solid fuel

anonymous asked:

Why didn't Japan just make piloted bombs during ww2 or did they?

That they did, meet the Ohka, lovingly known by the americans as the Baka (idiot):

Effectively a manned anti-ship missile, and powered by a solid-fuel rocket, designed around the concept of speed, which would make it impossible to shoot down once airborne.

The problem was getting this thing to the target, as rocket-powered aircraft are notoriously short-legged (see the German Komet, an interceptor rather than a suicide aircraft), so they had to be carried to their targets by japanese twin-engine bombers, which in turn, were extremely easy target for American radar-guided naval interceptors, ensuring only three ships were ever sunk by this contraption. 

Unlike the Germans, which put their fate in wonder weapons during the closing stages of WWII, inadvertently helping the shape modern warfare as we now know it, the Japanese put all their fate in bullshit suicide weapons, kamikazes, like this one, all with extremely poor results, and their only legacy post-war military-speaking being the proof of just how far the madness of men can really go. 

A Ranger’s Arsenal: Arrowheads

The pointy end of an Arrow is the most functional part!

The Arrowhead plays the largest role in determining an Arrow’s purpose…

Some arrows may simply use a sharpened tip of the solid shaft, but it is far more common for separate arrowheads to be made, usually from metal, horn, or some other materials…

Arrowheads are usually separated by function:

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Saturn V

The Saturn rocket series’ biggest brother, the culmination of America’s efforts during the Cold War Space Race against the Russians, and the paragon of human spaceflight achievement, The Apollo program’s primary tool was the mighty Saturn V, the pride of American space exploration, and NASA’s poster child. Designed by Wehrner von Braun, the massive rocket took 24 astronauts beyond Earth’s orbit, 12 of which walked on the Moon.

The Saturn V dwarfed every previous rocket fielded by America in the Space Race, remaining to this day the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful rocket ever brought to operational status and still holds records for the heaviest payload launched and largest payload capacity. On the pad, she stood 363 feet (111m) tall, taller than the Statue of Liberty by 58 feet, with a diameter of 33 feet (10m), and weighed 6.5 million pounds fully fueled. Her designed payload capacity was rated at 261,000 pounds (118,000 kg) to Low Earth Orbit and 90,000 pounds (41,000 kg) to the Moon, but in later missions was able to carry about 310,000 pounds (140,000 kg) to LEO and sent up to 107,100 lb (48,600 kg) worth of spacecraft to the Moon.

The total launch vehicle was a 3 stage vehicle: the S-IC first stage, S-II second stage and the S-IVB third stage. The first stage used RP-1 for fuel, while the second and third stages used liquid hydrogen (LH2), with all three using liquid oxygen (LOX) for oxidizer.

Originally posted by spaceplasma

First Stage

The first stage of the Saturn V is the lower section of the rocket, producing the most thrust in order to get the vehicle off the pad and up to altitude for the second stage.

The Rocketdyne F-1 engine used to propel the rocket was designed for the U.S. Air Force by Rocketdyne for use on ICBM’s, but was dropped and picked up by NASA for use on their rockets. This engine still is the most powerful single combustion chamber engine ever produced, producing 1,522,000 lbf (6,770 kN) at sea level and 1,746,000 lbf (7,770 kN) in a vacuum. The S-IC has five F-1 engines. Total thrust on the pad, once fully throttled, was well over 7,600,000 lbf, consuming the RP-1 fuel and LOX oxidizer at a jaw-dropping 13 metric tonnes per second.

The launch sequence for the first stage begins at approx. T-minus 8.9 seconds, when the five F-1 engines are ignited to achieve full throttle on t-minus 0.  The center engine ignited first, followed by opposing outboard pairs at 300-millisecond intervals to reduce the structural loads on the rocket. When thrust had been confirmed by the onboard computers, the rocket was “soft-released” in two stages: first, the hold-down arms released the rocket, and second, as the rocket began to accelerate upwards, it was slowed by tapered metal pins pulled through dies for half a second.

