southern egypt

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Tea is the national drink of Egypt; it holds a special position that even coffee can’t rival. It’s called “shai”; the tea is almost exclusively imported from Kenya and Sri Lanka. The Egyptian government considers tea a strategic crop and runs large tea plantations in Kenya. Green tea is a recent arrival to Egypt (only in the late 1990s did green tea become affordable) and is not as popular. Egyptian tea comes in 2 varieties: Koshary and Saiidi.

- Koshary, popular in Lower (Northern) Egypt, is prepared using the traditional method of steeping black tea in boiled water and letting it set for a few minutes. It’s almost always sweetened with cane sugar and is often flavored with fresh mint leaves. Milk may or may not be added. Koshary tea is usually light, with less than a half teaspoonful per cup considered to be near the high end.

- Saiidi tea is common in Upper (Southern) Egypt. It’s prepared by boiling black tea with water for 5 mins over a strong flame. Saiidi tea is extremely heavy, with 2 teaspoonfuls per cup being the norm. It’s sweetened with copious amounts of cane sugar - a necessity as the formula and method yield a very bitter tea.

Besides true tea, herbal teas (or tisanes) are often served at Egyptian teahouses, with ingredients ranging from mint to cinnamon and ginger to salep; many of these are ascribed medicinal qualities or health benefits in Egyptian folk medicine. Karkade, a tisane of hibiscus flowers, is a particularly popular beverage and is traditionally considered beneficial for the heart.

History of Occultism and The One World Movement.

“The communication of this Knowledge and other Secrets, some of which are perhaps Lost, constituted under other names, what we now call Masonry - the present name of the Order and its titles, and the Names of the Degrees now in use were not then known. But, by whatever name it was known in this or other country, Masonry existed as it now exists, the same in Spirit and at Heart, not only when Solomon build the Temple, but Centuries before, before even the first colonies emigrated into Southern India, Persia and Egypt, from the Cradle of the Human Race.”

- “Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Sccotish Rite of Freemasonry”, by Albert Pike.

Egyptian Peridot

I was inspired to draw this by this article in Wikipedia (link)

This article is about  St. John’s Island (also known as Zabargad, Zebirget, Topazios, Gazirat Zabarjad) is the largest of a group of islands in Foul Bay, Red Sea in southern Egypt where peridot as a mineral was mined in ancient times.

The island comprises three massives of peridotite, which are rich in the gemstone peridot (olivine). This gem makes the island notable as it is believed to be the first discovered source of peridot, which was called topazios in ancient times, hence the Greek name for the island, Topazios. Layers of spinel-lherzolites with anhydrous Al-diopside pyroxenites and hydrous Cr-diopside pyroxenites can be found too on the island. The presence of all of these minerals has led to mining on the island which dates back as early as ancient times.

I made this aviable as a print on redbubble (link) and society6  (link)

Also added a few of my other su arts there as a prints!

The Rosetta Stone

A valuable key to deciphering ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the inscription on the Rosetta Stone is a decree passed by a council of priests. It is one of a series that affirm the royal cult of the 13-year-old Ptolemy V on the first anniversary of his coronation (in 196 BC).

In previous years the family of the Ptolemies had lost control of certain parts of the country. It had taken their armies some time to put down opposition in the Delta, and parts of southern Upper Egypt, particularly Thebes, were not yet back under the government’s control. Before the Ptolemaic era (before about 332 BC), decrees in hieroglyphs such as this were usually set up by the king. It shows how much things had changed from earlier times that the priests, the only people who had kept the knowledge of writing hieroglyphs, were now issuing such decrees. The list of good deeds done by the king for the temples hints at the way in which the support of the priests was ensured.

The decree is inscribed on the stone three times, in hieroglyphic (suitable for a priestly decree), demotic (the native script used for daily purposes), and Greek (the language of the administration). The importance of this to Egyptology is immense.

Soon after the end of the 4th century AD, when hieroglyphs had gone out of use, the knowledge of how to read and write them disappeared. In the early years of the 19th century, scholars were able to use the Greek inscription on this stone as the key to decipher them. Thomas Young (1773–1829), an English physicist, was the first to show that some of the hieroglyphs on the Rosetta Stone wrote the sounds of a royal name, that of Ptolemy.

The French scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790–1832) then realised that hieroglyphs recorded the sound of the Egyptian language and laid the foundations of our knowledge of ancient Egyptian language and culture. Champollion made a crucial step in understanding ancient Egyptian writing when he pieced together the alphabet of hieroglyphs that was used to write the names of non-Egyptian rulers. He announced his discovery, which had been based on analysis of the Rosetta Stone and other texts, in a paper at the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres at Paris on Friday 27 September 1822. The audience included his English rival Thomas Young, who was also trying to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs. Champollion inscribed this copy of the published paper with alphabetic hieroglyphs meaning ‘à mon ami Dubois’ ('to my friend Dubois’). Champollion made a second crucial breakthrough in 1824, realising that the alphabetic signs were used not only for foreign names, but also for the Egyptian language and names. Together with his knowledge of the Coptic language, which derived from ancient Egyptian, this allowed him to begin reading hieroglyphic inscriptions fully.

