southern egypt

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How to Move an Ancient Egyptian Temple — The Relocation of the Abu Simbel Temples.

In the 13th century BC the mighty pharaoh Ramses II ordered the construction of two large temples in southern Egypt to commemorate the Battle of Kadesh, to honor his queen Nefertari, and to impress his Nubian enemies to the south.  Carved directly into the sandstone hillsides, the large facade of the temples feature four colossus statues of Ramses himself, each standing 67 feet in height.  The facade itself stands an incredible 100 feet high and 119 feet wide.  Inside of the temples are a network of rooms and hallways with many priceless hieroglyphic carvings detailing Egyptian history, religion, and folklore.

By the 1960’s the Abu Simbel Temples were a national treasure for the new Egyptian nation.  However, Egypt’s industrial modernization would threaten the temples in a way that no pharaoh could have ever predicted.  Near Abu Simbel was the construction of a 364 foot hydroelectric dam known as the Aswan dam.  A key objective of the Egyptian government, the dam would provide electricity for the developing nation and kick start a new agricultural plan which would create a massive irrigation project.  However, Abu Simbel was literally in deep trouble, for construction of the damn would leave the ancient temples submerged at the bottom of the Lake Nasser Reservoir.

To save Abu Simbel, a team of archeologists, historians, engineers, architects, and construction workers were recruited by UNESCO to conduct one of the most ambitious rescue operations of an ancient structure.  The plan was to relocate the ancient temples above the flood plain of Lake Nasser.  Incredibly, the team cut the temple facade and structure into individual blocks weighing 20-30 tons.  Each block was numbered then recorded to keep track of where they would go when reassembled.  The blocks were lifted out of their original foundation using massive cranes, then transported to another site where they could be catalogued and stored for later.  From 1964-1965 over 10,000 stone blocks were cut, lifted, and transported away from the site. 

The new home for the temples was located 200 meters inland and at a height  65 meters higher than the original Abu Simbel site.  To recreate the look of a temple carved from a sandstone hill, artificial hills were created using concrete which simulated sandstone.  Once the new Abu Simbel site was ready, each block was meticulously fitted back into position, reconstructing the ancient temples anew.  In fact the reconstruction is so precise that it would impress ancient Egyptian engineers, on the façade of the temples there are no visible seams where the blocks meet.  Only a few joins can be found from within the temple complex.  The project was completed in 1968 and cost $40 million, over $250 million dollars today.  The cost was well worth it as the Abu Simbel complex is considered one of the great treasures of Egypt and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.  Over 500,000 tourists visit the temples every year.

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Tea is the national drink of Egypt; it holds a special position that even coffee can’t rival. It’s called “shai”; the tea is almost exclusively imported from Kenya and Sri Lanka. The Egyptian government considers tea a strategic crop and runs large tea plantations in Kenya. Green tea is a recent arrival to Egypt (only in the late 1990s did green tea become affordable) and is not as popular. Egyptian tea comes in 2 varieties: Koshary and Saiidi.

- Koshary, popular in Lower (Northern) Egypt, is prepared using the traditional method of steeping black tea in boiled water and letting it set for a few minutes. It’s almost always sweetened with cane sugar and is often flavored with fresh mint leaves. Milk may or may not be added. Koshary tea is usually light, with less than a half teaspoonful per cup considered to be near the high end.

- Saiidi tea is common in Upper (Southern) Egypt. It’s prepared by boiling black tea with water for 5 mins over a strong flame. Saiidi tea is extremely heavy, with 2 teaspoonfuls per cup being the norm. It’s sweetened with copious amounts of cane sugar - a necessity as the formula and method yield a very bitter tea.

Besides true tea, herbal teas (or tisanes) are often served at Egyptian teahouses, with ingredients ranging from mint to cinnamon and ginger to salep; many of these are ascribed medicinal qualities or health benefits in Egyptian folk medicine. Karkade, a tisane of hibiscus flowers, is a particularly popular beverage and is traditionally considered beneficial for the heart.

hermdoggydog  asked:

What would a deck of playing cards in Westeros look like, if/when such a thing develops? Like what suits, what ranks (7 suits with 7 ranks to honor the Seven, perhaps)? Would there be regional variations?

If playing cards ever get introduced to Westeros, I expect they’ll come from Essos, probably Yi Ti, the way playing cards originated from China in our world. (Via Persia, India, Egypt, Southern Europe, and so on.) As such, I wouldn’t expect the Faith of the Seven to be a strong influence on the number of suits or ranks, any more than the Trinity was an influence in Europe.* And for that matter, 7 is a lucky number in our world,** but that doesn’t seem to have affected card suits at all.*** Also, since religious leaders have historically frowned on gambling, I would expect a game using the images of the Seven to be considered blasphemy,**** so… yeah, that’s not going to happen.

* Actually, I can’t find anything that says why 4 suits are the most common, other than that’s how it originated in China. There’s a few Indian variations with all kinds of numbers of suits, including 12 for the 12 signs of the zodiac, and 10 for the 10 avatars of Vishnu, but still the most common number of suits is 4.

** Unlike in the Discworld, where 8 is a prominent number, and Cripple Mister Onion has 8 suits.

*** 7 being lucky has affected dice games though. And they do play dice in Westeros. Also tiles, which is probably dominoes.

**** Seriously, can you imagine how the medieval Catholic Church would react to a game with cards of God, Jesus, Mary, and the Holy Spirit? ugh ugh ugh. (Note that tarot cards used for divination, and the pagan imagery of the major arcana, etc, are not medieval; they weren’t developed until the late 18th century.)

Anyway, if you want a properly worldbuilt playing card game in Westeros, with regional variations, I’d ask @warsofasoiaf, that sounds right up his alley. Though since you are asking me… hmm, I’d go with a bicolor 4 x 14 + 2 deck. Red and black, for the Targaryens. The Italian suits (cups, coins, clubs, swords) as that sounds properly medieval. 10 ranking cards (1-10), 4 court cards (knight, queen, king, dragon). And two fools, red and black.

As for variations, regional ones might replace the 1 with the local paramount sigil (wolf, rose, lion, etc). But I can actually see historical variations being more popular – green and black during the Dance; the red and black dragons being used to indicate allegiance circa the Blackfyre Rebellions (Bloodraven has the game banned when he’s Hand, of course); yellow and black with stags instead of dragons post-Robert’s Rebellion.

Hope you like!

The 7th Century dramatically changed the Middle East

No matter what your beliefs are, studying history reveals that, had the Persian Zoroastrian Sassanian Empire or the Christian Byzantine Empire defeated the Arab Muslim armies back in the 7th century, the Middle East would have looked a whole lot more different right now. 

Persian Zoroastrians vs. Arab Muslims (633-654), also known as the Arab or Muslim conquest of Iran, led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran.  Conversion to Islam was gradual. In the process, many acts of violence took place, Zoroastrian scriptures were burnt and many priests executed. Once conquered politically, the Persians began to reassert themselves by maintaining Persian language and culture. Regardless, Islam was adopted by many, for political, socio-cultural or spiritual reasons, or simply by persuasion, and became the dominant religion.

Byzantine Christians vs. Arab Muslims (629-11th century), also known as the Arab-Byzantine wars took a much longer period of time. These were a series of wars between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. The Christians initially lost the southern provinces (Syria and Egypt) to the Muslims. Muslim raids reached a peak in the 9th and early 10th centuries, after their conquest of Malta and parts of modern-day Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, with their fleets reaching the coasts of France.

To think, just a single change in these battles could have drastically changed so much about the Middle East today. The “what ifs?” are endless, and the impact of these conquests and wars has shaped many people’s religious beliefs in the 21st century. As I said, no matter what your beliefs are, these are interesting historical facts to ponder upon

El Bagawat is an ancient Christian cemetery, one of the oldest in the world, which functioned at Kharga Oasis in southern Egypt from the 3rd-7th century AD. It’s one of the earliest, best preserved Christian cemeteries from the ancient world. Before Christianity was introduced into Egypt, it was already a burial ground. The chapels here are said to belong to both eras. Coptic frescoes of the 3rd-7th century are found on the walls. They’re made of mud bricks and have etchings of biblical stories, saints, and “personifications of virtues”. There are paintings showing Noah’s ark in form of an “Egyptian barque”. Also notable are carved representations of Old Testament scriptures, incl. Adam and Eve, Daniel in the lion’s den, the sacrifice of Abraham, and Jonah swallowed by a fish.

The Rosetta Stone

A valuable key to deciphering ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the inscription on the Rosetta Stone is a decree passed by a council of priests. It is one of a series that affirm the royal cult of the 13-year-old Ptolemy V on the first anniversary of his coronation (in 196 BC).

In previous years the family of the Ptolemies had lost control of certain parts of the country. It had taken their armies some time to put down opposition in the Delta, and parts of southern Upper Egypt, particularly Thebes, were not yet back under the government’s control. Before the Ptolemaic era (before about 332 BC), decrees in hieroglyphs such as this were usually set up by the king. It shows how much things had changed from earlier times that the priests, the only people who had kept the knowledge of writing hieroglyphs, were now issuing such decrees. The list of good deeds done by the king for the temples hints at the way in which the support of the priests was ensured.

The decree is inscribed on the stone three times, in hieroglyphic (suitable for a priestly decree), demotic (the native script used for daily purposes), and Greek (the language of the administration). The importance of this to Egyptology is immense.

