mountain National Park)

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Fairy Circles, Long a Mystery in Africa, Now Found in Australia
The latest findings add to a hypothesis that competition for scarce water causes honeycomb-like patterns.
By Rachel Nuwer

Until recently, fairy circles — those strange, barren patches of earth that arrange themselves in a honeycomb-like pattern — had been documented only in southwestern Africa. In a paper Monday, scientists have confirmed the first example of this phenomenon in Australia, adding fuel to the hypothesis that competition for scarce water causes these mysterious patterns.

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