The purpose of the dialectic method of reasoning is resolution of disagreement through rational discussion, and, ultimately, the search for truth.[4][5]One way to proceed—the Socratic method—is to show that a given hypothesis (with other admissions) leads to a contradiction; thus, forcing the withdrawal of the hypothesis as a candidate for truth (see reductio ad absurdum). Another dialectical resolution of disagreement is by denying a presupposition of the contending thesis and antithesis; thereby, proceeding to sublation (transcendence) to synthesis, a third thesis.

Fichtean[6]/Hegelian dialectics is based upon four concepts:

  1. Everything is transient and finite, existing in the medium of time.
  2. Everything is composed of contradictions (opposing forces).
  3. Gradual changes lead to crises, turning points when one force overcomes its opponent force (quantitative change leads to qualitative change).
  4. Change is helical (spiral), not circular (negation of the negation).[7]

The concept of dialectic (as a unity of opposites) existed in the philosophy of Heraclitus of Ephesus, who proposed that everything is in constant change, as a result of inner strife and opposition.[8][9][10] Hence, the history of the dialectical method is the history of philosophy.[11]

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“Also, any good ideas I had came from Plato, I admit it and I can never take it back, signed Socrates P. Philosopher” by Plato is also a great read and a cornerstone of modern philosophy.

But, yeah, Socrates really did distrust writing stuff down because he thought he would make people dependent. Well, suck it, Socrates! We have cellphones and Google now and no one can remember anything!
Was This Professor Fired for Requiring Students to Think? - Education - GOOD

College students claim they’ll pay attention in class if professors cut the lectures and make class more engaging, but former Utah Valley University business professor Steven Maranville found out the hard way that’s not always the case. Seniors in Maranville’s “capstone” business strategies course complained because he didn’t lecture enough. After a year on the job, citing negative student course evaluations, the university denied Maranville tenure. Now Maranville, who left a tenured faculty position at the University of Houston to teach at UVU, has filed suit against the school.

What was going on in Maranville’s classroom that generated such a backlash? He says he simply required students to do what most employers wish colleges would do: connect academic concepts to the real world. To facilitate that process, Maranville used the Socratic method, creating classroom dialogue by asking students open-ended questions that necessitated creative thought and participation—even if they hadn’t raised their hands. He also required them to work in teams and participate in small-group discussions during class time.

“I’m not in this business to just give degrees. I want students to learn,” Maranville told the The Salt Lake Tribune. “Students told me they had never been asked to do this kind of work before and weren’t about to do it now. They have families and jobs and don’t have time to do this.”

Michael Apple, a professor of curriculum and instruction at the University of Wisconsin, told Inside Higher Education that the Socratic method is increasingly unpopular on college campuses “because we are in a test-based education system.” Students are no longer used to such a process-oriented way of learning, and are “increasingly impatient where the answer is not clear and when the professor is not giving it to them immediately,” Apple told the website.

If students give negative course evaluations to professors who refuse to simply lecture and give multiple choice exams, professors won’t take the risk of upping the intellectual ante. If that happens—or if Maranville’s situation is more common than we know—colleges run the risk of becoming nothing more than diploma mills. And that won’t be good for anyone.


Every time that I look out of my window … and see those damn, amazing, baffling, breath-taking clouds of a sunset … I tell myself, you must be living in a dream.

Who is dreaming this dream? Will we ever know? Will we notice when the dreamer wakes up? Will we vanish?

What happens when we sleep? Are we creating? Where are we dreaming? Where’s our mind and its image?

Did I ever create such beautiful clouds?

Who dreamed first?

And what’s it worth, living in a dream?

I aspire to become rich. But then, when I look at those clouds, it’s so insignificant.

Everything is. They are just up there. It’s a naive thing to say somebody must’ve put them there. Sure. But …

Maybe I feel that those clouds are a part of myself. I want to know what they think, feel.

Could I be the one dreaming this dream?

Tell me, are you real?

Are we sharing a dream?

And if so, can we alter it? It is our dream.

And can I alone alter it?

I stare at them, but I hear no voice answering me.

What is the Socratic Method?

Socratic Method is a dialectic method of inquiry, that uses cross-examination of someone’s claims and premises in order to reveal out a contradiction or internal inconsistency among them.

 Socratic questioning is at the heart of critical thinking – they enhance your critical thinking skills. Socratic questions challenge accuracy and completeness of thinking in a way that acts to move people towards their ultimate goal.

The primary learning goal of Socratic method is to explore the contours of often difficult issues and to learn critical thinking skills.

Critical thinking is the process we use to reflect on, access and judge the assumptions underlying our own and others ideas and actions.

Six Types of Socratic Questions
The point of philosophy is not to have a range of facts at your disposal, though that might be useful , nor to become a walking Wikipedia or ambulant data bank: rather, it is to develop the skills and sensitivity to be able to argue about some of the most significant questions we can ask ourselves, questions about reality and appearance, life and death, god and society.

Nigel Warburton, Without conversation, philosophy is dogma (italics added)