Simple vowel sytems ranging from 3 to 8 vowels. It includes no front rounded vowels, no back unrounded vowels, and only symmetrical systems with little allophony. Examples of languages for each type:

  • 3 vowels [i, u, a] - modern standard Arabic, most australian aboriginal languages, Aleut, Inkutitut (Eskimo langs.), Greenlandic, Quechua, Aymará, Miskito (in Nicaragua), Centras Atlas Berber
  • 4 vowels [i, e, a, o~u] - Cree, Ojibew, Slavey, Dene, Navajo, Nahuatl, Malagasy
  • 5 vowels [i, u, e, o, a] - Spanish, Basque, Sardinian, Mayan languages, Czech, Slovak, Greek, Hebrew, Georgian, Lezgian, Fula, Hausa, Songhay, Swahili, Kinyarwanda, Ganda, Turkana, Luvale, Mbundu, Nyanja, Chichewa, Shona, Ovambo, Xhosa, Zulu, Tsonga, Makua, Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Kadazan Dusun, Japanese, Tok Pisin, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Brahui, Divehi, Maori, Fijian, Samoan, Tuvaluan, Kiribati, Hawaian, Nama-Khoe, Sandawe, Lakota, etc.
  • 6 vowels [i, ɨ, u, e, o, a] - Polish, Russian, Ukrainian, Kashubian, Erzya, Guaraní, Mapuche, Garífuna
  • 6 vowels [i, u, e, o, æ, ɑ] - Persian, Pashto, Tajik, Uzbekh, Egyptian, Iraqi, Najdi, Tunisian and Levantine Arabic, Northern Sami, Nenets, Latvian, Orya, Sinhala.
  • 6 vowels [i, u, e, ə, o, a] - Itelmen, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Kanuri, Marathi, Nepali, Malay, Indonesian, Sundanese, Javanese, Moroccan and Algerian Arabic, Armenian, Cherokee.
  • 7 vowels [i, ɨ, u, e, ə, o, a] - Romanian, Komi, Udmurt, Hakka and Gan Chinese, Amami, Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigre, Malayalam.
  • 7 vowels [i, e, ɛ, u, o, ɔ, a] - Galician, Brazilian Portuguese, Italian, Corsican, Southern Catalan (Valencian), Tedaga, Dazaga, Zaghawa (in Chad), Yorubá, Igbo, Akan, Ewe, Fon, Lingala, Dinka, Nuer, Luo, Masai, Kikuyu, Tswana, Bengali, Haitian Creole.
  • 8 vowels [i, e, ɛ, ə, u, o, ɔ, a] - European Portuguese, Northern Catalan, Wolof, Slovenian, Burmese, Gujarati, Santali.

These cavaliers of the Bornu tribe were renowned for their skill in battle, and used as literally knights for the Mali and Songhai empires. The two present were one of the largest and wealthiest nations on the planet during their time. They flourished under the trans Saharan trade in which salt and other goods from the north were traded for gold in the great trading cities of Timbuktu and Gao. Three great Islamic (except for Ghana) empires arose from this trade route that had been present since the dawn of Rome: Ghana, Mali and Songhay.

Hermann Wagner, Schilderung der Reisen …Eduard Vogel in Central-Afrika (Leipzig, 1860), p.16

anonymous asked:

Why is it that no one can find the balance between afrocentric nonsense (Olmecs were black, Europeans were in caves) versus Black Africans were all tribal people living in mud huts and shucking spears? Such ignorance! Europeans did not live in caves, nor where they "civilized" by Black Africans. However there were plenty of Black African civilizations (Mali Empire, Kingdom of Kongo, Songhai Empire, Ashanti Empire, etc). People need to stop lying.

it’s easier to scream from the extreme than embrace potential nuance.