It took about 12 seconds for the rocket to clear the tower. During this time, it yawed 1.25 degrees away from the tower to ensure adequate clearance despite adverse winds. (This yaw, although small, can be seen in launch photos taken from the east or west.) At an altitude of 430 feet (130 m) the rocket rolled to the correct flight azimuth and then gradually pitched down until 38 seconds after second stage ignition. This pitch program was set according to the prevailing winds during the launch month. The four outboard engines also tilted toward the outside so that in the event of a premature outboard engine shutdown the remaining engines would thrust through the rocket’s center of gravity. At this point in the launch, forces exerted on the astronauts is about 1.25 g.

At about T+ 1 minute, the rocket has gone supersonic, at which point, shock collars form around the rocket’s second stage separator. At this point, the vehicle is between 3 and 4 nautical miles in altitude.

Originally posted by sagansense

As the rocket ascends into thinner atmosphere and continues to burn fuel, the rocket becomes lighter, and the engine efficiency increases, accelerating the rocket at a tremendous rate.  At about 80 seconds, the rocket experienced maximum dynamic pressure. Once maximum efficiency of the F-1 engines is achieved, the total thrust peaks at around 9,000,000 lbf. At T+ 135 seconds, astronaut strain has increased to a constant 4 g’s.

At around T+ 168 seconds, the engines cut off as all fuel in the first stage is expended. At this point in flight, the rocket is  at an altitude of about 36 nautical miles (67 km), was downrange about 50 nautical miles (93 km), and was moving about 6,164 miles per hour (2,756 m/s). The first stage separates at a little less than 1 second following engine cutoff to allow for engine trail-off.  Eight small solid fuel separation motors backs the S-IC from the rest of the vehicle, and the first stage continues ballistically to an altitude of about 59 nautical miles (109 km) and then falls in the Atlantic Ocean about 300 nautical miles (560 km) downrange. Contrary to the common misconception, the S-IC stage never leaves Earth’s atmosphere, making it, technically, an aircraft.

Second Stage

The second stage is responsible with propelling the vehicle to orbital altitude and velocity. Already up to speed and altitude, the second stage doesn’t require as much Delta-V to achieve it’s operation.

For the first two unmanned launches, eight solid-fuel ullage motors ignited for four seconds to give positive acceleration to the S-II stage, followed by start of the five Rocketdyne J-2 engines. For the first seven manned Apollo missions only four ullage motors were used on the S-II, and they were eliminated completely for the final four launches. 

About 30 seconds after first stage separation, the interstage ring dropped from the second stage. This was done with an inertially fixed attitude so that the interstage, only 1 meter from the outboard J-2 engines, would fall cleanly without contacting them. Shortly after interstage separation the Launch Escape System was also jettisoned.

About 38 seconds after the second stage ignition the Saturn V switched from a preprogrammed trajectory to a “closed loop” or Iterative Guidance Mode. The Instrument Unit now computed in real time the most fuel-efficient trajectory toward its target orbit. If the Instrument Unit failed, the crew could switch control of the Saturn to the Command Module’s computer, take manual control, or abort the flight.

About 90 seconds before the second stage cutoff, the center engine shut down to reduce longitudinal pogo oscillations (a forward/backward oscillation caused by the unstable combustion of propellant). At around this time, the LOX flow rate decreases, changing the mix ratio of the two propellants, ensuring that there would be as little propellant as possible left in the tanks at the end of second stage flight. This was done at a predetermined Delta-V.

 Five level sensors in the bottom of each S-II propellant tank are armed during S-II flight, allowing any two to trigger S-II cutoff and staging when they were uncovered. One second after the second stage cut off it separates and several seconds later the third stage ignited. Solid fuel retro-rockets mounted on the interstage at the top of the S-II fires to back it away from the S-IVB. The S-II impacts about 2,300 nautical miles (4,200 km) from the launch site.

The S-II would burn for 6 minutes to propel the vehicle to 109 miles (175km) and 15,647 mph, close to orbital velocity.

Third Stage

Now in space, the third stage, the S-IVB’s sole purpose is to prepare and push the Command, Service, and Lunar Modules to the Moon via TLI. 

