solar initiator

random things ive been loving abt mamamoo

- rewatched many of their mmmtv episodes and noticed that moonbyul tends to be the one to lead in goofing around by giving directions, mostly to wheein, lmao. and of course they oblige the mastermind every single time.

- wheein likes whispering/talking into hyejin’s ear, i find it so amusing. seems like it’s one of their communication quirks.

- hyejin has been seen actively driving brainstorming sessions, especially when the rest have gotten a little quieter. seeing this side of her is nice.

- moonbyul seems to instinctively do popping whenever they all begin to hyper up and dance for whatever reason.

- solar and wheein together is EXPLOSIVE ENERGY SQUARED bcoz both of them display much less restraint than moonbyul and hyejin do. like, they’ll be the last 2 people of any group they’re part of to get tired of laughing. BUT THAT’S WHY I LOVE THEM TOGETHER THEY CATCH ON TO EACH OTHER REALLY QUICKLY.

- continuing from above, wheesol probably have a lower tendency than hwabyul to feel embarrassed, hence more likely to go wild more quickly. case in point: when solar initially refused to dance to lee hyori’s change but eventually gave in to their begging and did it anyway lol. it doesn’t mean they don’t feel embarrassed but they usually go ahead and do things anyway and it’s so pure of them.

- when there’s food on the table, wheein can become super focused on eating.

- wheein appears to have the best memory of their group choreography, and also most likely to remain calm under stressful conditions (based entirely on the past 2 random play dance segments on weekly idol).

When the lunar bodies become emptied, when the pluralized “I” no longer inhabits them, then the initiate enters into a mystic trance; he remains in the internal worlds for three days. During these three days, his body remains comatose. When he returns to his physical body, he no longer has lunar bodies, but solar bodies. The superior adepts help him to get rid of those lunar vehicles, which gradually disintegrate in the molecular world.

The initiate, with his solar bodies, is totally self-realized; he is a Master of the Day, a Master of the Mahamanvantara, with power over life and death, and over all that is, all that has been, and all that shall be.

Progress cargo ship malfunctioning, spinning in orbit.

After its nine minute climb into orbit a 3:09 AM EDT, the Progress M-27M cargo spacecraft was supposed to begin a series of orbital maneuvers that would have culminated in a space station rendezvous six hours later.

However, shortly after deploying its solar arrays in its initial parking orbit, Russian ground controllers began to receive telemetry that indicated all was not well on the spacecraft.

The KURS docking radar antenna had not deployed, and multiple rate sensor failures. The rate sensors are part of both the primary and secondary KURS rendezvous systems and essentially monitors the spacecraft’s motion in space. The video above, downlinked during a brief communication period, shows the spacecraft spinning in orbit.

Since the Russians do not operate a dedicated satellite communication system for their missions - like NASA’s TDRS, controllers must wait for the spacecraft to pass over Russian ground stations before attempts at communication can be made.

The official cause of Progress’ spin is undetermined, but the fault could lie in both the spacecraft or the Soyuz rocket that lofted it. An investigation will be started to ensure that the cause will not affect other Progress or Soyuz vehicles.  Russian controllers are skeptical the spacecraft can be salvaged and brought to the International Space Station.

Progress M-27M was bringing just under three tons of supplies to the orbiting complex. While none of its cargo was vital to the station’s operation or crew member’s lives, the loss of the vehicle - and the delay this will cause in the Progress manifest - will begin to cut into the station’s reserves. Additionally, with Europe’s Automated Transfer Vehicle being retired earlier this year and Orbital Science’s Cygnus still grounded after last October’s Antares rocket explosion, only two vessels can now being supplies to the orbiting lab.

Japan’s HTV is slated for an August launch, but only averages one flight per year. The grunt of the cargo deliveries will fall on the shoulders of SpaceX and their Dragon capsule. Their sixth resupply mission is currently berthed to the complex, and CRS-7 is scheduled for mid-June.

The Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, could launch a replacement Progress vehicle in as little as 45 days provided the investigation board does not find fault in any subsequent vehicles.

What does it means to be a ‘planet’?

Before the discoveries of the early 21st century, astronomers had no real need for a formal definition for planets. With the discovery of Pluto in 1930, astronomers considered the Solar System to have nine planets, along with thousands of smaller bodies such as asteroids and comets. Pluto was thought to be larger than Mercury.

In 1978, the discovery of Pluto’s moon Charon radically changed this picture. By measuring Charon’s orbital period, astronomers could accurately calculate Pluto’s mass for the first time, which they found to be much smaller than expected. Pluto’s mass was roughly one twenty-fifth of Mercury’s, making it by far the smallest planet, smaller even than the Earth's Moon, although it was still over ten times as massive as the largest asteroid, Ceres.

In the 1990s, astronomers began finding other objects at least as far away as Pluto, now known as Kuiper Belt objects, or KBOs. Many of these shared some of Pluto’s key orbital characteristics and are now called plutinos. Pluto came to be seen as the largest member of a new class of objects, and some astronomers stopped referring to Pluto as a planet. Pluto’s eccentric and inclined orbit, while very unusual for a planet in the Solar System, fits in well with the other KBOs.