Soon after the end of the 4th century AD, when hieroglyphs had gone out of use, the knowledge of how to read and write them disappeared. In the early years of the 19th century, scholars were able to use the Greek inscription on this stone as the key to decipher them. Thomas Young (1773–1829), an English physicist, was the first to show that some of the hieroglyphs on the Rosetta Stone wrote the sounds of a royal name, that of Ptolemy.

The French scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790–1832) then realised that hieroglyphs recorded the sound of the Egyptian language and laid the foundations of our knowledge of ancient Egyptian language and culture. Champollion made a crucial step in understanding ancient Egyptian writing when he pieced together the alphabet of hieroglyphs that was used to write the names of non-Egyptian rulers. He announced his discovery, which had been based on analysis of the Rosetta Stone and other texts, in a paper at the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres at Paris on Friday 27 September 1822. The audience included his English rival Thomas Young, who was also trying to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs. Champollion inscribed this copy of the published paper with alphabetic hieroglyphs meaning ‘à mon ami Dubois’ ('to my friend Dubois’). Champollion made a second crucial breakthrough in 1824, realising that the alphabetic signs were used not only for foreign names, but also for the Egyptian language and names. Together with his knowledge of the Coptic language, which derived from ancient Egyptian, this allowed him to begin reading hieroglyphic inscriptions fully.

Soldiers in Napoleon’s army discovered the Rosetta Stone in 1799 while digging the foundations of an addition to a fort near the town of el-Rashid (Rosetta). On Napoleon’s defeat, the stone became the property of the British under the terms of the Treaty of Alexandria (1801) along with other antiquities that the French had found.

The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited in the British Museum since 1802, with only one break. Towards the end of the First World War, in 1917, when the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London, they moved it to safety along with other, portable, 'important’ objects. The Rosetta Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

Find out more in this BBC podcast about the Rosetta Stone.

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There were many other Kingdoms in Africa, not just the Kingdom of Egypt, that are worthy of praise and honour. Indeed, Egypt played a great role in civilization, but it was only one of many on the continent.  Below are few of the many greats:

While Europe was experiencing its Dark Ages, a period of intellectual, cultural and economic regression from the sixth to the 13th centuries, Africans were experiencing an almost continent-wide renaissance after the decline of the Nile Valley civilizations of Egypt and Nubia.

The leading civilizations of this African rebirth were the Axum Empire, the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire, the Ethiopian Empire, the Mossi Kingdoms and the Benin Empire.

Axum Empire

The Aksum or Axum Empire was an important military power and trading nation in the area that is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, existing from approximately 100 to 940 A.D.

At its height, it was one of only four major international superpowers of its day along with Persia, Rome and China. Axum controlled northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, southern Egypt, Djibouti, Western Yemen, and southern Saudi Arabia, totaling 1.25 million square kilometers, almost half the size of India. Axum traded and projected its influence as far as China and India, where coins minted in Axum were discovered in 1990.

Axum was previously thought to have been founded by Semitic-speaking Sabaeans who crossed the Red Sea from South Arabia (modern Yemen) on the basis of Conti Rossini’s theories —but most scholars now agree that when it was founded it was an indigenous African development.

Kingdom of Ghana

Centered in what is today Senegal and Mauritania, the Kingdom of Ghana dominated West Africa between about 750 and 1078 A.D. Famous to North Africans as the “Land of Gold,” Ghana was said to possess sophisticated methods of administration and taxation, large armies, and a monopoly over notoriously well-concealed gold mines.

The king of the Soninke people who founded Ghana never fully embraced Islam, but good relations with Muslim traders were fostered. Ancient Ghana derived power and wealth from gold and the use of the camel increased the quantity of goods that were transported. One Arab writer, Al-Hamdani, describes Ghana as having the richest gold mines on Earth. Ghana was also a great military power. According to one narrative, the king had at his command 200,000 warriors and an additional 40,000 archers.

Mali Empire

After the fall of the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire rose to dominate West Africa. Located on the Niger River to the west of Ghana in what is today Niger and Mali, the empire reached its peak in the 1350s.

The Mali Empire was founded by Mansa (King) Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa. He was the grandson of Sundiata’s half-brother, and led Mali at a time of great prosperity, during which trade tripled. During his rule, Mansa Musa doubled the land area of Mali; it became a larger kingdom than any in Europe at the time.

The cities of Mali became important trading centers for all of West Africa, as well as famous centers of wealth, culture and learning. Timbuktu, an important city in Mali, became one of the major cultural centers not only of Africa but of the entire world. Vast libraries and Islamic universities were built. These became meeting places of the finest poets, scholars and artists of Africa and the Middle East.

The Kingdom of Mali had a semi-democratic government with one of the world’s oldest known constitutions – The Kurukan Fuga.

The Kurukan Fuga of the Mali Empire was created after 1235 by an assembly of nobles to create a government for the newly established empire.  The Kurukan Fouga divided the new empire into ruling clans that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara. The Gbara was the deliberative body of the Mali Empire and was made up of 32 members from around 29 clans. They were given a voice in the government and were a check against the emperor’s (mansa’s) power. It was presided over by a belen-tigui (master of ceremonies) who recognized anyone who wanted to speak including the mansa. The Gbara and the Kurukan Fuga remained in place for over 40o years until 1645.

According to Wikipedia, Disney’s “Lion King” movie was based on the real life narrative of Mansa Sundiata Keita.

Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was the largest state in African history and the most powerful of the medieval west African states. It expanded rapidly beginning with King Sonni Ali in the 1460s and by 1500s, it had risen to stretch from Cameroon to the Maghreb. In 1360, disputes over succession weakened the Mali Empire, and in the 1430s, Songhai, previously a Mali dependency, gained independence under the Sonni Dynasty. Around thirty years later, Sonni Sulayman Dama attacked Mema, the Mali province west of Timbuktu, paving the way for his successor, Sonni Ali, to turn his country into one of the greatest empires sub-Saharan Africa has ever seen.

Perhaps, it’s most popular leader was Muhammad Askia the Great. At its peak, the Songhai city of Timbuktu became a thriving cultural and commercial center. Arab, Italian and Jewish merchants all gathered for trade. By 1500, the Songhai Empire covered over 1.4 million square kilometers.

The Ethiopian Empire

The Ethiopian Empire also known as Abyssinia, covered a geographical area that the present-day northern half of Ethiopia covers. It existed from approximately 1137 (beginning of Zagwe Dynasty) until 1975 when the monarchy was overthrown in a coup d’état.  In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty was overthrown by a king claiming lineage from the Aksumite emperors and, hence, Solomon. The thus-named Solomonic Dynasty was founded and ruled by the Habesha, from whom Abyssinia gets its name.

The Habesha reigned with only a few interruptions from 1270 until the late 20th century. It was under this dynasty that most of Ethiopia’s modern history occurred. During this time, the empire conquered and incorporated virtually all the peoples within modern Ethiopia. They successfully fought off Italian, Arab and Turkish armies and made fruitful contacts with some European powers, especially the Portuguese, with whom they allied in battle against the latter two invaders.

Mossi Kingdoms

The Mossi Kingdoms were a number of different powerful kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso which dominated the region of the Upper Volta River for hundreds of years. Increasing power of the Mossi kingdoms resulted in larger conflicts with regional powers. The Kingdom of Yatenga became a key power attacking the Songhai Empire between 1328 and 1477, taking over Timbuktu and sacked the important trading post of Macina.

When Askia Mohammad I became the leader of the Songhai Empire with the desire to spread Islam, he waged a Holy war against the Mossi kingdoms in 1497. Although the Mossi forces were defeated in this effort, they resisted attempts to impose Islam. Although there were a number of jihad states in the region trying to forcibly spread Islam, namely the Massina Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate, the Mossi kingdoms largely retained their traditional religious and ritual practices. Being located near many of the main Islamic states of West Africa, the Mossi kingdoms developed a mixed religious system recognizing some authority for Islam while retaining earlier African spiritual belief systems.

Benin Empire

Once a powerful city-state, Benin exists today as a modern African city in what is now south-central Nigeria. The present-day oba (King) of Benin traces the founding of his dynasty to A.D. 1300. The Benin Empire was a pre-colonial Edo state. Until the late 19th century, it was one of the major powers in West Africa. According to one eye witness report written by Olfert Dapper, “The King of Benin can in a single day make 20,000 men ready for war, and, if need be, 180,000, and because of this he has great influence among all the surrounding peoples… . His authority stretches over many cities, towns and villages. There is no King thereabouts who, in the possession of so many beautiful cities and towns, is his equal.”

When European merchant ships began to visit West Africa from the 15th century onwards, Benin came to control the trade between the inland peoples and the Europeans on the coast. When the British tried to expand their own trade in the 19th century, the Benin warriors killed their envoys.

Source: http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/12/05/7-midieval-african-kingdoms/4/

Drinks in Egypt 🇪🇬 - Cold Drinks

~ Mowz bil-Laban (banana with milk) and Jawafa bil-Laban (guava with milk) are delicious cold drinks.

~ Strawberry juice and mango juice are 2 refreshing juices in Egypt

~ Qasab (sugarcane juice) is considered a uniquely Egyptian drink. Sugarcane is planted all over the Southern part of Egypt.

~ Tamrhindi juice is similar to hibiscus juice; it’s served with dinner in many household.

~ Qamar Al-Din is a stewed apricot juice mostly served during Ramadan.

~ Sobia is a favorite coconut and milk drink for kids, it can be found at every dinner table.

~ Kharoob (carob juice) is a dark drink, the best can be found in Alexandria.

~ Watermelon and Cantaloupe juice are among the best choices on hot summer days.

~ Faryouz is a popular drink as well, it can be found in flavors such as Peach, Pear, Apple or Pineapple.