Unlike the two-plane separation of the S-IC and S-II, the S-II and S-IVB stages separated with a single step. Although it was constructed as part of the third stage, the interstage remained attached to the second stage.

During Apollo 11, a typical lunar mission, the third stage burned for about 2.5 minutes until first cutoff at 11 minutes 40 seconds. At this point it was 1,430 nautical miles (2,650 km)  downrange and in a parking orbit at an altitude of 103.2 nautical miles (191.1 km)  and velocity of 17,432 mph (7,793 m/s). The third stage remained attached to the spacecraft while it orbited the Earth one and a half times while astronauts and mission controllers prepared for translunar injection.

This parking orbit is quite low, and would eventually succumb to aerodynamic drag if maintained, but on lunar missions, this can be gotten away with because the vehicle is not intended to stay in said orbit for long. The S-IVB also continued to thrust at a low level by venting gaseous hydrogen, to keep propellants settled in their tanks and prevent gaseous cavities from forming in propellant feed lines. This venting also maintained safe pressures as liquid hydrogen boiled off in the fuel tank. This venting thrust easily exceeded aerodynamic drag.

On Apollo 11, TLI came at 2 hours and 44 minutes after launch. The S-IVB burned for almost six minutes giving the spacecraft a velocity close to the Earth’s escape velocity of 25,053 mph (11,200 m/s). This gave an energy-efficient transfer to lunar orbit, with the Moon helping to capture the spacecraft with a minimum of CSM fuel consumption.

After the TLI, the Saturn V has fullfilled its purpose of getting the Apollo crew and modules on their way to the Moon. At around 40 minutes after TLI, the Command Service module (the conjoined Command module and Service Module) separate from the LM adapter, turns 180 degrees, and docks with the exposed Lunar Module. After 50 minutes, the 3 modules separate from the spent S-IVC, in a process known as Transposition, docking and extraction

Of course, if the S-IVC were to remain on the same course (in other words, if they leave it right there unattended), due to the physics of zero gravity environments, the third stage would present a collision hazard for the Apollo modules. To prevent this, its remaining propellants were vented and the auxiliary propulsion system fired to move it away. Before Apollo 13, the S-IVB was directed to slingshot around the Moon into a solar orbit, but from 13 onward, the S-IVB was directed to actually impact the Moon. The reason for this was for existing probes to register the impacts on their seismic sensors, giving valuable data on the internals and structure of the Moon.

Launch Escape System

The Saturn V carries a frightening amount of potential energy (the Saturn V on the pad, if launch failed and the rocket ruptured and exploded, would have released an energy equivalent to 2 kilotons of TNT, a force shy of the smallest atomic weapons), which luckily was unleashed as planned without incident. However, this being NASA, precautions were made to save the crew in event of a catastrophic failure. 

The LES (Launch Escape System) has been around since the Mercury Program as a way to get the crew capsule away from a potential explosion on the pad or in early launch. The idea is that a small rocket would take the capsule far enough away from the rocket that parachutes could be deployed.

The LES included three wires that ran down the exterior of the launch vehicle. If the signals from any two of the wires were lost, the LES would activate automatically. Alternatively, the Commander could activate the system manually using one of two translation controller handles, which were switched to a special abort mode for launch. When activated, the LES would fire a solid fuel escape rocket, and open a canard system to direct the Command Module away from, and off the path of, a launch vehicle in trouble. The LES would then jettison and the Command Module would land with its parachute recovery system.

If the emergency happened on the launch pad, the LES would lift the Command Module to a sufficient height to allow the recovery parachutes to deploy safely before coming in contact with the ground.

An interesting factoid is how much power the LES possesses; in fact, the LES rocket produces more thrust (147,000 pounds-force (650 kN) sea level thrust) than the Mercury-Redstone rocket (78,000 pounds-force (350 kN)) used to launch Freedom-7 during the Mercury program. 


