sodium and water

Pregnancy - physiology


  • hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin - present in blood and urine, produced by blastocyst and placenta
  • Low levels of hCG could mean miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, miscalculation of dates
  • High levels = molar pregnancy (cells that normally form a baby dysfunction and form cysts instead), multiple pregnancy (twins etc), miscalculation of dates
  • Progesterone increases fat deposition in early weeks and stimulates appetite
  • Increased oestrogen from corpus luteum promotes mammary gland development (breasts enlarge)
  • And inhibits ovulation via negative feedback [OES decreases GnRH release by hypothalamus –> linhibition of FHS and LH –> no ovulation]
  • Relaxin (secreted by corpus luteum) softens connective tissue in preparation for labour - not specific, all joints can be affected
  • Peaks in early and late pregnancy

Physical changes

Blood pressure

  • As early as 4 weeks into pregnancy 
  • plasma volume increase
  • caused by the affects of oestrogen and progesterone on the kidneys

OES and Prg cause vasodilation 

  • less resistance = less pressure
  • Heart rate increases by 25% to compensate
  • stroke volume increases 
  • increased overall cardiac output by 50% in third trimester

Direct action of enlarged uterus:

  • compresses the descending aorta and inferior vena cava 
  • decreased venous return - less blood in means less blood out, less blood in ventricle –> reduced pressure on walls –> reduced force to exit –> reduced placental perfusion
  • increased aortic pressure
  • increased heart rate
  • [shouldn’t sleep on back for this reason]


  • Fall in blood pressure (can cause collapse if serious)
  • Can cause foetal hypoxia even without mother symptoms

Haematological changes

  • red cell mass increase by 20% (renal - increased erythropoietin production in response to detection of blood oxygenation and sodium/water balance)
  • Plasma volume increases more than RBC count does, causing the impression of decreased haemoglobin (anaemia)
  • Increased tendency to clot (hypercoagulable)
  • due to increase in clotting factors and plasma fibrinogen
  • platelet production increase (however count drops due to increase in activity and consumption) - function remains normal]
  • WBC count may increase due to an increase in granulocytes

Respiratory changes

  • Increased chest diameter, diaphragmatic expression and elevation
  • dyspnoea common (difficulty breathing)
  • breathing becomes more costal (mouth) than abdominal 
  • mainly mediated by progesterone levels (cause bronchial and smooth muscle relaxation and hypersensitivity to CO2)

Changes to the urinary system

  • cardiac output increase –> increase in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration
  • increase in urea, creatinine, urate and biocarbonate clearance 
  • with progesterone, renin and aldosterone up water retention increases
  • can lead to urinary stasis and increased risk of UTI
  • Any drugs given that are excreted renally must be given in much higher quantities consequently

Gastrointestinal changes

  • Appetite increase + cravings 
  • Gastric reflux sphincter relaxation (increased indigestion, also due to increased intra-gastric pressure (expanding uterus)) 
  • gallbladder dilated 
  • GI motility decreased and transit time slower 
  • albumin and protein decrease 
  • cholesterol twice normal value


  • Calcium reuptake into bloodstream results in mild decalcification of bones 
  • relaxin softens joints (pubic symphysis + alters gait (waddling))
  • abdominal muscles stretch to elastic limit 
  • stretch marks (stria gravidarum) caused by rupture of elastic fibres and small blood vessels 

Reproductive changes

  • Massive increase in mass
  • Placenta growth (nutrition, excretion, immunity, endocrine) 

Parental blood supply 

Quick fact. Ready?
When we sweat, we’re not only loosing water, but also very important minerals; especially potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, and zinc.
This is why it’s very important to not only stay hydrated, but replenish your electrolyte levels following a heavy workout.

Building a Better Burger– Now, there’s absolutely nothing wrong with the odd burger or two, but don’t you ever wish that the toppings inside your burger were a bit fresher? Maybe a little more wholesome? Dare I say–nutritious? As we know, most condiments and toppings are processed within an inch of their life. They might have been a vegetable in a past life but they only vaguely resemble them now. It’s a labor of love, but I tell ya’ there’s nothing really like topping up your favorite toasty treats with a few homemade touches.

Both of these recipes are vegan and gluten free, so no matter what kind of buns you eat, or what you eat between your buns; everyone will be able to enjoy a homemade and fresh condiment that might even sneak a few extra micronutrients into that sandwich you’re whipping up.