~ Pepsi, Coke, 7-Up, Fanta & Schweppes are all available in Egypt.

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Richard Dadd was a painter of the Victorian era and most known for his intricate paintings of supernatural beings and fairies. He was born Chatham, Kent. As a youngster he showed quite an aptitude for painting and this got him in to the Royal Academy of Arts at the age of 20. He was awarded the Medal for life drawing in 1840. Quite a distinguished career followed where he illustrated books. In 1842, Sir Thomas Phillips invited Dadd on a trip through Europe to Greece, Turkey, southern Syria and Egypt. It was a long journey and towards the end of December, traveling up the Nile, Dadd underwent a dramatic personality change. He became delusional, violent and he believed himself to be under the influence of the Egyptian god Osiris. It was thought to only be sunstroke. He was finally diagnosed in 1843 as being of unsound mind and was taken by his family to recuperate in the village of Cobham, Kent. Unfortunately though, in August of that year Dadd killed his father with a knife because he was convinced the man was the devil in disguise. He then tried to run to Paris but instead was arrested when he tried to kill another tourist with a razor. He confessed to killing his father and was returned to England and sent to the Bethlhem Psychiactric Hospital a.k.a Bedlam. It was here where, under the encouragement of doctors, Dadd came out with some of his most beautiful paintings. Dadd probably suffered from paranoid schizophrenia, it seems to have run in his family, all though there really wasn’t much information about his siblings. After 20 years Dadd was moved to Broadmoor Hospital, a psychiatric facility outside of London. And there he stayed, painting constantly until January 7th 1886 when he died from an extensive disease of the lungs. Source Wikipedia

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Aswan, Egypt: Ugh, Egypt as a whole is just fucking gorgeous. Like the desert is super fly and so is ancient culture. Aswan is extra fucking awesome because of its location on the Nile. It once served as the Southern frontier of Ancient Egypt, and was like it’s fucking front doors. So just like people now a days try to have bomb ass looking foyers, Aswan was like an imposing as hell entryway. It’s got these fly tombs and awesome architecture, and it’s just great. Fucking great.

Egyptian Peridot

I was inspired to draw this by this article in Wikipedia (link)

This article is about  St. John’s Island (also known as Zabargad, Zebirget, Topazios, Gazirat Zabarjad) is the largest of a group of islands in Foul Bay, Red Sea in southern Egypt where peridot as a mineral was mined in ancient times.

The island comprises three massives of peridotite, which are rich in the gemstone peridot (olivine). This gem makes the island notable as it is believed to be the first discovered source of peridot, which was called topazios in ancient times, hence the Greek name for the island, Topazios. Layers of spinel-lherzolites with anhydrous Al-diopside pyroxenites and hydrous Cr-diopside pyroxenites can be found too on the island. The presence of all of these minerals has led to mining on the island which dates back as early as ancient times.

I made this aviable as a print on redbubble (link) and society6  (link)

Also added a few of my other su arts there as a prints!

A brief history of Christianity in the African continent

*this post doesn’t touch on how was used in Christianity western colonialism there will be other posts made for that*
[I have tried to make the reading more accessible for people than and also as short as possible]

Christianity emerged in the Levant* around mid-1st century AD. Christianity in Africa began in Egypt around the 1st century, the Coptic Orthodox Church are believed to be the oldest sect of Christianity in Egypt and one the oldest in the continent along with Ethiopian (Christianity in Ethiopia emerged around the 4th century and existed in the country before that)  and many Copts* still practice it today. According to tradition Mark the Evangelist founded the Coptic founded the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Egypt.                                                                                                                                                           The Kingdom of Nobatia which was established in the 3rd century was a Christian kingdom in what is now lower Nubia. Due to Islamization the Muslim population of Nobatia gradually started to rise but still remained Christian until the invasion of the Funj Sultanate of Sennar. The Kingdom of Makuria (what is now Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan) converted to Christianity near the end of the 6th century but after it was invaded by Muslim armies, the kingdom was cut off from other Christian kingdoms, states, christendom and eventually became a Muslim kingdom.With the addition of the Kingdom of Alwa, these three kingdoms are known as the Christian kingdoms of Nubia

The emergence of Christianity in North Africa’s Maghreb was around the 2nd century. Tertullian (who was born to a Roman father and an Amazigh mother – born in what is now Carthage, Tunisia)  is known as the founder of Western theology was on the prominent and influential figures of Christianity in North Africa. Even after his death, Christianity was spreading rapidly all over the Maghreb. 

Kingdom of Kongo (what is known northern Angola, Cabinda, southern republic of Congo and western Democratic Republic of Congo) became a Christian Kingdom in 1491 when King Nzinga converted to Christianity of his own free will. Despite of the conversion many Bakongo* still practiced their traditional religion, some alongside Christianity. Christianity also influenced traditional Kongo religion and neighbouring kingdoms and states around the Kongo kingdom. The Kongo Kingdom was the Christian only pre colonial kingdom and state in Central Africa


The Levant is a historical geographical term referring to an area in the eastern Mediterranean

Copts are ethno-religious group indigenous to Africa who live mostly in Egypt but also Libya and Sudan. 

Bakongo are a Bantu ethnic group who live in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Angola and the Republic of Congo and are descended from the former Kongo Kingdom

Books:

  • Christianity in the Land of the Pharaohs: The Coptic Orthodox Church by Jill Kamil
  • Coptic Civilization: Two Thousand Years of Christianity in Egypt edited by Gawdat Gabra
  • The Kingdom of Alwa by Mohi El-Din Abdalla Zarroug
  • The Spreading of Christianity in Nubia by Michalowski
  • Medieval Christian Nubia and the Islamic World by Jay Sapulding
  • Tanscontinental Links in the History of Non-Western Christianity by Klaus Koschorke
  • Art of Conversion: Christian Visual Culture in the Kingdom of Kongo by Cecile Fromont
  • The Development of an African Catholic Church in the Kingdom of Kongo, 1491–1750 by John Thornton
  • The Cambridge History of Christianity Volume 2: Constantine to c.600
  • The Disappearance of Christianity from North Africa in the Wake of the Rise of Islam by C. J. Speel
  • Church History: Christianity in Ethiopia by Dale H. Moore

anonymous asked:

Well, the quaran says not to trust unbelievers, not to take jews or christians as friends, so what do you expect? Special treatment? When thousands of muslims who claim not to be extremists are pushing for sharia law all over the world, the world is going to react. You all are late to the party. Civilization already began and was in progress before your beloved prophet started hallucinating and demanded that everyone follow him and his version of god, who is mighty bloodthirsty, by the way.

It would seem like Muslims would have a good reason not to trust others, wouldn’t it?  

Ok, but in all seriousness, here are some other verses about Christians and Jews from the Quran that the media doesn’t like to talk about.

“Surely those who believe, and those who are Jews, and the Christians, and the Sabians — whoever believes in God and the Last Day and does good, they shall have their reward from their Lord. And there will be no fear for them, nor shall they grieve” (2:62, 5:69, and many other verses).

“…and nearest among them in love to the believers will you find those who say, ‘We are Christians,’ because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant” (5:82).

“O you who believe! Be helpers of God — as Jesus the son of Mary said to the Disciples, ‘Who will be my helpers in (the work of) God?’ Said the disciples, ‘We are God’s helpers!’ Then a portion of the Children of Israel believed, and a portion disbelieved. But We gave power to those who believed, against their enemies, and they became the ones that prevailed” (61:14).

“And argue not with the People of the Scripture unless it be in (a way) that is better, save with such of them as do wrong; and say: We believe in that which hath been revealed unto us and revealed unto you; our God and your God is One, and unto Him we surrender.” (29:46).

”(And remember) when Allah said: O Jesus! Lo! I am gathering thee and causing thee to ascend unto Me, and am cleansing thee of those who disbelieve and am setting those who follow thee above those who disbelieve until the Day of Resurrection. Then unto Me ye will (all) return, and I shall judge between you as to that wherein ye used to differ.” (3:55).

Also, if Muslims were told not to trust Jewish or Christian people, then why would our Muslim men be allowed to marry people of “the book” (Jews and Christians)?

Look, the problem is that everyone and their dog thinks they know what Islam really is and stands for, but they don’t even have the sense to do research or look up information from real Muslims or from Islamic sources.  It is really easy for anyone to take something out of context and make any religion look terrible.  I could do the same with the Torah or the New Testament.  As for Muhammad (pbuh) being “mighty bloodthirsty,”  even Jesus stated in the Bible, “Do not think I came to bring peace.  Nay, I did not come to bring peace.  I came with a sword.” (Matthew 10:34).