Originally posted by pappubahry

After budget cuts necessitated mission cancellations and the end of the Apollo program, NASA still had at least one Saturn V rocket intended for Apollo 18/19. Luckily, in 1965, the Apollo Applications Program was established to find a use for the Saturn V rocket following the Apollo program. Much of the research conducted in this program revolved around sending up a space station. This station (now known as Skylab) would be built on the ground from a surplus Saturn IB second stage and launched on the first two live stages of a Saturn V. 

The only significant changes to the Saturn V from the Apollo configurations involved some modification to the S-II to act as the terminal stage for inserting the Skylab payload into Earth orbit, and to vent excess propellant after engine cutoff so the spent stage would not rupture in orbit. The S-II remained in orbit for almost two years, and made an uncontrolled re-entry on January 11, 1975. 

This would be NASA’s only Saturn V launch not associated with the Apollo program, and unfortunately, would prove to be the Saturn V’s last one. There were other concepts for Saturn V’s as launch vehicles, including a space shuttle design, but none of these ever came to fruition. 


From 1964 until 1973, a total of $6.417 billion ($41.4 billion in 2016) was appropriated for the Saturn V, with the maximum being in 1966 with $1.2 billion ($8.75 billion in 2016). 

Displays and Survivors

There are several displays of Saturn V rockets around the United States, including a few test rockets and unused ones intended for flight. The list below details what and where they are.

  • Two at the U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville:

SA-500D is on horizontal display made up of S-IC-D, S-II-F/D and S-IVB-D. These were all test stages not meant for flight. This vehicle was displayed outdoors from 1969 to 2007, was restored, and is now displayed in the Davidson Center for Space Exploration. The second display here is a vertical display (replica) built in 1999 located in an adjacent area.

  • One at the Johnson Space Center made up of first stage from SA-514, the second stage from SA-515 and the third stage from SA-513 (replaced for flight by the Skylab workshop). With stages arriving between 1977 and 1979, this was displayed in the open until its 2005 restoration when a structure was built around it for protection. This is the only display Saturn consisting entirely of stages intended to be launched.
  • One at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, made up of S-IC-T (test stage) and the second and third stages from SA-514. It was displayed outdoors for decades, then in 1996 was enclosed for protection from the elements in the Apollo/Saturn V Center.
  • The S-IC stage from SA-515 is on display at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • The S-IVB stage from SA-515 was converted for use as a backup for Skylab, and is on display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.

Source: Wikipedia

HERE, you know why I like this image so much, It’s becase it makes you wonder how the rest of the world or rather JJ sees the other skaters.
mean, we all know them pretty well at this point, Phichit is beautifull, loves social media and is the ultimate best bro, Yuri is rude but deep inside he just really loves his grandpa, piroshki, and cats, Otabek is shy but just wants some frinds who are not self centered  assholes, Chiris is the weird dude you keep away from your kids but is actually just a bit eccentric and he does makes you unconfortable from time to time but he means well, Yuuri is anxious but really caring, a cinnamon roll turned sinnamon when the time calls for it.
But the way he sees them there is just priceless.
Phichit looks like a regal prince lookin at the lowly peasants over his shoulder.
Yuri looks like the ruthless russian punk, ready to crush your spine a and your dreams.
Otabek is the solider fueled by determination looking down at those who even try to swipe the floor he walks in.
Chis is looking down at you refueled, he’s been here for a while an the fact you even think to be in the same level is just pathetic.
And Yuuri, Yuuri is my favorite, he looks like a BAD BITCH, he’s the hot mean girl at highschool, he’s Heather Chandler when you tought you could invite him to prom just to kick you to the ground and step in your face with six inch heels while he laughs at your tears.
And the fact that JJ sees them that way is both sad and hilarious like, just get over yourself and get to know them they don’t bite.

Edit: a lot of people have pointed out that JJ has ideed tried to meet the other skaters and the way anxiety has to do with all of this and you are totally on the right. My apologies JJ, and anyone with anxiety ofended by this. Now I kinda want to see Yuuri and him get along
Episode Review: "This is where I want to be." [S02E22]

This season wasn’t about to go quietly into that good night. (And fortunately, neither is the series!) What did we think of that explosive season finale?