  • 2 -28 oz cans of crushed tomatoes (low or no sodium)
  • ½ cup water
  • ¼ of a large yellow onion
  • 3 small cloves of garlic
  • 1 stalk of celery
  • 1 cup white vinegar
  • ½ cup of molasses (you can adjust the vinegar-to-sweetener ratio depending on your tastes; I like vinegar)
  • 1 ½ tsp salt (if tomatoes are salted, use less here
  • ¾ tsp black pepper
  • ½ tsp ground mustard

Directions: Prepare the vegetables with rough chops, it will all get blended out later. Place all the ingredients in a slow cooker, on high, and left uncovered. Stir every hour until it is reduced to the desired thickness. At least 6 hours, up to 10 hours. Blend the contents once they’ve cooled significantly. If you really feel like going through the Hell of smashing it through a sieve you can, but I really don’t care enough to make that sort of mess in my kitchen. I’m not afraid of a few seeds in my ketchup. Should make 48-60 (1 TBSP) servings depending on how much you let it reduce. I froze half and kept half in my fridge.


  • 2 large cucumbers
  • 1 large red onion
  • 1 lb of any sweet pepper that isn’t too spicy (I usually use pimientos but there weren’t any, so I grabbed poblanos this time. Red bell peppers would be delicious, too.)
  • 5 cloves of garlic
  • 3 cups of white vinegar
  • 3 cups of water
  • 6 tsp salt
  • ½ tsp black peppercorns

Directions: Prepare the vegetables how you’ll like them. I made coins out of the cucumbers, straws out of the onions, and diced the peppers and garlic. Set the garlic aside for now.  In a large glass jar (such as a flour/sugar canister; it should hold 2 quarts) layer the vegetables and place a few of the black peppercorns between each layer. On the stove, bring the water to a boil. Next, lower the heat to low and place the garlic in. Simmer it for 5 minutes. Then, add the white vinegar and the salt, bring the heat back up to high, and let it boil. Let it boil until the salt completely dissolves. Finally, feed the liquid into the jar. If you have a funnel, use it! Splashing boiling vinegar is bound to suck. Now, cover the jar opening with the lid but don’t seal it just yet. Let it cool on the counter for a few hours before sealing it and placing it in your fridge. They’ll start getting super tasty in a day or two, but I tell you. Once you’re week 1 or even week 2 into your pickles. Holy crap. These should keep for up to three months, but you’ll eat them before then because they’re so frickin’ good.


So. You’ve seen my work with Undertale and the Undertale graphic novel, and I thought it’d only be fair to show you some of my work for a potential story of my own.

All of this is rather old, but it’s all concept and doodle work from my favorite potential story of mine based around the elements and chemistry.

Do u liek chemistry, kids
Cuz I’m writing a thing about it
Like a million years from now but still

If for some reason someone gets in in their head to try and steal my work and my characters… BANISH THAT IDEA IMMEDIATELY. I worked very hard on these guys, did a lot of research and all that crap, and if someone comes along and tries to take that from me… I will not be very happy with them.
But! You guys are super nice and supportive and everything, so I’m not worried in the least.

So uhm, yeah! That’ll be a thing at some point. I’m excited to get to work with this and get to share more of it with you guys.
I’ll see you in the evening with some request responses.
Thanks guys!

Healthy Breakfast on a Budget

Those of us who live and are one the lower end of the income spectrum know eating healthy can be incredibly difficult. I do my best to feed my family of 7 on about $100 a week, and most of the time I’m successful. (Sometimes I do go over a little out of necessity.)

One way I’ve learned to cut costs is to find cheap healthy food that I can rotate through during the week. You don’t need to eat crepes or fancy omlettes or fresh berry smoothies in the morning to eat with good nutrition. So, here are some simple breakfasts I rotate through with my kids that are healthy and cheap:

Breakfast 1: 
Oatmeal with berries
2 strips turkey bacon

Breakfast 2:
2 hard boiled eggs
1 slice whole wheat toast

Breakfast 3: 
2 scrambled eggs
oatmeal with banana slices

Grocery list:
Great Value old fashioned oats: $1.60
Frozen berries (12 oz): $3.90
Oscar Meyer turkey bacon: $3
18 eggs GV brand: $2.50
Whole Wheat bread: $2

TOTAL: $14.30 (with estimated tax around 10%)

Okay, so I know $14 seems like a lot here, but it really isn’t when you break it down. The old fashioned oats will give you 13 servings. If you are using oatmeal 4 times a week, that container will give you roughly 4 weeks of breakfast. FOR $1.60!! (There are certified gluten free oats available for around $3 too, if you need to be gluten free.)

The frozen berries will also give you up to 12 servings (three weeks if you eat it with your oatmeal, because let’s face it, OATMEAL IS DISGUSTING PLAIN).

The turkey bacon will not only give you two strips 2-3 times a week, but you can use it with other meals. (BLTs anyone??? You’ve got everything but lettuce and tomatoes and those will only be another $4 and they’ll last more than one meal too!)

And the 18 eggs? If you eat two eggs once a day you’ll get 9 days of meals with these. 