Alas, I will leave you with this… You say that the Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh) came to “the party” late?  Hmmm, this will be quite long, but the following will show what all took place before the birth of Jesus

9997 B.C.      Aborigines in Australia paint on stone

               portrayal of organized warfare             

9996-5000 BC   Cave paintings in Spain show bows in use

7000 B.C.      Fired-clay pottery

6000 B.C.      Simple bows common in northern Europe

5000 B.C.      Crop irrigation in Egypt

4500 B.C.      Badarian culture in Egypt with pottery, ivory

               spoons, and imported items such as malachite

               (green stone used for jewelry)

4000 B.C.      Domestic cattle

4000 B.C.      Wheels in Mesopotamia

4000 B.C.      Stone tools still used in Egypt and Mesopotamia

4000 B.C.      Egypt organized into nomos (provinces) ruled by

               nomarchs (chiefs)

3600 B.C.      Stone and wooden wheels widespread

3800 B.C.      Copper artifacts in Iran

3500 B.C.      Bread in Egypt

3500 B.C.      Egyptians have mirrors of metal

3500-3100 B.C. Naqada culture in Egypt, which became Egyptian

               state

3200 B.C.      Hieroglyphic writing in Egypt

3100 B.C.      Upper and Lower Egypt united under Menes,

               first Pharaoh, starts Early Dynastic Period

3100 B.C.      Writing, record keeping, and formal

               administrative organization evident in Egypt

3000 B.C.      Bronze (mix of tin and copper) tools common

               in Middle East

3000 B.C.      Chariots in Mesopotamia

3000 B.C.      Ox teams pulling plows in Egypt

3000 B.C.      Cuneiform writing in Sumer

3000 B.C.      Sumerians use fillings in bad teeth

3000 B.C.      Sumerians divide day into 24 hours

3000 B.C.      Sumerians divide hour into 60 minutes

3000 B.C.      Sumerians divide minute into 60 seconds

3000 B.C.      Sumerians divide circle into 360 degrees

               (a very divisive people, these Sumerians)

3000 B.C.      Pharaoh Atothis writes first book on human

               body (actually, ABOUT it, not ON it)

3000 B.C.      Minoans flourish on Crete

3000 B.C.      Troy inhabited

3000 B.C.      Lyre in Sumeria

3000 B.C.      Athens site inhabited

2773 B.C.      Egyptians use calendar with 365 days

2700 B.C.      Chinese make silk

2700 B.C.      “Old Copper” culture, near Lake Superior, uses

               copper for tools and ornaments

2700 B.C.      Urak of Mesopotamia is first undisputed example

               of fortified city

2700 B.C.      Sumer has fully articulated military, including

               standing army organized along modern lines

2700 B.C.      Formal record keeping and administration used

               throughout Mesopotamia

2700 B.C.      First “recorded” war, between Sumer (Iraq area)

               and Elam (Iran area), fought in Basra area

2686-2160 B.C. Period of Old Kingdom in Egypt, military staff

               developed

2630 B.C.      Egypt’s first pyramid, at Saqqara, by Pharaoh

               Djoser

2600 B.C.      Advanced soldering skills in Mesopotamia

2600 B.C.      Paved highway in Egypt

2600 B.C.      Tablets of Shruppak (Sumer) tell of city-states

               equipping 600-700 soldier armies full time,

               first evidence of standing professional armies

2550 B.C.      Khufu’s Great Pyramid at Giza, 481 feet high

2525 B.C.      First detailed account of a war, between Lagash

               and Umma (both Sumerian city-states), recorded

               in pictures on stele erected by victorious

               Eannatum of Lagash (victors write history)

2525 B.C.      Stele of Vultures (by Eannatum) shows war with

               phalanxes 6 deep by 8 wide; armor; helmets;

               spears; socket axes; sickle swords; and chariots

               pulled by onagers (wild asses)

2500 B.C.      Fortified cities are the norm in Mesopotamia

2500 B.C.      Copper helmets with leather liners common in

               Sumerian army, lessening impact of mace as a

               weapon

2500 B.C.      Battering ram developed to counter fortifications,

               since armies on the move needed supplies hidden

               in the cities

2500 B.C.      Mesopotamians develop weights and measures

               system

2500 B.C.      Great Pyramid at Giza

2500 B.C.      Egyptians performing surgery, and some

               patients live

2400 B.C.      Papyrus in Egypt

2300 B.C.      Sargon’s army of 5,300 is big for the time

2300 B.C.      Sargon the Great, of Akkad, launches conquest of

               all of Mesopotamia, first great military dictator

2296 B.C.      Chinese record sighting of comet

2250 B.C.      First evidence of composite bow, during reign of

               Naram Sin, grandson of Sargon the Great — able to

               penetrate leather armor, double range of simple bows

2200 B.C.      Duck decoys in use in Nevada

2200 B.C.      Fortress of Buhen, in Sudan, had walls, firing

               bastions, moat, and complex gates

2200 B.C.      Egypt fortifies southern area to protect against

               Nubian attack

2200 B.C.      Queen Semiramis of Babylon builds first

               tunnel under a river

2040-1786 B.C. Middle Kingdom period in Egypt, improvements in

               command structure of military and government

2000 B.C.      Celts begin spreading

2000 B.C.      First zoo has opening day, in China

1900 B.C.      Assyrians united in Mesopotamia

1900 B.C.      Hittites begin smelting iron (technology

               transfer often guarded as it spread)

1800 B.C.      Bronze metalworking spreads through Europe

               (note how long after Middle East — see 3000 B.C.)

1800 B.C.      Babylonians have multiplication tables

1792 B.C.      Hammurabi rules Babylon

1720 B.C.      Hyksos invade Egypt, with mobility-based army,

               chariots, composite bows (outranged Egyptians

               by 200 yds), penetrating ax (vs Egyptian simple

               ax), swords, body armor, helmets, and quivers

               for rapid bowfire

1720 B.C.      Hyksos establish capital at Avaris

1700 B.C.      Knossos on Crete destroyed by fire

1674 B.C.      Hyksos capture Memphis

1674 B.C.      Half of Egypt ruled by foreign Hyksos kings, other

               half by Thebes

1600 B.C.      Greek hoplites popularize armor

1600 B.C.      Mycenae (Greece) flourishes

1600 B.C.      Water clock in Egypt

1570 B.C.      New Kingdom Pharaohs begin expansion

1570-1546 B.C. Ahmose I of Thebes captures Avaris and drives out

               Hyksos invaders

1567 B.C.      Hyksos expelled from Egypt

1546-1526 B.C. Amenhotep I begins Egyptian drive into Asia

1525-1512 B.C. Thutmose I pacifies Nubia

1512-1504 B.C. Thutmose II pushes Egypt to the edge of Syria

1504-1450 B.C. Thutmose III, greatest warrior pharaoh (won 17

               of 17 campaigns), established peak Egyptian

               power, adopted best of Hyksos weapons and

               mobility, and added archers on chariots,

               reserve forces, communication improvements

               (such as semaphore) and intelligence gathering

1500 B.C.      Glassmaking perfected in Middle East,

               including bottles in Egypt

1500 B.C.      Sundials in Egypt

1500 B.C.      Phoenicians found city of Tangier in

               North Africa

1500 B.C.      Pyramids are out, cutting tombs into rock is in

1450 B.C.      Mycenae dominates Aegean

1450 B.C.      Minoans overrun by mainland Greeks

1450 B.C.      Egypt reaches greatest extent, through the

               efforts of Thutmose III

1380 B.C.      Nefertiti is queen-consort to Akhenaten

               in Egypt

1361 B.C.      Tutankhamen king of Egypt at age 9

1320 B.C.      Mycenae reaches its peak

1300 B.C.      Hittites first employ iron for weapons

1300 B.C.      Egyptian army has special field intelligence

               and commander’s conferences for staff planning

               on the battlefield

1290-1224 B.C. Ramses II, master builder pharaoh, known to

               Greeks as Ozymandias, has total army of 100,000

1288 B.C.      Battle of Kadesh, Ramses II and an army of

               20,000 ambushed by 16,000 Hittites, including

               2,500 chariots. Ramses escapes from trap and

               counterattacks as Hittites are looting the field.

               Subsequent stalemate begins 17 fruitless war years.      

1200 B.C.      Hittites overrun by the Sea Peoples (mostly

               displaced from Aegean region by northern

               invaders, the Sea Peoples included Philis-

               tines and other groups who later settled

               in Palestine and surrounding area)

1200 B.C.      Iron smelting perfected (in only 700 years)

               and as Hittites are scattered, their ironsmiths

               spread the knowledge

1200 B.C.      Olmec civilization by Gulf of Mexico;

               includes written language, use of numbers,

               large temples, and intricate statues

1194-1163 B.C. Ramses III, last of great New Kingdom rulers

1190 B.C.      Trojan War (between Troy and Mycenae)

1100 B.C.      Phoenicians found Cadiz, Iberian Peninsula

1100 B.C.      Mycenae falls to invaders

1100-800 B.C.  Age of Darkness in Aegean area, Dorian and

               Ionian invasions interrupt Mycenaean civilization

1020 B.C.      Israelite tribes united under Saul

1000 B.C.      Jerusalem becomes Israeli capital

1000 B.C.      Saul succeeded by David

 972 B.C.      Solomon succeeds David

 900 B.C.      Celts spread through Gaul

 900 B.C.      First recorded mention of symbol for zero,

               in India

 883 B.C.      Assyrian empire expands

 814 B.C.      Phoenicians found Carthage

 800 B.C.      Corinth founded

 776 B.C.      First Olympic Games

 753 B.C.      Romulus and Remus found Rome

 750 B.C.      Homer writing

 750 B.C.      Caste system firmly established in India

 750 B.C.      Etruscans expand Italian colonies

 750 B.C.      Greek colony of Cumae in Italy

 734 B.C.      Corinth settles Corcyra (Corfu)

 732 B.C.      Assyria takes Damascus

 729 B.C.      Assyria takes Babylon

 722 B.C.      Assyria takes Israel

 721 B.C.      Sargon II forms last Assyrian dynasty

               (but he didn’t know it at the time)

 715 B.C.      Sparta beats Messenia (details at 11) in

               First Messenian War

 712-612 B.C.  Assyrians dominate Fertile Crescent

 700 B.C.      Assyrians: 150-200,000 in army, with combined

               arms field armies of 50,000 mixed infantry,

               chariots, and cavalry

 700 B.C.      Biremes (two banks of oars) developed

 700 B.C.      Coins used in Lydia (Turkey)

 700 B.C.      Iron begins replacing copper in Europe

 700 B.C.      Saddle developed by Scythians (but no

               stirrups, yet)