Soldiers in Napoleon’s army discovered the Rosetta Stone in 1799 while digging the foundations of an addition to a fort near the town of el-Rashid (Rosetta). On Napoleon’s defeat, the stone became the property of the British under the terms of the Treaty of Alexandria (1801) along with other antiquities that the French had found.

The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited in the British Museum since 1802, with only one break. Towards the end of the First World War, in 1917, when the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London, they moved it to safety along with other, portable, 'important’ objects. The Rosetta Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

Find out more in this BBC podcast about the Rosetta Stone.

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Richard Dadd was a painter of the Victorian era and most known for his intricate paintings of supernatural beings and fairies. He was born Chatham, Kent. As a youngster he showed quite an aptitude for painting and this got him in to the Royal Academy of Arts at the age of 20. He was awarded the Medal for life drawing in 1840. Quite a distinguished career followed where he illustrated books. In 1842, Sir Thomas Phillips invited Dadd on a trip through Europe to Greece, Turkey, southern Syria and Egypt. It was a long journey and towards the end of December, traveling up the Nile, Dadd underwent a dramatic personality change. He became delusional, violent and he believed himself to be under the influence of the Egyptian god Osiris. It was thought to only be sunstroke. He was finally diagnosed in 1843 as being of unsound mind and was taken by his family to recuperate in the village of Cobham, Kent. Unfortunately though, in August of that year Dadd killed his father with a knife because he was convinced the man was the devil in disguise. He then tried to run to Paris but instead was arrested when he tried to kill another tourist with a razor. He confessed to killing his father and was returned to England and sent to the Bethlhem Psychiactric Hospital a.k.a Bedlam. It was here where, under the encouragement of doctors, Dadd came out with some of his most beautiful paintings. Dadd probably suffered from paranoid schizophrenia, it seems to have run in his family, all though there really wasn’t much information about his siblings. After 20 years Dadd was moved to Broadmoor Hospital, a psychiatric facility outside of London. And there he stayed, painting constantly until January 7th 1886 when he died from an extensive disease of the lungs. Source Wikipedia

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Aswan, Egypt: Ugh, Egypt as a whole is just fucking gorgeous. Like the desert is super fly and so is ancient culture. Aswan is extra fucking awesome because of its location on the Nile. It once served as the Southern frontier of Ancient Egypt, and was like it’s fucking front doors. So just like people now a days try to have bomb ass looking foyers, Aswan was like an imposing as hell entryway. It’s got these fly tombs and awesome architecture, and it’s just great. Fucking great.

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How to Move an Ancient Egyptian Temple — The Relocation of the Abu Simbel Temples.

In the 13th century BC the mighty pharaoh Ramses II ordered the construction of two large temples in southern Egypt to commemorate the Battle of Kadesh, to honor his queen Nefertari, and to impress his Nubian enemies to the south.  Carved directly into the sandstone hillsides, the large facade of the temples feature four colossus statues of Ramses himself, each standing 67 feet in height.  The facade itself stands an incredible 100 feet high and 119 feet wide.  Inside of the temples are a network of rooms and hallways with many priceless hieroglyphic carvings detailing Egyptian history, religion, and folklore.

By the 1960’s the Abu Simbel Temples were a national treasure for the new Egyptian nation.  However, Egypt’s industrial modernization would threaten the temples in a way that no pharaoh could have ever predicted.  Near Abu Simbel was the construction of a 364 foot hydroelectric dam known as the Aswan dam.  A key objective of the Egyptian government, the dam would provide electricity for the developing nation and kick start a new agricultural plan which would create a massive irrigation project.  However, Abu Simbel was literally in deep trouble, for construction of the damn would leave the ancient temples submerged at the bottom of the Lake Nasser Reservoir.

To save Abu Simbel, a team of archeologists, historians, engineers, architects, and construction workers were recruited by UNESCO to conduct one of the most ambitious rescue operations of an ancient structure.  The plan was to relocate the ancient temples above the flood plain of Lake Nasser.  Incredibly, the team cut the temple facade and structure into individual blocks weighing 20-30 tons.  Each block was numbered then recorded to keep track of where they would go when reassembled.  The blocks were lifted out of their original foundation using massive cranes, then transported to another site where they could be catalogued and stored for later.  From 1964-1965 over 10,000 stone blocks were cut, lifted, and transported away from the site. 