Y: It has been almost a week since the episode aired and not a single day has passed when I have not rewatched the episode at last once. I am not kidding. It has occupied my every single thought. By far one of the most incredible hours of television I have ever had the privilege of viewing. A huge shout out to everyone in the Blindspot writers’ room and especially to Rachel Caris Love who honestly blew me away.

L: Two shouts, because This. Episode. Was. Amazing. I’ve been trying to be semi-coherent and break down story versus story-telling versus production, but you know what? I give up. It was all awesome, and everyone who had a hand in making it deserves a round of applause for a job extremely well done.

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mrsamberlopezgoodanoai  asked:

angry sex with roman would include

Originally posted by r0manreigns

  • him being dominant. always
  • hair pulling
  • biting lips, neck, thighs, etc.
  • v controlling, likes pushing you against the wall, throwing you to the bed, etc
  • even likes tying your hands up tbh
  • leaves you shaking at the end as a form of ‘punishment’.
  • not being able to walk for a solid week
  • his anger would fuel him, so it’d be fast pace & rough
  • although he loved to tease you and make sure you knew your place
  • bruises on your hips
  • scratches on hIS back

How Safe Stoves Are Lifting Millions of Women Out of Poverty

“Cooking over an open fire is one of the most common health and safety hazards in developing countries. Most families in low-income countries rely on this method of cooking to prepare meals.

It’s also one of the highest causes of death in developing countries and is the second biggest health risk for women and girls worldwide.

In some places, it even ranks first. In fact, smoke inhalation from the burning of solid fuels kills 4.3 million people each year. Women and children under the age of 5 are especially vulnerable.”

broblab  asked:

how to you move fuel to a space station in ksp? i cant seem to dead lift a lot of fuel quickly without a LOT of solid fuel. how do you do it?

It’s all about the staging!

When lifting heavy loads, the best thing to do is use liquid fuel rockets and do a thing called ‘asparagus staging’.

What this diagram shows is a cluster of liquid fuel tanks and boosters underneath. The idea behind asparagus staging is that all engines ignite during launch, but only fuel from the outermost tanks are depleted first. As fuel is eventually depleted from the outer tanks, you can drop them to save weight and continue with your journey. You keep dropping the spent tanks until only the center tank remains.

The advantage of this method is you have 100% possible thrust on launch and your craft will always be as light as possible during the later stages.

For example:

In this picture I have a series of 4 outer KR-1x2 engines and an inner KR-2L engine, along with liquid fuel tanks on all of them. I have them set so that fuel flows from the outer S3 engine, into the middle S2 engine and then into the S1 engine. Also note that there is no solid fuel here!

My staging sequence on the right hand side shows that all 5 boosters will activate first, then 2 will separate on the next stage, then another 2, leaving the final main engine.

This rocket is carrying a payload of a Rockomax Jumbo-64 fuel tank, remote guidance unit, monopropellant and small engines for maneuvering. This should be more than enough fuel for your space station, or any other spacecraft.

As you can see, all 5 engines are active during launch.

At around 4000 metres the S3 tanks ran out of fuel, so I separated that stage.

At around 10,000 metres I started my gravity turn, leaning east. I do this to move with the spin of Kerbin itself, saving fuel and getting me on the right trajectory.

At around 20,000 metres the S2 tanks ran out of fuel, so I separated that stage as well. Now I’m only left with a single main engine, however it has 100% fuel remaining.

At 70,000 metres my craft was now in space. I cut the thrust and just let it coast towards the apoapsis.

Once near the apoapsis, I turned on the thrust again and circularized the orbit.

Now that the apoapsis and periapsis were at similar altitudes, I ditched the main engine, leaving only the payload and its small thrusters.

Now the payload is free to maneuver itself to the nearest space station, carrying tons of precious fuel. The docking port on the top, along with the RCS thrusters makes that task easy.

Hope this helps! If you want to carry your payload further, or carry an even larger load (although you shouldn’t need to!), you can simply add more stages or even more powerful engines (I didn’t even use the KS-25x4 engines for this build).