 691 B.C.      Assyrian 34-mile aqueduct carries water

               to Nineveh

 689 B.C.      Assyrians destroy Babylon after it revolts

 688 B.C.      Boxing added to Olympics

 671 B.C.      Assyrians capture part of Egypt

 663 B.C.      Assyria peaks out

 660 B.C.      Byzantium (Istanbul) established

 650 B.C.      First reference of triremes (three rows of oars)

 640 B.C.      Kingdom of Macedonia started

 625 B.C.      King Cyaxares unites Median tribes

 624 B.C.      Horse racing added to Olympics

 616 B.C.      Etruscan king Tarquinius Priscus rules Rome

 612 B.C.      Medes and Babylonians sack Nineveh, and

               Assyrian empire falls

 610-545 B.C.  Greek scientist/philosopher Thales of

               Miletus teaches value of using reason and

               observation to understand the world

 609 B.C.      Necho II is Pharaoh of Egypt, Necho canal

               links Nile with Red Sea

 605-562 B.C.  Nebuchadnezzar II extends his empire and

               builds the Hanging Gardens

 600 B.C.      Greek colony of Poseidonia (Paestum), Italy

 600 B.C.      Greek colony of Massilia (Marseilles)

 600-509 B.C.  Estruscan dominance of Rome

 600 B.C.      Chinese practice cultivating crops in rows

               and hoeing intensively — not practiced in

               Europe widely until 18th century

 594 B.C.      The archon named Solon brings BIG social

               reform to Athens. Archons were among chief

               magistrates of Athens.  Solon brought laws

               which ended enslavement for debt, intro-

               duced right of appeal, amended methods for

               contracts and taxation, and reduced powers

               of hereditary aristocracy over the poor —

               setting stage for later class struggles.

               His name became term commonly used to

               describe any wise lawgiver.

 586 B.C.      Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar II destroy

               Jerusalem, and take Jews into captivity

 585 B.C.      Greek scientist/philosopher Thales of

               Miletus predicts solar eclipse

 563-483 B.C.  Buddha

 561 B.C.      Peisistratus is tyrant of Athens, meaning

               one who rules without legal warrant, but

               not necessarily good or evil ruler

 556-539 B.C.  Nabonidus, King of Babylon, is first known

               archaeologist (he didn’t have to dig far)

 551 B.C.      Birth of Confucius, Chinese philosopher who

               taught you should treat others as you would

               be treated

 551-478 B.C.  Confucius

 550 B.C.      Lao-Tzu outlines philosophy of Taoism

 550 B.C.      First Greek plays

 539 B.C.      Cyrus the Great (Persian) conquers Babylon

 537 B.C.      Persians free Jews from Babylonian rule

 530 B.C.      Cyrus the Great killed in battle

 525 B.C.      Persians under Cambyses II (son of Cyrus)

               whip Egypt

 512 B.C.      Darius I (Persian) conquers Byzantium (do

               you think he called himself “the first”?)

 510 B.C.      Spartan king Cleomenes I overthrows

               Athenian tyrant Hippias

 509 B.C.      Rome becomes republic after throwing out

               the last king

 507 B.C.      Cleisthenes gives democracy to Athens

 500 B.C.      First record of use of bow and arrow in

               North America, perhaps brought from Asia

 500 B.C.      “The Art of War,” by Sun Tzu, mentions

               powerful crossbows firing arrows

 500 B.C.      Persian Empire near its peak

 499-448 B.C.  Greek-Persian War

 494 B.C.      Spartan king Cleomenes I defeats city of

               Argos

 493 B.C.      Rome allied with Latin League, the group

               of cities in the Latium district around

               Rome

 490 B.C.      Corinth foils plan of Spartan king

               Cleomenes I to reinstall Hippias as

               tyrant of Athens (apparently Cleomenes

               thought Hippias would be easier to handle

               than a democratic Athens)

 490 B.C.      Greeks bust Persian chops at Marathon

 490 B.C.      Battle of Marathon: 24,000 Persians vs 10,000

               Greeks; 6,400 Persian dead, 192 Athenians dead

 490-486 B.C.  Massive Persian preparations for going

               after Greece again

 486 B.C.      Egypt revolts against Persia, delaying

               Darius’ rematch with Greece

 485 B.C.      Darius dies and Xerxes, his son, is king

               of Persia

 484 B.C.      Persians put down Egyptian revolt

 480 B.C.      Greek philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus

               active

 480 B.C.      Carthaginian sea captain, Hanno, explores

               coast of West Africa with his fleet

 480 B.C.      Greek philosopher Pythagoras of Samos dies

               (but left us his theorem)

 480 B.C.      Xerxes builds bridge across Hellespont, using

               774 anchored boats

 480 B.C.      Greeks get big navy win over Persians at

               Salamis, and Xerxes has a ringside seat

 480 B.C.      Persians squeak by Thermopylae, beat

               Greeks, and loot and burn Athens (sounds

               like a soccer game, with fans)

 480 B.C.      Xerxes goes back to Persia, leaving

               Mardonius to mop up the Greek war

 479-431 B.C.  Golden Age of Athens

 479 B.C.      Aristides and Pausanias lead Greeks over

               Persians at Plataea, destroying Mardonius

               and his army

 479 B.C.      Greeks land in Asia Minor and defeat

               Persian force at Mycale  (Greeks lead the

               series 4-1 )

 478 B.C.      Delian League established to maintain Greek

               naval supremacy in Aegean, get Persians off

               Greek islands, and free Greek colonies in

               Asia Minor

 469-399 B.C.  Socrates

 466 B.C.      Greek Cimon defeats Persians at Eurymedon,

               final battle to free Greeks in Asia Minor

 465 B.C.      Xerxes assassinated; son Artaxerxes I

               succeeds him

 460 B.C.      Pericles influential in Athens

 460-359 B.C.  Hippocrates

 460-445 B.C.  FIRST PELOPONNESIAN WAR, between Athens

               and Corinth-Sparta

 450 B.C.      Some of Delian League think Persian threat

               is gone; they try to quit; they sleep with

               the fishes when Athens says “NO”

 450 B.C.      Delian League becomes essentially Athenian

               empire, provoking fear and opposition in

               Sparta, Corinth, Thebes, and other cities

 447 B.C.      Parthenon construction started

 445 B.C.      “Thirty-Year Peace,” initiated by Pericles,

               ends First Peloponnesian War

 445 B.C.      Rome removes ban on marriage between

               patricians and plebeians

 435 B.C.      Naval war between Corinth and Corcyra

               (Corfu): Corinth allied with Sparta;

               Corcyra allied with Athens

 433 B.C.      Athens intervenes in naval war between

               Corinth and Corcyra

 432-404 B.C.  SECOND PELOPONNESIAN WAR

 432 B.C.      Sparta declares war against Athens

 432 B.C.      Parthenon finished

 431 B.C.      Athens can put forth 13,000 hoplites; 16,000

               older garrison soldiers; 1,200 mounted men;

               and 1,600 archers

 431-421 B.C.  The Archidamian War, first phase of Second

               Peloponnesian War

 431-430 B.C.  Sparta ravages Attica

 430 B.C.      Herodotus writes History of Persian Wars

               (if you want to look good in history, you

               better write it)

 430 B.C.      Pestilence hits Athens, behind her walls,

               and one fourth of population dies

 429 B.C.      Pericles dies from the pestilence

 427 B.C.      Revolts of Corcyra and Lesbos against

               Athens

 427 B.C.      First Sicilian expedition by Athens

 427 B.C.      Sparta and Thebes destroy Plataea, Athens’ ally

 425 B.C.      Athenians under Cleon and Demosthenes win

               at Pylos and Sphacteria, an island off

               southwestern Greek coast, and capture

               Spartan prisoners.  Sparta sues for peace

 425 B.C.      Oedipus Rex, play by Sophocles, performed

               (Greece enters its Freudian period)

 424 B.C.      Boetians use flame thrower against wooden walls

               of Delium

 424-422 B.C.  Spartan general Brasidas leads expedition

               into Thrace to strike at Athenian posses-

               sions in that region

 422 B.C.      Spartan general Brasidas and Athenian

               general Cleon killed at Amphipolis

 421-413 B.C.  Peace of Nicias and Sicilian Expedition,

               second phase of Second Peloponnesian War

 421 B.C.      Athens can put forth 1,300 hoplites and

               1,000 horsemen

 421 B.C.      Peace of Nicias, between Spartan and

               Athenian sides, scheduled to last 50 years

               … but sporadic fighting continues

 418 B.C.      Sparta wins A BIG ONE at Battle of Mantinea

 418 B.C.      Melian Dialogue, where Athens discusses the

               punishment island of Melos should get for

               misbehavin’ — the decision, kill all the

               men (WHAT KIND OF A DIALOGUE IS THAT?)

