solid solution

**Kutnahorite **

Calcium carbonate is well known as calcite or aragonite, but forms what is called a solid solution series in which iron and manganese can substitute for calcium in the crystal structure forming mineral end members known as dolomite (magnesium), ankerite (iron) and kutnahorite (manganese). The type locality is the town of Kutna Hora just outside Prague in the Czech Republic.

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“Assertive and outspoken - they are driven to lead. Excellent ability to understand difficult organizational problems and create solid solutions. Intelligent and well-informed, they usually excel at public speaking. They value knowledge and competence, and usually have little patience with inefficiency or disorganization.”

A coiled mineral serpent

While some minerals are singletons, many occur in groups with different varieties, one notable example being the garnet family. Many of these are what geochemists call solid solution series, were one ion can substitute for another in the crystal structure such as the pyrope (chromium)-almandine (iron)-spessartine (maganese) series in garnets. Apophyllite is one of these groups with three main members, named for the Greek words meaning it flakes off (leaf away from), since when heated they dehydrate and flake apart. Potassium interchanges with sodium and the hydroxyl radical (OH) with fluorine.

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From the previously prepared sodium methoxide solution (first pics) a heterocyclic compound was prepared by a base catalyzed condensation.

This is one of the worst reactions what I usually perform during the preparation of a substituted pyrrole. When the sodium salt of the heterocycle precipitates (that yellow thing on the third pics) I have to remove most of the solvent before the workup. The only problem is, that the yellow compound with the methanol behaves like butter, so it’s impossible to remove all of the solvent with vacuum and I can’t use heat, since the compound readily decomposes. 

After adding acids and water to neutralize the solution during the workup (last pics) the product should precipitate as a white crystalline solid. As seen this step in this case failed to give white crystals, but I obtained a lot off-white/brown solid floating in the solution):

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Precipitation: Sulfur Chloride and Sulfur Sulfide

Precipitation is the creation of a solid in a solution or inside another solid during a chemical reaction or by diffusion in a solid. When the reaction occurs in a liquid solution, the solid formed is called the ‘precipitate’.The chemical that causes the solid to form is called the 'precipitant’. Without sufficient force of gravity (settling) to bring the solid particles together, the precipitate remains in suspension. For that reason, centrifuges are commonly used.

Precipitation may occur if the concentration of a compound exceeds its solubility (such as when mixing solvents or changing their temperature). Precipitation may occur rapidly from a supersaturated solution.

In solids, precipitation occurs if the concentration of one solid is above the solubility limit in the host solid, due to e.g. rapid quenching or ion implantation, and the temperature is high enough that diffusion can lead to segregation into precipitates. Precipitation in solids is routinely used to make nano clusters.

An important stage of the precipitation process is the onset of nucleation. The creation of a hypothetical solid particle includes the formation of an interface, which requires some energy based on the relative surface energy of the solid and the solution. If this energy is not available, and no suitable nucleation surface is available, supersaturation occurs.

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How To Approach Your Boss When Conflict Arises

Sometimes the hardest part of your job isn’t the work; it’s the people. If and when you determine it’s appropriate to approach the boss to discuss the conflict at hand, here’s how you should do it:

1) Only share your issues once you have solid solutions.

2) Calculate the risks.

3) Know your timing. 

4) Approach your boss with a cool and collected attitude.

5) Take the boss out to lunch.

6) Be prepared.

7) Be professional.

8)  If any part of the conflict is your fault, admit this to your supervisor.

9) Be willing to take advice.

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