If you want a video tutorial of how to do asparagus staging, I’d recommend this one:

swedish space vocabulary

the bolded parts of nouns are their indefinite form and the regular text included shows the definite form. some names and specific terms are only written in the definite form due to their indefinite forms being very uncommon.

rymden - space 

stjärnan - star

månen - moon

solen - sun

Jorden - the Earth

Jordradien - the Earth’s radius

planeten - planet

kometen - comet

asteroiden - asteroid

meteoriten - meteorite

stjärnfallet - shooting star

stjärnhimmel def. stjärnhimlen - the sky (at night)

solförmörkelsen - solar eclipse

månförmörkelsen - lunar eclipse

stjärnbilden - constellation

vintersolståndet - winter solstice

sommarsolståndet - summer solstice

vårdagjämningen - March equinox

höstdagjämningen - September equinox

satelliten - satellite

astronauten - astronaut

kosmonauten - cosmonaut

taikonauten - taikonaut

rymdfärjan (in some very rare cases rymdskytteln) - space shuttle

rymdskeppet - spaceship

rymdfarkosten - spaceship (literally means space vehicle)

rymdraketen - (space) rocket

fastbränsleraketen - solid rocket booster

bränsletanken - fuel tank

syret - oxygen

vätet - hydrogen

vätgasen - hydrogen gas

heliumet - helium

flygningen - flight

Månlandningen - moon landing

månlandaren - lunar module/lunar vehicle

omloppsbanan - orbit

landningen - landing

landningsbanan - runway (as in the one you land on)

rymdstationen - space station

Markkontrollen - ground control

rymdpromenaden - spacewalk

rymddräkten - spacesuit

rymdhjälmen - space helmet

rymdfärden - space voyage

rymdresan - space voyage (slightly less common)

tyngdlös - weightless adj.

densiteten - density

massan - mass

gravitationen/tyngdkraften - gravity

fallskärmen - parachute

atmosfären - atmosphere


exoplaneten - exo-planet

nödkapseln - emergency capsule

rymdvarelsen - alien

ljusets hastighet - light speed

den absoluta nollpunkten - absolute zero

den röda jätte(stjärna)n - red giant

den röda dvärg(en) - red dwarf

den vita dvärg(stjärna)n - white dwarf

den svarta dvärg(stjärna)n - black dwarf

ljusåret - light-year

vakuumet - vacuum

strålningen - radiation

bågminuten - arcminute

det svarta hålet - black hole

supernovan - supernova

Den Stora Smällen/or just “Big Bang” - Big Bang

nebulosan - nebula

galaxen - galaxy

spiralarmen - spiral arm

Relativitetsteorin - the Theory of Relativity

oändligheten - infinity

tomheten - emptiness/void

I love how shows progress.


S1: Sam and Dean are looking for their dad.

S12: Sam and Dean are trying to get Satan out of his bedroom for breakfast

Steven Universe:

S1: Steven wants to have breakfast with everyone, but they’re busy.

S4: Steven’s on trial for war crimes.

Yu-Gi-Oh! Arc-V:

Episodes 1-30: Yuya has to beat some people to qualify for a tournament.

Ep 130-150: Yuya turns into a demon-god-dragon hellbent on destroying the world.

Dragon Ball:

Goku and co. look for the dragon balls.

Dragon Ball Super:

Goku has to fight for the gods.

My life:

Early life: I got lost at the supermarket. :O

Like last week: I accidentally lit my solid-state rocket fuel in the garage, sending everything flying, dropping chemicals everywhere, igniting said chemicals, then had everything catch on fire, almost killing everyone.

North Korea: Medium-range missile ready for deployment

North Korea has said it’s ready to deploy and start mass-producing a new medium-range ballistic missile after a weekend test that sparked a fresh chorus of international condemnation.  The state-run Korean Central News Agency said the North’s leader Kim Jong-Un oversaw Sunday’s launch of the solid-fuel Pukguksong-2 missile. The test verified technical aspects of the weapon system and examined its “adaptability under various battle conditions”, the KCNA said. Kim reportedly said the launch was a success, “approved the deployment of this weapon system for action” and said that it should “be rapidly mass-produced”.  READ MORE: North Korea’s nuclear weapons - Here is all we know The US, South Korea and Japan sharply denounced the launch and jointly requested an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council, which will be held Tuesday. Pyongyang has defied all calls to rein in its nuclear and missile programs, even from China, its lone major ally, saying the weapons are needed for defence against US aggression. It’s often-stated goal is to perfect a nuclear warhead that it can put on a missile capable of hitting Washington and other US cities. 