 415 B.C.      Athenians send an expedition to conquer

               Sicily (as foreboding music plays)

 415 B.C.      Alcibiades defects to Sparta

 414-404 B.C.  The Ionian War, the final phase of the

               Second Peloponnesian War

 414 B.C.      Sparta joins Syracuse against Athens

 413 B.C.      Sparta establishes fort at Decelea,

               defeats Athenian force in Great Harbor of

               Syracuse; captures and kills Nicias and

               Demosthenes

 412 B.C.      Athenian counterattacks bring victories at

               Chinos and Miletus

 412-411 B.C.  Some of Athenian allies revolt, Persians

               join Spartan side, Athens raises another

               fleet, AND GIVES ITS COMMAND TO ALCIBIADES,

               the same guy who earlier betrayed Athens to

               Sparta (these Athenians would be good to

               have on your parole board)

 411 B.C.      Athenian naval victory over Spartan fleet

               at Hellespont

 411 B.C.      End of Thucydides’ History

 410 B.C.      Alcibiades whoops a joint Spartan and

               Persian force, Sparta suggests peace,

               Athens refuses (greed is an ugly thing)

 409 B.C.      Carthaginians attack and seize cities in

               Sicily (Athens could have used these guys)

 408 B.C.      Persian king Darius II sends his younger

               son Cyrus to govern Asia Minor, and help

               Sparta against Athens

 408-407 B.C.  Sparta allied with Persia

 406 B.C.      Carthaginians continue conquest of Sicily

 405 B.C.      Athenian fleet almost totally destroyed by

               Spartan admiral Lysander, when he catches

               it on the beach at Aegospotami (triremes

               normally came to shore at night, but you

               don’t want to sleep later than opponent)

 405 B.C.      Athens besieged

 405 B.C.      Dionysius (not a Carthaginian) becomes

               ruler in Syracuse

 404 B.C.      Athens surrenders

 404 B.C.      SECOND PELOPONNESIAN WAR ENDS — Sparta

               the winner

 404 B.C.      Egypt gains independence from Persia

 401-400 B.C.  Cyrus the Younger leads expedition against

               his older brother Artaxerxes (now ruler of

               Persia)

 400 B.C.      Cyrus the Younger dies in battle, and his

               10,000 Greek mercenaries fight long route

               back to Black Sea, through Persian army

               and a bunch of other folks (“Retreat of

               the Ten Thousand” written of by Xenophon)

 400 B.C.      Greek physician Hippocrates active

 400 B.C.      Greek philosopher Democritus suggests world

               is made up of tiny particles called atoms

 400 B.C.      Greek gastraphetes (“belly shooter”), early

               large crossbow, used as heavy artillery

 400 B.C.      Trace harness developed in China.  The concept,

               of a yoke across the chest with traces

               connected, may have originated in use with

               humans used to pull boats on canals.  The

               harness will arrive in Europe in 568 A.D.

 400 B.C.      Cast iron in use in China.  Would be in use

               in Scandinavia by late 8th century A.D. and

               throughout Europe by 1380 A.D.

 399 B.C.      Socrates executed for being impious and

               contributing to the delinquency of minors

               (ah, back when crime didn’t pay)

 399-394 B.C.  Spartans war against Persians in Asia Minor

               (how quickly those allies are forgotten)

 397 B.C.      Dionysius successfully defends Syracuse

               against Carthaginians

 397 B.C.      Dionysius uses siege towers and catapults

               against Motya

 396 B.C.      Rome’s first biggie — destroying Etruscan

               city of Veii

 394-393 B.C.  Athenian admiral Conon, aided by a Persian

               fleet, defeats Spartans and restores

               fortifications of Athens

 390 B.C.      Gallic king Brennus sacks Rome and burns

               it, and also smashes many of Rome’s

               northern allies (payback to come later)

 390 B.C.      First known kite, in China

 387 B.C.      Plato founds Academy

 387-386 B.C.  Persian king helps Greeks negotiate peace

 386 B.C.      Thebans and Athenians renew war with Sparta

 371 B.C.      Theban king Epaminondas defeats Spartans at

               Leuctra; Thebes dominates Greece.

 370 B.C.      Plato writes The Republic

 362 B.C.      Athens and Sparta form alliance against

               Thebes

 362 B.C.      Theban king Epaminondas wins big victory

               at Mantinea, but is killed, and Theban

               power quickly peters out

 359-336 B.C.  Philip II is king of Macedonia, having

               earlier been a hostage and student of

               Epaminondas, at Thebes, where Philip took

               lots of notes

 359 B.C.      Philip II begins thorough training program

               for Macedonian army

 350 B.C.      Philip II of Macedon organizes special

               military engineer group

 343 B.C.      Rome begins Samnite wars, which last 50

               years but secure central Italy

 342-270 B.C.  Epicurus and followers, Epicureans,

               advocating less dependence on material things

 341 B.C.      Persians reconquer Egypt

 339 B.C.      Philip II of Macedonia defeats Athens and

               Thebes at Chaeronea, establishing

               Macedonian dominion over Greece

 338 B.C.      Rome defeats Latin League (old ally of

               Rome, there’s a lesson here) in Latin Wars

 338-146 B.C.  Hellenistic Age

 336 B.C.      Philip II assassinated; Alexander succeeds

               him

 336-323 B.C.  Alexander rules

 336 B.C.      Rumors of Alexander’s death (while he is

               fighting northern barbarians) cause several

               Greek cities to revolt

 336 B.C.      Alexander comes home, quickly destroys

               Thebes, and convinces the other cities that

               rumors of his death are greatly exaggerated

 334 B.C.      Alexander crosses Hellespont and wins the

               Battle of Granicus, opening Asia to him

 333 B.C.      Alexander defeats Persian king Darius III

               at Battle of Issus

 333 B.C.      Alexander lays siege to Tyre in Phoenicia

 332 B.C.      Alexander captures Tyre, Gaza, and Egypt

 332 B.C.      Alexander founds Alexandria in Egypt (one

               of over 20 towns by that name which he founded

               — not very original, is he?)

 331 B.C.      Alexander defeats Darius III at Gaugamela or

               Battle of Arbela: Darius III has army of

               300,000 infantry; 40,000 cavalry; 250 chariots;

               and 50 elephants — beaten by Alex and 60,000

 327 B.C.      Alexander invades India

 323 B.C.      Alexander dies at Babylon; the Diadochi

               (“successors” in Greek) seek to control

               the empire

 323 B.C.      Alexander’s general Ptolemy I gets Egypt

               and Palestine

 312 B.C.      Romans begin building the Via Appia

               (Appian Way)

 305 B.C.      Seleucus I Nicatur (the Conqueror) is king

               of Macedonia

 300 B.C.      Greek mathematician Euclid active

 300 B.C.      Bantu people spread over eastern and

               southern Africa

 287-211 B.C.  Archimedes

 279 B.C.      Greeks block Gauls at Thermopylae

 270 B.C.      Greek astronomer, Aristarchus, states the

               Earth revolves around the sun

 270-230 B.C.  Alexandrian mathematician, Ctesibius,

               invents the organ, the water pump, the

               spring, and the valve

 264-241 B.C.  First Punic War

 264 B.C.      Carthage occupies Sicily, starting First

               Punic War with Rome

 264 B.C.      Adulis in Ethiopia is large trade center

               for trade between Africa and Arabia, with

               goods from Europe and India as well

 264-100 B.C.  Frequent bouts of pirates in greater

               Mediterranean Sea

 256 B.C.      Romans besiege Carthage, but are beaten

 255 B.C.      Roman fleet of 248 ships sunk in storm off

               Cape Pachymus, losing 100,000+ men, fifteen

               percent of military age men in Italy

 250 B.C.      Greek mathematician, Archimedes, states

               laws of specific gravity

 241 B.C.      Romans defeat Carthaginians, ending the

               First Punic War

 240 B.C.      Eratosthenes of Cyrene calculates Earth’s

               circumference at about 24,000 miles (in

               their units of course, he didn’t use miles)

 240 B.C.      First Latin literature, in Rome

 239 B.C.      Halley’s comet first recorded (but under an

               assumed name)

 238 B.C.      Romans seize Sardinia and Corsica from

               Carthage

 237 B.C.      Carthaginian generals Hasdrubal and

               Hannibal conquer lots of Iberian Peninsula

 227 B.C.      Spartan king Cleomenes III defeats Achaean

               League

 222 B.C.      Macedonian king Antigonus III helps Achaean

               League to defeat Sparta (don’t these end-

               less things make you think of that phrase

               “what goes around comes around”?)

 222 B.C.      Alexandria is center of science and learning,

               with 400,000 scrolls in library, and a 200

               foot lighthouse to guide folks to the library

 219 B.C.      Hannibal attacks Romans at Saguntum

               (Sagunto)

 218 B.C.      Hannibal crosses Alps into Italy

 218 B.C.      Rome declares war on Spain, starting Second

               Punic War

 218-201 B.C.  Second Punic War

 218 B.C.      Battle of Trebia, Hannibal destroys Roman army

               of 40,000

 217 B.C.      Battle of Lake Trasimene, Hannibal destroys

               Roman army of 40,000

 216 B.C.      Hannibal is BIG (we’re talking REALLY BIG)

               winner over Romans at Battle of Cannae,

               destroying Roman army of 80,000

 215-205 B.C.  Macedonian-Rome Wars

 215 B.C.      Great Wall of China begun (but not by Han-

               nibal, he had his hands full)

 212 B.C.      Mathematician Archimedes killed during

               Roman siege of Syracuse

 206 B.C.      Roman general Scipio Africanus Major beats

               Carthaginians in Spain

 206 B.C.      Seleucid king Antiochus III takes Armenia,

               Parthia, and Bactria

 206 BC-220 AD Crossbows common in China during Han dynasty

 204 B.C.      Roman general Scipio Africanus Major

               invades Africa (that’s how he got his name)