Starting in 2000, with the discovery of at least three bodies (Quaoar, Sedna, and Eris) all comparable to Pluto in terms of size and orbit, it became clear that either they all had to be called planets or Pluto would have to be reclassified. Astronomers also knew that more objects as large as Pluto would be discovered, and the number of planets would start growing quickly. They were also concerned about the classification of planets in other planetary systems. In 2006, the matter came to a head with the measurement of the size of 2003 UB313. Eris (as it is now known) turned out to be slightly larger than Pluto, and so was thought to be equally deserving of the status of 'planet’.

The definition of planet set in Prague in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) states that, in the Solar System, a planet is a celestial body which:

  1. is in orbit around the Sun,
  2. has sufficient mass to assume hydrostatic equilibrium (a nearly round shape), and
  3. has “cleared the neighbourhood” around its orbit.

A non-satellite body fulfilling only the first two of these criteria is classified as a “dwarf planet”. According to the IAU, “planets and dwarf planets are two distinct classes of objects”. A non-satellite body fulfilling only the first criterion is termed a “small Solar System body” (SSSB). Initial drafts planned to include dwarf planets as a subcategory of planets, but because this could potentially have led to the addition of several dozens of planets into the Solar System, this draft was eventually dropped. The definition was a controversial one and has drawn both support and criticism from different astronomers, but has remained in use.

According to the definition, there are currently eight planets and five dwarf planets known in the Solar System. The definition distinguishes planets from smaller bodies and is not useful outside the Solar System, where smaller bodies cannot be found yet. Extrasolar planets, or exoplanets, are covered separately under a complementary 2003 draft guideline for the definition of planets, which distinguishes them from dwarf stars, which are larger.

There continues to be criticism regarding the wording of the final draft of the definition. Notably, the lead scientist on NASA’s robotic mission to PlutoAlan Stern, contends that, like Pluto, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Neptune have not fully cleared their orbital zones either. Earth orbits with 10,000 near-Earth asteroids. Jupiter, meanwhile, is accompanied by 100,000 Trojan asteroids on its orbital path. “If Neptune had cleared its zone, Pluto wouldn’t be there”, he added.

Most astronomers counter this opinion by saying that, far from not having cleared their orbits, the major planets completely control the orbits of the other bodies within their orbital zone. Jupiter may coexist with a large number of small bodies in its orbit (the Trojan asteroids), but these bodies only exist in Jupiter’s orbit because they are in the sway of the planet’s huge gravity. Similarly, Pluto may cross the orbit of Neptune, but Neptune long ago locked Pluto and its attendant Kuiper belt objects, called plutinos, into a 3:2 resonance, i.e., they orbit the Sun twice for every three Neptune orbits. The orbits of these objects are entirely dictated by Neptune’s gravity, and thus, Neptune is gravitationally dominant.

The definition may be difficult to apply outside the Solar System. Techniques for identifying extrasolar objects generally cannot determine if an object has “cleared its orbit”, except indirectly via Stern and Levison’s Λ parameter, and provide limited information about when the objects were formed. The wording of the new definition is heliocentric in its use of the word Sun instead of star or stars, and is thus not applicable to the numerous objects that have been identified in orbit around other stars. However, a separate “working” definition for extrasolar planets was established by the IAU in 2001 and includes the criterion “the minimum mass/size required for an extrasolar object to be considered a planet should be the same as that used in the Solar System.”


Fantastical Nonfiction:
Flower Power

Humans have always looked to nature for inspiration and solutions. Case in point: “Project Sunflower,” a new IBM Research solar initiative, in which 36 elliptic mirrored “petals” rise up on a concrete “stem” and rotate to catch the sun at its optimal position throughout the day. These solar sunflowers concentrate the sun’s rays to over 2,000 times their normal strength and project them onto a single point. The innovation even harnesses vapor created from the heat trapping process, for desalination and absorption cooling. Seeding these across the electrical grid could make solar energy more affordable to everyone—because sustainable power consumption shouldn’t be a luxury!


One Type of Fusion Accounts For Nearly All Of Sun’s Power, Detector Finds

by Michael Keller

The cool instrument above is what you get to work with if you are on the hunt for neutrinos, the tiny subatomic particles with barely any mass that rarely interact with other matter. Theses pictures all show the Borexino Collaboration particle physics experiment, which is designed to detect a type of neutrino predicted to fly out of the sun due to nuclear fusion of proton atoms at its core. 

The group announced today that their instrument, which is buried nearly 3,200 feet under a mountain to minimize interference from other particles, has detected the so-called pp neutrino. This variety of particle is the result of energy-generating nuclear reactions caused by the fusing of two protons. The team’s results indicate that 99 percent of the sun’s power comes from this type of fusion at its core. 

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