And if you only have $15 to your name? You can eat these for EVERY meal and you’re good for at least a week. You don’t need to buy more than you will actually eat. It will help curb binge eating, you’ll have everything you need, and it will help lower the waste of food (seriously, how much food do you think goes bad sitting on the grocery store shelves??).

I know eating healthy when you don’t have money for a lot can be intimidating, but I promise its not impossible. I hope this helps anyone looking for some help!

*Please keep in mind this is for one person. You can figure out servings for bigger families and the cost will adjust a little bit. Make sure you’re feeding your children properly and not giving them a ton more calories than they need and you’ll be able to help combat childhood obesity too. If you live in a fresh food desert check out canned food! Low sodium and “packed in water” options are available and can be as beneficial as fresh fruits. I personally LOVE canned peaches. (: 


The violent reaction between sodium hydride and water. 

Sodium hydride is a salt-like hydride, composed of Na+ and H− ions, it is an ionic material that is insoluble in organic solvents, but soluble in molten sodium metal and quite often used as a base in chemistry. 

When contact with water sodium hydride releases hydrogen, turns into sodium hydroxide and generates a lot heat. Because of this heat the generated hydrogen gas ignites and because of the presence of sodium ions it burns with an intense yellow color (as seen). 

NaH(s) + H2O(l) –> NaOH(aq) + H2(g) 

Because of this, NaH is usually sold mixed with mineral oil what keeps away water and protects the hydride from moisture. However if it is stored for long time, it should be titrated by measuring the amount of hydrogen generated from the reaction of the hydride and an alcohol. 


so by the way
pickles are a rly good low calorie snack if you get salty cravings like me and i know a lot of other people have posted about pickles but i have some things to add about them-
• get the baby dill wholes edition, they’re the best just trust me
• i don’t suggest eating them often bc of the sodium content but every now and then i let myself eat like 10 of them in one sitting
• only dills, sweet pickles are disgusting first of all, but also full of calories and sugar
• anyway the sodium will make you retain water so i suggest not weighing for a couple days after snacking on them bc you’ll avoid a lot of heartache by not weighing
• there are low sodium varieties too which i haven’t tried yet but next time i get a jar i’m getting them. still won’t weigh for 2 days or so after eating them tho

Mystery school and esoteric lore has long understood that the pineal gland connects the ‘physical’ with the 'spiritual’ realms and allows people to see beyond the space-time construct. Opening this 'third eye’ activates psychic gifts and what some describe as supernatural powers. The pineal gland is activated by light and controls the body’s biorhythms in concert with the hypothalamus gland which regulates hunger, thirst, sexual desire and the biological clock that dictates how fast we age. Look at the potential for mass control if you can externally suppress and manipulate the pineal and hypothalamus glands alone. You can make it much harder to perceive beyond the five senses, decide how quickly people age, how much they want sex, when they are hungry and thirsty and for how long. This is the key reason for putting sodium fluoride into water supplies and toothpaste. The pineal gland absorbs more fluoride than any other part of the body and becomes calcified by this highly-damaging toxin. Sodium fluoride is an appalling waste product of the aluminium industry and has been used in rat poison. It causes cancer, genetic damage, Alzheimer’s disease, disrupts the endocrine system and dumbs down the brain. It was added to drinking water in the Nazi concentration camps to make the inmates more acquiescent and docile… It calcifies the pineal gland and is terrible for human health - while doing nothing to stop tooth decay.
—  David Icke - Human Race Get Off Your Knees

anonymous asked:

Do you ever you have a day where you don't track sp? I have been doing WW for about a month, and not seeing very much progress even though i really feel like i am honest with my tracking. You have had so much success, do you have any tips?

That I do anon!

For example I didn’t track yesterday, but I kept my portions in check and listened to my body when it was full.

So, I would stop and take a second to see what your day to day or week my week eating is like. Sometimes even tho you are staying in your points it could be what you are eating still that could have you up and down like crazy.

For example, do you have a lot of carbs (even if they are portioned) or items with a lot of sodium? What’s your water intake like —that is very important to help flush out things to help from bloating.

Or perhaps you are the stage in life where not only is healthy eating going to help you out, but also some exercise. What kinda of workouts/exercise do you do? Or maybe you workout too much and you are gaining some serious heavy muscle?

I know thats a lot of hmm maybes….but I don’t know your full situation to give a better response.

My best answer for you is to keep going, never give up. If you are not seeing much progress, that suggests that you are seeing some. And some is better then none.

It took me 20 plus years of packing on my 500 + lbs, and I know it’s going to take many more to keep taking them off.

Be persistence and don’t stay stuck on the quick and early results, just think about the bigger picture!