 202 B.C.      Battle of Zama, Second Punic War

 202 B.C.      Seleucid king Antiochus III begins conquest

               of Syria and Palestine

 200-0 B.C.    Han dynasty in China develops paper, gun-

               powder,and moveable type

 201 B.C.      Rome, Pergamum, and Rhodes unite against

               Philip V of Macedonia

 200 B.C.      Parisii tribe (Gauls) settle on site of

               Paris

 200 B.C.      Iron horseshoes arrive (allowing

               increased speed of cavalry and greater

               mobility over rough ground)

 200 B.C.      Parchment in wide use

 200 B.C.      Stirrups in use (… IN CHINA ! … not

               in the West for a long time)

 200 B.C.      Gimbals in use in China — not the department

               store, but the basis of gyroscopes

 200 B.C.      Very expensive mail armor (from Latin macula, net)

 197 B.C.      Romans defeat Macedonians at Cynoscephalae

 196 B.C.      Seleucid king Antiochus III invades Thrace

               (this is one busy guy)

 191 B.C.      Antiochus III defeated by Romans at

               Thermopylae (no wonder … he was wore out)

 184 B.C.      Cato becomes censor of Rome (what were they

               writing on those parchments?) — a censor

               being one of two chief magistrates who

               controlled registration of citizens and

               property, and who were entrusted with

               supervision of manners and morals

 183 B.C.      Hannibal commits suicide to avoid surren-

               dering to Rome (ooo, way to hurt ‘em,

               Hannibal … take that)

 179 B.C.      Perseus is king of Macedonia, succeeding

               his father Philip V

 168 B.C.      Jews, under Maccabees, revolt against

               Seleucids

 168 B.C.      Romans defeat Perseus of Macedonia and

               abolish Macedonian monarchy (Macedonian

               tabloids were furious)

 157 B.C.      Chinese arsenals contain 200,000+ crossbows,

               of such complicated high-tolerance that

               captured ones couldn’t be duplicated by

               enemies, and the arrows were too short for

               enemy bows

 150 B.C.      Hipparchus of Rhodes compiles first star

               catalog (and Tom Cruise wasn’t in it)

 149 B.C.      Third Punic War starts when Carthage

               attacks Roman ally Numidia

 149-146 B.C.  Third Punic War

 146 B.C.      Roman general Scipio Africanus Minor

               (also known as Scipio Aemilianus)

               destroys Carthage, after 3-year siege,

               thus ending Third (and final) Punic War

 146 B.C.      Rome destroys Achaean League in Greece

               (good year for Rome, bad for the rest)

 139 B.C.      Rome defeats Celts in Iberian Peninsula

               and establishes Lusitania

 130 B.C.      List of Seven Wonders of the World, by

               poet Antipater of Sidon, comes out to rave

               reviews and goes to the top of the charts

 121 B.C.      Rome gains control of Gallic settlement of

               Nimes (from which we got “de Nimes” or

               “denims,” which is French for “the pants

               you wear to look cool”)

 119 B.C.      Han dynasty in China nationalizes natural

               gas, cast iron, and salt industries. The

               natural gas was gotten by deep drilling

               and used primarily to heat and speed

               evaporation of the brine in the salt works.

 111 B.C.      China’s Han dynasty annexes Annam

               (northern Vietnam)

 106 B.C.      Rome takes Gallic city of Tolosa (Toulouse)

 105 B.C.      Roman army adopts training methods used in

               gladiator schools

 105 B.C.      Rome conquers Numidia (hey, weren’t they an

               ally just a few lines ago?)

 100 B.C.      Greek grammarian Dionysius Thrax publishes

               Art of Grammar

  95 B.C.      Armenia, under Tigranes I, begins to expand

  91 B.C.      Rome and allies begin Social War (isn’t

               that an oxymoron?) — allies revolted

               against Rome, and Rome declared that those

               who submitted to Rome would have Roman

               citizenship

  89 B.C.      Roman citizenship rights granted throughout

               Italy

  87 B.C.      Rome captured by rebels in civil war

  82 B.C.      Roman general Sulla, using his private

               army, recaptures Rome and becomes dictator

               in an attempt to restore the oligarchy —

               a dictator was usually a chief magistrate

               with supreme authority, usually appointed

               by Senate, usually in times of emergency,

               and usually for a term of six months

  80 B.C.      Sulla smashes Etruscans; then they become

               Roman citizens

  77 B.C.      First “encyclopedia”…Pliny the Elder’s

               Historia Naturalis

  73 B.C.      Gladiator Spartacus leads uprising of

               around 40,000+ fugitive Roman slaves

  71 B.C.      Spartacus killed at Lucania by Roman

               general Marcus Licinius Crassus

  63 B.C.      Roman general Pompey conquers Palestine

  60 B.C.      Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar form

               First Roman Triumvirate

  59 B.C.      Acta diurna, a news gazette, published

               in Rome

  58 B.C.      Julius Caesar invades Gaul, starting

               Gallic Wars

58-52 B.C.     Gallic Wars

  57 B.C.      Julius Caesar defeats the Belgae, in

               present day Belgium

  55 B.C.      Julius Caesar invades Britain

  52 B.C.      Vercingetorix unifies Gallic tribes

               against Rome

  51 B.C.      Julius Caesar conquers Gaul, ending the

               Gallic War (on a galling note for Gauls)

  50 B.C.      Glassblowing in Phoenicia

  49 B.C.      Julius Caesar crosses Rubicon into Italy,

               starting a civil war

  48 B.C.      Julius Caesar beats Pompey at Pharsalus

               (Pompey flees to Egypt, where he is

               assassinated)

  48 B.C.      Egyptian civil war between Ptolemy III

               and his sister Cleopatra

  47 B.C.      New Year starts on January 1st for first

               time, with new Roman calendar

  47 B.C.      Caesar arrives in Egypt, with army, …

               and likes Cleopatra … a LOT

  47 B.C.      Ptolemy killed

  46 B.C.      Caesar appointed dictator of Rome

  44 B.C.      Caesar assassinated

  43 B.C.      Mark Anthony, Octavian (Augustus), and

               Lepidus are Second Roman Triumvirate

43-41 B.C.     War of the Second Triumvirate (Rome)

  42 B.C.      Octavian and Mark Anthony defeat Brutus

               and Cassius at Philippi (these two were

               among the alleged killers of Caesar)

  42 B.C.      Mark Anthony finds he also likes Queen

               Cleopatra … a LOT

  37 B.C.      Herod the Great rules Judea

  31 B.C.      Octavian defeats Mark Anthony at Actium

  31 BC-450 AD Roman Empire

  30 B.C.      Mark Anthony and Cleopatra commit

               suicide, separately

  27 B.C.      Octavian is first Roman emperor, and the

               Senate names him Augustus (our Senate could

               never get away with renaming presidents,

               and CALLing them names just isn’t the same)

  27 B.C.      Octavian establishes Praetorian guard (see,

               he did notice what happened to Julius)

  23 B.C.      Roman poet Horace writes his odes

  20 B.C.      Marcus Verrius Flaccus compiles first general

               dictionary

  12 B.C.      Rome begins attempt to grab Germany

I suppose quite a few prophets showed up late to the party according to the history of mankind timeline….

3

The Temple of Debod.

This ancient Egyptian temple, dedicated to the goddess Isis, was built during the Greco-Roman period, and originally located 15 km south of Aswan. It has since been moved to Madrid in Spain.

The construction of the Aswan Dam threatened to submerge the Nubian monuments in southern Egypt. In order to save these important aspects of Egypt’s cultural heritage, UNESCO in 1960 launched their project for the re-location of these monuments. The project was successful, and as a token of appreciation for the help received from Spain, the Egyptian government donated to the country this temple.

Photos courtesy of & taken by Pablo de Medina.

☆ My Underworld ☾

History of Occultism and The One World Movement 

“The communication of this knowledge and other secrets, some of which are perhaps lost, constituted, under other names, what we now call Masonry, or Free, or Frank-Masonry … The present name of the Order, and Its titles, and the names of the Degrees now in use, were not then known … But, by whatever name it was known in this or the other country, Masonry existed as it now exists, the same in spirit and at heart, not only when Solomon builded the temple, but centuries before - before even the first colonies emigrated into Southern India, Persia, and Egypt, from the cradle of the human race.”

“Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry” By Albert Pike, p.207-208

Design is based on the research outlined in the book - “En Route to Global Occupation” by Gary H. Kah

By jtlsyy

Colours and their meanings in Ancient Egypt

Colours held a lot of symbolism and meaning in Ancient Egypt, the primary ones being red, blue, yellow, black, green, and white. So here’s a nice rundown of what each colour meant for the Ancient Egyptians. Also, just for fun, I’m putting lyrics from certain songs as well just under the names of colours. ;)

RedThe blood of angry men! -Les Miserables

For the Ancient Egyptians, red was the colour of blood, the sun, and fire as well as life and destruction. Amulets in the shape of a heart, for example, were often red, as the heart itself is red and, of course, pumps blood. It was the difference between eternal life or a second, permanent death when being judged at the scales in the afterlife. If the heart was too heavy with sin, you were a goner. But if it weighed lighter than the feather of truth, you could enjoy an eternal afterlife.

Blue

Oh, and the sky will be blue, and you guys will be there too.. -Frozen

Blue was heavily associated with both water and the sky. Often gods and goddesses associated with the heavens or water would be shown blue (like Hapy, the god of the inundation of the Nile; or Nut, the sky goddess). It also symbolised fertility and was associated with the god Osiris.

Black

The dark of ages past. -Les Miserables

Black was associated with not just the underworld and funerary deities, but also with fertility and life. Fertility gods were sometimes shown with black skin, emphasising their powerful fertility. For example, Osiris was sometimes depicted with black skin, and Min always had black skin. The latter god was particularly associated with fertility and potency, always depicted with an erection.