‘Earth is beautiful’

The Pukguksong-2 flew about 500 km, reaching an altitude of 560 km, before landing in the Sea of Japan. The North also released several pictures of the Earth said to have been taken from the rocket from space. Kim “said he was very happy to see pictures of the Earth taken by our rocket and that the world looks beautiful”, KCNA said. The use of solid fuel presents advantages for weapons because the fuel is more stable and can be transported easily in the missile’s tank, allowing for a launch at very short notice. Liquid-fuel missiles, on the other hand, are fueled at the launch site in a process that can last an hour, making it easier to spot and easier to destroy than the solid-fuel variety.  The South’s military said the launch had provided the North with data to improve its missiles’ reliability, but whether it had mastered the re-entry technology for the warhead needs additional analysis.  The test-firing came just one week after the North launched a Hwasong-12 intermediate-range missile, which according to Pyongyang was capable of carrying a “heavy” nuclear warhead. Analysts said that at 4,500 km the Hwasong-12 had a longer range than any previous ballistic missile successfully tested by the North, putting US bases on the Pacific island of Guam within reach - and that it could serve as a platform to develop a long-range inter-continental ballistic missile. READ MORE: Trump’s North Korea dilemma - are sanctions the way to go? So far Washington has opted for sanctions and diplomatic pressure, while looking to China to help rein in Pyongyang. China repeated on Monday its call for all parties to exercise restraint to not let tension mount further. Japan said it cannot “absolutely tolerate” the May 21 launch. Seoul’s foreign ministry slammed the “reckless and irresponsible” weekend firing as “throwing cold water on the hope and longing of the new government and the international community” for denuclearisation and peace on the Korean peninsula.

Sossina Haile

(born 1966) Chemist

Sossina Haile is a professor of material science and chemical engineering at CalTech. Haile is responsible for the creation of the first solid-acid fuel cell. Her research is focused primarily on solid-state ionics as well as ferroelectric and thermoelectric materials. She also has been given research grants to develop devices and which take best advantage of her new battery technology.

Number 101 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Rheintöchter R-1, prototype German SAM missile manufactured by Rheinmetall-Borsig

The name derives from the mythical Rheintöchter (something like the maidens of the Rhine), taken from the opera Der Ring des Nibelungen by Richard Wagner.
Charged by the Heer in November 1942, tests with the missile carrying an explosive head of 136 kg. They began in August 1943, performing 82 shots, counting also with a version to be released from an airplane. The R1 was the initial version, and was propelled by a solid two-stage rocket engine, having flares installed at the wing tips for flight control. Because the R-1 was not able to reach great heights, the R-3 was developed, which was powered by a liquid fuel rocket motor and by solid fuel boosters. Finally the project was canceled on 6 February 1945


     Every rocket has a payload; even the small, solid fuel rocket that I built and fired while attending Space Camp as a child. My rocket launched an earthworm as its payload, carrying it about 1,000 feet above the ground. A parachute opened and brought my payload it back to the ground, alive and unscathed. Obviously, larger rockets tend to carry larger payloads. The Saturn V Moon rocket was the largest launch vehicle ever successfully flown. The whole point of the Saturn V was to lift this, the Lunar Stack, off of Earth, insert it into a brief period of Earth orbit, then push it toward the Moon.

     The Lunar Stack consisted of several systems. The very tip of the rocket is a component called the Launch Escape System. This was a tower fixed to the nose of the manned capsule during launch, which contained a solid rocket motor that would be fired if the rocket started to break up, pulling the crew to safety. Luckily, this never had to happen in the Apollo program. If everything was performing nominally, the Launch Escape System would be jettisoned away from the capsule after ignition of the S-II second stage.