Originally posted by rickmaddict


Lightened Up Broccoli Cheddar Soup

3 stalks leeks (white + tender green parts only),
2 Tbsp light butter,
½ cup diced onion,
1½ lb chopped broccoli,
3 cloves minced garlic,
¼ tsp black pepper,
¼ tsp salt,
3 cups reduced-sodium chicken broth,
1 cup water,
1 cup Fat-Free Evaporated Milk,
1 cup shredded sharp cheddar cheese

Fucking Christ on a bike everyone around me is constantly complaining about how much shit food they eat and how they’re not losing weight but badger me because I lost weight simply by cutting down my sodium intake and upped my water. Now they won’t shut the fuck up about me having to gain weight because my arms and legs are too thin.

THIS IS HOW I ALWAYS AM. No matter my weight my legs and arms are sticks. My grandfather is like this, my aunt is like this I am like this. I’m so fucking sick of hearing that I need to gain weight. Fuck off and worry about yourself. It’s not that I never eat so stop fucking telling me to eat more. Goddammit I’m so fed up with this bullshit. Like I’ve said before…if I told them they needed to lose weight they get fucking offended to the stars but no telling me that I’m too thin because I don’t want to be another statistic in the obesity issues of this country they can say whatever the fuck they want without consequence.

I’m so done

anonymous asked:

You could be bloating because your body got used to having no food so when you eat, you bloat. Also, it could be from your sodium intake and water retention. Drink water and eat very very slowly and watch your salt intake and the bloat should go away soon<3

Thank You this helps!

My results are in. Went to the endocrinologist today. No adrenal insufficiency, no Addison’s Disease, no tumours. So my official diagnosis is Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome. So anyone on the POTS tag please tell me the do’s and do nots, and other ways to manage. Right now I’m on a high sodium diet, drinking alot of water and sports drinks, standing up slowly, not eating too much at meal time, and wearing compression stockings. I should start exercising soon. I need to talk to other people who have POTS, so I don’t feel so alone and so I can get help from someone who knows and understands what’s going on. Also send links if you need to. Thank you.

Old Soviet Methods

(Continued from the ask meme prompt:

“I think he’s dying!” Which was bad, and not the goal. It was so far from the goal it was laughable but he didn’t know what to do about it. He fixed machines, not people, and he didn’t think CPR was going to cut it.)

Bucky looked at the man on the floor, breathing heavily   his skin turning red, then to the remains of the meal they’d shared with the old soviet defector. 

Konatantin Pavlovich had turned out to be an avid cook and had insisted that they join him for dinner before looking at the pictures that they’d come here to see.

Red skin…difficulty breathing. He remembered this….

It was a poison. Not the food they’d all eaten that, but the marzipan…only had eaten that. Almond paste. Almond….

Oh for fuck’s sake.

Someone has a nasty fucking sense of irony, killing a guy who’d been expected to used his cyanide capsule on capture instead of rolling over, and by putting it in almond candy. Old fashioned methods for an old soviet spy.

“Cyanide poisoning. He’s be dead already if he hadn’t just stuffed himself and got distracted by talking cooking before he finished his fucking candy.”

Fuck, fuck fuck….Wait, the darkroom….

“Give him mouth to mouth. That plus the fucking huge meal might give us some time. Jesus fucking Christ.

Bucky ran into the darkroom and flung open a cupboard to look at the chemicals, trying to remember details of a mission that had been erased, but were tickling at his brain. 

Rodinal, prussian blue, ammonium nitrite…. Nitrite, no not that kind… Ammonium thiosulfate. Fuck, not that kind either. Sodium thiosulfate. Yes.

He ran back into the dining room, putting the jar on the table. Kostya was still alive, but he looked worse. 

Fuck, he wasn’t going to have time to sterilize anything.

“He was talking about injecting marinade into the meat. Go find the thing that he used and wash it as well as you can. I also need a big ziploc baggie and a container of clean lukewarm water.”

Without waiting for an answer, Bucky ran out to the car they’d arrived in, opened the hood and ripped out the radiator hose, then went to the glove compartment and pulled out the duct tape, which as crucial.

After stopping only to rinse out the hose from the radiator, he ran back into the dining room. 

Bucky dumped some of the sodium thiosulfate into the water and shot a glance toward Tony. “Stir that until it disolves.” He then assembled his makeshift IV, pulling the plunger out of the marinating injector and taping the hose to it, and then to one corner of the ziploc bag. Handing the bag to Tony, he said, “Put the solution in that and do it up.

Kostya was gasping for air now, and a really bright fucking red.

Bucky rolled up the sleeve of Kostya’s shirt and picked up the huge gauge needled attached to the other end of the hose, then looked at Tony. “Ready?”

More absorbant polymer fun

Sodium polyacrylate can absorb roughly 300% of its own weight in a matter of seconds. In this gif, it absorbs the water poured into the glass and ‘solidifies’ it into a gel so that it can no longer be poured.

You can buy sodium polyacrylate relatively cheaply (perhaps as 'Waterlock’)- it’s even found in nappies (diapers).