The new home for the temples was located 200 meters inland and at a height  65 meters higher than the original Abu Simbel site.  To recreate the look of a temple carved from a sandstone hill, artificial hills were created using concrete which simulated sandstone.  Once the new Abu Simbel site was ready, each block was meticulously fitted back into position, reconstructing the ancient temples anew.  In fact the reconstruction is so precise that it would impress ancient Egyptian engineers, on the façade of the temples there are no visible seams where the blocks meet.  Only a few joins can be found from within the temple complex.  The project was completed in 1968 and cost $40 million, over $250 million dollars today.  The cost was well worth it as the Abu Simbel complex is considered one of the great treasures of Egypt and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.  Over 500,000 tourists visit the temples every year.

Repost via: African Beauty @naduahali

“ This man is from the Beja tribe in southern Egypt he bears striking physical similarity to the ancient Egyptians. The seeds of the pharaohs are still alive. The orginal people of Egypt live in Aswan, they have lived there for thousands of years.
Egyptians had only one term to designate themselves: KEMET, which literally means ‘the Blacks.’ This is the strongest term existing in the Pharaonic tongue to indicate blackness.

A lot of people continue to deny African people’s role in humankind’s first and greatest civilization in ancient Egypt. This whitewashing of history negatively impacts Black people and our image in the world. There remains a vital need to correct the misinformation of our achievements in antiquity.#naduahali ”

A brief history of Christianity in the African continent

*this post doesn’t touch on how was used in Christianity western colonialism there will be other posts made for that*
[I have tried to make the reading more accessible for people than and also as short as possible]

Christianity emerged in the Levant* around mid-1st century AD. Christianity in Africa began in Egypt around the 1st century, the Coptic Orthodox Church are believed to be the oldest sect of Christianity in Egypt and one the oldest in the continent along with Ethiopian (Christianity in Ethiopia emerged around the 4th century and existed in the country before that)  and many Copts* still practice it today. According to tradition Mark the Evangelist founded the Coptic founded the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Egypt.                                                                                                                                                           The Kingdom of Nobatia which was established in the 3rd century was a Christian kingdom in what is now lower Nubia. Due to Islamization the Muslim population of Nobatia gradually started to rise but still remained Christian until the invasion of the Funj Sultanate of Sennar. The Kingdom of Makuria (what is now Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan) converted to Christianity near the end of the 6th century but after it was invaded by Muslim armies, the kingdom was cut off from other Christian kingdoms, states, christendom and eventually became a Muslim kingdom.With the addition of the Kingdom of Alwa, these three kingdoms are known as the Christian kingdoms of Nubia

The emergence of Christianity in North Africa’s Maghreb was around the 2nd century. Tertullian (who was born to a Roman father and an Amazigh mother – born in what is now Carthage, Tunisia)  is known as the founder of Western theology was on the prominent and influential figures of Christianity in North Africa. Even after his death, Christianity was spreading rapidly all over the Maghreb. 

Kingdom of Kongo (what is known northern Angola, Cabinda, southern republic of Congo and western Democratic Republic of Congo) became a Christian Kingdom in 1491 when King Nzinga converted to Christianity of his own free will. Despite of the conversion many Bakongo* still practiced their traditional religion, some alongside Christianity. Christianity also influenced traditional Kongo religion and neighbouring kingdoms and states around the Kongo kingdom. The Kongo Kingdom was the Christian only pre colonial kingdom and state in Central Africa


The Levant is a historical geographical term referring to an area in the eastern Mediterranean

Copts are ethno-religious group indigenous to Africa who live mostly in Egypt but also Libya and Sudan. 

Bakongo are a Bantu ethnic group who live in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Angola and the Republic of Congo and are descended from the former Kongo Kingdom

Books:

  • Christianity in the Land of the Pharaohs: The Coptic Orthodox Church by Jill Kamil
  • Coptic Civilization: Two Thousand Years of Christianity in Egypt edited by Gawdat Gabra
  • The Kingdom of Alwa by Mohi El-Din Abdalla Zarroug
  • The Spreading of Christianity in Nubia by Michalowski
  • Medieval Christian Nubia and the Islamic World by Jay Sapulding
  • Tanscontinental Links in the History of Non-Western Christianity by Klaus Koschorke
  • Art of Conversion: Christian Visual Culture in the Kingdom of Kongo by Cecile Fromont
  • The Development of an African Catholic Church in the Kingdom of Kongo, 1491–1750 by John Thornton
  • The Cambridge History of Christianity Volume 2: Constantine to c.600
  • The Disappearance of Christianity from North Africa in the Wake of the Rise of Islam by C. J. Speel
  • Church History: Christianity in Ethiopia by Dale H. Moore

Funerary stele of a woman named Aurelia Artemis, daughter of Pasion, from a Greek family living in southern Egypt.  The inscription refers to her as “the sweetest” and “incomparable among all for (?) her goodness of spirit”.  Artist unknown; 3rd cent. CE.  Now in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.  Photo credit: Walters Art Museum.