Yellow

Your yellow ticket of leave! -Les Miserables

Like red, yellow was also associated with the sun and other solar images including the winged scarab. It was also used to show the golden flesh of the gods, whom the Anicnet Egyptians believed to be made of solid gold.

White

Every morning you greet me. Small and white, clean and bright.
-Sound of Music

White was considered the colour of purity and several sacred animals were often portrayed in this colour. In rare cases, white was used to reprsent a solar image or symbol. The White Crown of Upper Egypt was the symbol and emblem of Upper Egypt (i.e. southern Egypt).

Green

On every leaf, on every stalk, until there’s nothing left of green! -Prince of Egypt

Green was used to symbolise many things including fertility, vegetation, life, health, vitality, and a few significant animals including the serpent and the baboon. Fertility gods could sometimes be shown with green skin, including Geb and Osiris.

3

100 things that you did not know about Africa - Nos.1 - 25

1. The human race is of African origin. The oldest known skeletal remains of anatomically modern humans (or homo sapiens) were excavated at sites in East Africa. Human remains were discovered at Omo in Ethiopia that were dated at 195,000 years old, the oldest known in the world.

2. Skeletons of pre-humans have been found in Africa that date back between 4 and 5 million years. The oldest known ancestral type of humanity is thought to have been the australopithecus ramidus, who lived at least 4.4 million years ago.

3. Africans were the first to organise fishing expeditions 90,000 years ago. At Katanda, a region in northeastern Zaïre (now Congo), was recovered a finely wrought series of harpoon points, all elaborately polished and barbed. Also uncovered was a tool, equally well crafted, believed to be a dagger. The discoveries suggested the existence of an early aquatic or fishing based culture.

4. Africans were the first to engage in mining 43,000 years ago. In 1964 a hematite mine was found in Swaziland at Bomvu Ridge in the Ngwenya mountain range. Ultimately 300,000 artefacts were recovered including thousands of stone-made mining tools. Adrian Boshier, one of the archaeologists on the site, dated the mine to a staggering 43,200 years old.

5. Africans pioneered basic arithmetic 25,000 years ago. The Ishango bone is a tool handle with notches carved into it found in the Ishango region of Zaïre (now called Congo) near Lake Edward. The bone tool was originally thought to have been over 8,000 years old, but a more sensitive recent dating has given dates of 25,000 years old. On the tool are 3 rows of notches. Row 1 shows three notches carved next to six, four carved next to eight, ten carved next to two fives and finally a seven. The 3 and 6, 4 and 8, and 10 and 5, represent the process of doubling. Row 2 shows eleven notches carved next to twenty-one notches, and nineteen notches carved next to nine notches. This represents 10 + 1, 20 + 1, 20 - 1 and 10 - 1. Finally, Row 3 shows eleven notches, thirteen notches, seventeen notches and nineteen notches. 11, 13, 17 and 19 are the prime numbers between 10 and 20.

6. Africans cultivated crops 12,000 years ago, the first known advances in agriculture. Professor Fred Wendorf discovered that people in Egypt’s Western Desert cultivated crops of barley, capers, chick-peas, dates, legumes, lentils and wheat. Their ancient tools were also recovered. There were grindstones, milling stones, cutting blades, hide scrapers, engraving burins, and mortars and pestles.

7. Africans mummified their dead 9,000 years ago. A mummified infant was found under the Uan Muhuggiag rock shelter in south western Libya. The infant was buried in the foetal position and was mummified using a very sophisticated technique that must have taken hundreds of years to evolve. The technique predates the earliest mummies known in Ancient Egypt by at least 1,000 years. Carbon dating is controversial but the mummy may date from 7438 (±220) BC.

8. Africans carved the world’s first colossal sculpture 7,000 or more years ago. The Great Sphinx of Giza was fashioned with the head of a man combined with the body of a lion. A key and important question raised by this monument was: How old is it? In October 1991 Professor Robert Schoch, a geologist from Boston University, demonstrated that the Sphinx was sculpted between 5000 BC and 7000 BC, dates that he considered conservative.

9. On the 1 March 1979, the New York Times carried an article on its front page also page sixteen that was entitled Nubian Monarchy called Oldest. In this article we were assured that: “Evidence of the oldest recognizable monarchy in human history, preceding the rise of the earliest Egyptian kings by several generations, has been discovered in artifacts from ancient Nubia” (i.e. the territory of the northern Sudan and the southern portion of modern Egypt.)

10. The ancient Egyptians had the same type of tropically adapted skeletal proportions as modern Black Africans. A 2003 paper appeared in American Journal of Physical Anthropology by Dr Sonia Zakrzewski entitled Variation in Ancient Egyptian Stature and Body Proportions where she states that: “The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians had the ‘super-Negroid’ body plan described by Robins (1983). The values for the brachial and crural indices show that the distal segments of each limb are longer relative to the proximal segments than in many ‘African’ populations.”

11. The ancient Egyptians had Afro combs. One writer tells us that the Egyptians “manufactured a very striking range of combs in ivory: the shape of these is distinctly African and is like the combs used even today by Africans and those of African descent.”

12. The Funerary Complex in the ancient Egyptian city of Saqqara is the oldest building that tourists regularly visit today. An outer wall, now mostly in ruins, surrounded the whole structure. Through the entrance are a series of columns, the first stone-built columns known to historians. The North House also has ornamental columns built into the walls that have papyrus-like capitals. Also inside the complex is the Ceremonial Court, made of limestone blocks that have been quarried and then shaped. In the centre of the complex is the Step Pyramid, the first of 90 Egyptian pyramids.

13. The first Great Pyramid of Giza, the most extraordinary building in history, was a staggering 481 feet tall - the equivalent of a 40-storey building. It was made of 2.3 million blocks of limestone and granite, some weighing 100 tons.

14. The ancient Egyptian city of Kahun was the world’s first planned city. Rectangular and walled, the city was divided into two parts. One part housed the wealthier inhabitants – the scribes, officials and foremen. The other part housed the ordinary people. The streets of the western section in particular, were straight, laid out on a grid, and crossed each other at right angles. A stone gutter, over half a metre wide, ran down the centre of every street.

15. Egyptian mansions were discovered in Kahun - each boasting 70 rooms, divided into four sections or quarters. There was a master’s quarter, quarters for women and servants, quarters for offices and finally, quarters for granaries, each facing a central courtyard. The master’s quarters had an open court with a stone water tank for bathing. Surrounding this was a colonnade.

16 The Labyrinth in the Egyptian city of Hawara with its massive layout, multiple courtyards, chambers and halls, was the very largest building in antiquity. Boasting three thousand rooms, 1,500 of them were above ground and the other 1,500 were underground.

17. Toilets and sewerage systems existed in ancient Egypt. One of the pharaohs built a city now known as Amarna. An American urban planner noted that: “Great importance was attached to cleanliness in Amarna as in other Egyptian cities. Toilets and sewers were in use to dispose waste. Soap was made for washing the body. Perfumes and essences were popular against body odour. A solution of natron was used to keep insects from houses … Amarna may have been the first planned ‘garden city’.”

18. Sudan has more pyramids than any other country on earth - even more than Egypt. There are at least 223 pyramids in the Sudanese cities of Al Kurru, Nuri, Gebel Barkal and Meroë. They are generally 20 to 30 metres high and steep sided.

19. The Sudanese city of Meroë is rich in surviving monuments. Becoming the capital of the Kushite Empire between 590 BC until AD 350, there are 84 pyramids in this city alone, many built with their own miniature temple. In addition, there are ruins of a bath house sharing affinities with those of the Romans. Its central feature is a large pool approached by a flight of steps with waterspouts decorated with lion heads.

20. Bling culture has a long and interesting history. Gold was used to decorate ancient Sudanese temples. One writer reported that: “Recent excavations at Meroe and Mussawwarat es-Sufra revealed temples with walls and statues covered with gold leaf”.

21. In around 300 BC, the Sudanese invented a writing script that had twenty-three letters of which four were vowels and there was also a word divider. Hundreds of ancient texts have survived that were in this script. Some are on display in the British Museum.

22. In central Nigeria, West Africa’s oldest civilisation flourished between 1000 BC and 300 BC. Discovered in 1928, the ancient culture was called the Nok Civilisation, named after the village in which the early artefacts were discovered. Two modern scholars, declare that “[a]fter calibration, the period of Nok art spans from 1000 BC until 300 BC”. The site itself is much older going back as early as 4580 or 4290 BC.

23. West Africans built in stone by 1100 BC. In the Tichitt-Walata region of Mauritania, archaeologists have found “large stone masonry villages” that date back to 1100 BC. The villages consisted of roughly circular compounds connected by “well-defined streets”.

24. By 250 BC, the foundations of West Africa’s oldest cities were established such as Old Djenné in Mali.

25. Kumbi Saleh, the capital of Ancient Ghana, flourished from 300 to 1240 AD. Located in modern day Mauritania, archaeological excavations have revealed houses, almost habitable today, for want of renovation and several storeys high. They had underground rooms, staircases and connecting halls. Some had nine rooms. One part of the city alone is estimated to have housed 30,000 people.

By Robin Walker

Part 1. 1-25

Part 2. 26-50

Part 3. 50-75

By Robin Walker 

Robin Walkers book When we ruled is one of the best books Africans and African Diaspora can use firstly as a introduction to African history and secondly a good source to become proficient with precolonial African history.

Recommended reading