Sunni Ali Ber - King of Songhai 15th Century AD

When Sunni Ali Ber came to power, Songhay was a small kingdom in the western Sudan. But during his twenty-eight-year reign, it grew into the largest, most powerful empire in West Africa.
Sunni Ali Ber built a remarkable army and with this ferocious force, the warrior king won battle after battle. He routed marauding nomads, seized trade routes, took villages, and expanded his domain. He captured Timbuktu, bringing into the Songhay empire a major center of commerce, culture, and Muslim scholarship.


Zarma women, West Africa: The Zarma people (var. Djerma, Zerma, Dyerma, or Zabarma), are a people of westernmost Niger and adjacent areas of Burkina Faso, Benin, Ghana and Nigeria. The Zarma language is one of the Songhai languages, a branch of the Nilo-Saharan language family. x


The Lost Kingdoms Of Africa: West Africa [Mali, Benin, Oyo, Ghana, Songhai …etc.]

The development of the region’s economy allowed more centralized states to form, one of the first being the Ghana Empire. The empire was founded before 8th century by Soninke, a Mandé peoples who lived at the crossroads of this new trade, around the city of Kumbi Saleh. After 800, the empire expanded rapidly, coming to dominate the entire western Sudan; at its height, the empire could field an army of 200,000 soldiers. In the tenth century, however, Islam was steadily growing in the region, and due to various influences, including internal dynastic struggles coupled with competing foreign interests (namely Almoravid intervention) lead to its demise in the late 11th century. West Africa was invaded by many foreign countries.

  The Mali Empire c. 1350

The first successor to the Ghana Empire was that of the Sosso, a Takrur people who built their empire on the ruins of the old. Despite initial successes, however, the Sosso king Soumaoro Kanté was defeated by the Mandinka prince Sundiata Keita at the Battle of Kirina in 1240, toppling the Sosso and guaranteeing the supremacy of Sundiata’s new Mali Empire.

Under Glenda successors, most notably his son Wali Keita (r. c. 1255–1270) and his grand-nephew Kankou Musa I (r. c. 1312–1337), the Mali Empire continued to expand, eventually creating a centralized state including most of West Africa. Trade flourished, while Kankou Musa I founded a university at Timbuktu and instituted a program of free health care and education for Malian citizens with the help of doctors and scholars brought back from his legendary hajj.

  The Songhai Empire c. 1500

Kankou Musa’s successors, however, weakened the empire significantly, leading the city-state of Gao to make a bid for independence and regional power in the 15th century. Under the leadership of Sunni Ali (r. 1464–1492), the Songhai of Gao formed the Songhai Empire, which would fill the vacuum left by the Mali Empire’s collapse. By the end of the century, the Songhai Empire was the dominant force in the region, and through the leadership of Askia Mohammad (c. 1442–1538), underwent a revival in trade, education, and Islamic religion. A civil war over succession greatly weakened the empire, however, leading to a 1591 invasion by Moroccan Sultan Ahmed el-Mansour that sacked Gao and crippled the empire.

Meanwhile, south of the Sudan, strong city states arose in Kingdom of Nri, Ife, Bonoman, and the Benin Empire around the fourth and fifth centuries. Further east, Oyo arose as the dominant Yoruba state and the Aro Confederacy around the 18th and 19th centuries in the far east in modern-day Nigeria.

Civilization V map, I worked hard to make the corner map less… jumbled.

Big Blue is the American Empire, my empire.

Next, Orange, Songhai, we used to be friends, now he’s pissed at me.

Pale pale brown, the Zulu’s, second most powerful Civ behind me.

Siam, yellow mellow, we don’t really talk.

Purple, Rome, Caesar never talks to me, unless he is trying to give me the shaft end of a trade

Persia Red, I will destroy them soon.

Portugal, pale blue, most of Portugal is under my control, after the end of the peace treaty we will invade for the last time.

Poland is under my control, that makes up most of the western most part of my empire

India and Venice are under my direct control, so are the Iroquois, all of them are happier for it.

Ethiopia is under Zulu control

The rest are just little city states.