     The next major system down the line is the Command-Service Module (CSM). This two-part component consists of the Command Module (CM) and the Service Module (SM). The CM carried all three astronauts during the whole flight, from launch, all the way to splash-down, excluding the time when two of the three astronauts would transfer to the Lunar Module (LM) for their excursion to the moon. The particular Command-Service Module pictured here is called CSM-115, which was manufactured for the cancelled Apollo 19 mission. It is only partially completed. Normally, the unflown Command Modules are a shiny silver color, but this module sat outside for decades, and has taken the appearance of one that has suffered an entry into the atmosphere. 

     The conical structure aft of the CSM is the Spacecraft-Lunar Adapter, which housed and protected the Lunar Module (LM), and the CSM engine during launch. Once the Lunar Stack was on a path to the moon, the CSM would detach from the SLA cone, which would open up like flower petals, exposing the LM. The CSM would turn 180°, dock with the LM, and pull it away from the S-IVB third stage. Then, the CSM and LM would continue their path to the Moon, separate from the S-IVB third stage.

     Each small component of the Apollo System, from the launch, to the Escape Tower, and everything in between, is incredible to me. I could go into endless detail about each small component within these systems, but that will have to wait for future articles.


     This magnificent F-1 rocket engine is on display in front of the Infinity Science Center in Hancock County, Mississippi. Infinity is located across the highway from NASA Stennis Space Center, where they tested these beasts during the Apollo days. Beside the enormous F-1 stands an H-1 engine, which produced eight times less thrust (shown in final photo).

     During testing, five F-1 engines, each producing 1.5 million pounds of thrust, roared to life, liquefying the ground with its acoustic shock wave surrounding the B-2 test stand at Stennis. Eventually, five of these engines would carry the Saturn V rocket (shown in a previous post, click here to view) for the first 150 seconds of its journey, guzzling fifteen tons of fuel per second. I once heard that these engines got an average fuel mileage of two inches per gallon.

     The F-1 uses an RP-1 (refined kerosene, similar to jet fuel) as its fuel, and a LOX (liquid oxygen) oxidizer. It is currently the most powerful liquid fuel rocket engine in existence. There have been more powerful solid fuel engines, and liquid fuel engine clusters.

     The engine was designed by Rocketdyne, first for the Air Force, who wanted a large engine such as this. Later, the Air Force dropped the program after a testing phase, but NASA restarted the F-1 development for use with their space program.

     Incredible problems were overcome during the development of this engine. Notably, a condition called combustion instability. During combustion instability, the gasses in the combustion chamber began to spin at an incredible two thousand cycles per second, creating hot spots in the chamber structure, which eventually cause the engine to fail catastrophically, (e.g. explode). The problem was overcome, after months of research and thousands of man hours, by redesigning the injector plate (shown in the third photo) numerous times, until the problem mostly went away.

     Amazingly, the operational life of the F-1 may live on. A team is currently firing an original F-1 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (a facility which I covered in a previous post, click here to view), familiarizing themselves with it’s characteristics, and will be modifying the design for possible use with the final evolution of the future NASA SLS rocket. This modified engine will be called the F-1B, and will produce 1.8 million pounds of thrust, which is far more than the original. I’ve covered the first first flight-ready component of the SLS booster in a previous post (click here to view).

Human Waste Becomes Fuel For Spaceflight

by Txchnologist staff

When you’ve got to go, you’ve got to go. Now a research project conducted at the University of Florida has shown that when future astronauts need to take a bathroom break, they’ll be helping their rockets go, go, go.

Engineers have developed a two-stage digester process that turns human and organic waste into almost 77 gallons of methane per crewmember per day. The biogas, which also includes carbon dioxide, can be used to power rocket engines or other systems onboard spacecraft.

“We were trying to find out how much methane can be produced from uneaten food, food packaging and human waste,” said Pratap Pullammanappallil, an associate professor of agricultural and biological engineering. “The idea was to see whether we could make enough fuel to launch rockets and not carry all the fuel and its weight from Earth for the return journey.” 

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