social class system

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30 Day Spirit Learning Challenge

Some friends were discussing these challenge memes recently, and I decided I wanted one for my own purposes. So here it is in case anyone else finds it useful. This is catered towards learning the cultures of spirit civilizations more than learning about a general species, I have one I’m tweaking for the latter purpose. The questions were for my personal benefit, I kept them in case anyone appreciates the guidelines.

Please respect the boundaries of anyone who uses this and posts publicly!! Some people aren’t comfortable with others approaching races they’ve discovered and others might want to be given space for the time of the challenge. If you want to know something or approach the spirits, ask the person rather than butting in.

1) Introduction: How did you first meet? What are first impressions of them? Why do you want to learn about and/or work with them?

2) Biology: Describe their general appearance. What is unique about them compared to similar species? Do they have any mutations? What about natural weapons (venom, claws, etc)? What is the purpose of any special features? Does anything else about their biologies stand out?

3) Energy: Describe the general feel of their energy. How strong are their energies typically? Are they dark or light? Do they have any similarities with the energies of another type of spirit? What effect does their energy have on others?

4) Personality: What are common personality traits among them? Morals? Does their civilization encourage or discourage certain traits? What are their values?

5) Life Cycle: How do they reproduce? What are their life stages and how long does each last? How do they change as they age? What is the treatment of younger vs older? What is their lifespan?

6) Children: What is the relationship between parents and their children? Children and other adults? How are children generally treated? How long is a child considered a child? What is the development process of a child?

7) Family: What are their family structures? How are various members of the family treated, eg. is there a head of household? Who is considered family? How do they treat distant relations and family who is not seen often? Is there an inheritance system?

8) Friendship: Do they typically make friends? With who? How do they go about establishing a friendship? How are friends treated? How close do they become to friends? What activities are done together? Is blood thicker than water?

9) Intimate Relations: What is their view on sex: is it immoral, only to be shared between lovers, only for the purpose of reproduction, not related to romantic relationships at all…? How do they view various sexual orientations? How do their relationships form, what is their courtship like? Who do they choose for partners, or are partners chosen for them? Do they distinguish between types of lovers, eg. soulmates? At what stage do they consider children and where do children play into relationships? Is there any bonding ceremony similar to marriage? Divorce? Widowing? Is there any circumstance where they might change partners? What is the social treatment of various types of partners?

10) Sickness, Injuries, and Medicine: What are some diseases? How likely are they to become diseased? What is their view on mental illness? How do injuries usually occur? What is the social view on those with a disease, mental illness, injury, or disability? How are all of these treated? What are their favored treatments, eg. purely energetic, using herbs, therapy? Who are their healers? How are their healers trained? Are there different types of healers? How are healers treated socially and regarded in the social hierarchy? 

11) Death: What are common causes of death? How are the dead regarded, are some deaths considered honorable or others disgraceful? Are there funerary rites? What is the mourning process? Does anything special happen after death, eg. is there a risk of the dead rising in a baneful state? What is their view on the afterlife? How does this affect any funerary rites? Do they fear death or accept it as part of life?

12) Conflict: Is there often conflict between individuals? Between families? Other social groups? How does conflict play a role in relationships? Do they spar or play fight? When do they resort to conflict to resolve situations? How far will they take a fight? What are their fighting tactics? How do they view fighting, injuring another, and murder? Do they have other methods of conflict, such as arguments, shunning others, diplomatic insults, passive aggression, or anything else that doesn’t involve physical violence? What are some insults?

13) Communication: How do they communicate with one another? With other species? With physical humans? Do they practice any divination for communication purposes? Do they communicate their emotions well? Are they talkative? How do they introduce themselves?

14) Daily Life: What are their typical schedules? Do they stay within their own realm or travel elsewhere? What are their daily rituals, eg. mealtimes or a daily energetic cleanse? Who do they typically see on a day-to-day basis?

15) Social Structure: How is their society organized: a strict caste system, social classes, everyone is equal? Who makes up the bottom rungs of society? Can you move up in the social ladder? How is everyone treated? Do higher up members have more rights or benefits? Are there slaves?

16) Outsiders: How are other types of spirits treated? Are they allowed into cities? Are friendly relations ever formed? Can an outsider become a citizen or an honorary member of the race? Are they allowed to hold jobs? To form relationships?

17) Politics: What is the political structure: monarchy, democracy, etc? How are decisions made? Who is in charge? How are they chosen or how is the power passed down? What careers, individuals, etc hold the most power? How do they treat those under them? Is there political unrest?

18) Diplomacy: Do they form allies? With who? How are allies treated? Are they generally friendly? How do others regard them? What about enemies? What is the process for declaring war or an official enemy? Do they have enemies already? How do they interact with enemies? Do they fight large scale war, and if so how? What is the general opinion on war?

19) Laws: What are their rules? Are they concrete laws or merely social expectations? Do they expect outsiders to follow them? Do they enforce these rules outside their own lands? Are their laws related to morals or religion? How do their laws differ from common human laws? What are the punishments for breaking the law? Who enforces the law? Are they lawful in general? What is considered taboo?

20) Economy: Do they have a financial system? What do they use as currency if so? What is the gap between the rich and the poor? What items or services are regarded as valuable? Do they perform trades without currency? Do they trade with outsiders? What items or services do they produce for trade? Do they produce their own food? Are the poor cared for by the wealthy? Do they place large value on wealth?

21) Careers: What are some careers, eg. warriors, politicians, healers, magic users, scholars, educators, scientists, workers? What careers are considered elite? Can anyone choose any career?

22) Education: When are children educated and how long does it last? Does education continue into adulthood? Is everyone given education? What do parents teach their children? Are there school systems or mentorships? How are educators repaid? Who acts as educators and mentors? What areas of learning are standard in their education, and what is considered a specialization? Are they trained physically as part of their education or is it purely intellectual? 

23) Science and Technology: What is their view on science? What is considered science to them? Is it taboo or openly studied? How advanced is their science and technology compared to humans? What are their preferred areas of learning? How far will they take their science: are there controversial subjects, ethical codes, or a point of going too far? What type of technology do they use and how is it integrated into their lives? Do they have electronics? Vehicles? Do they share their technology with others?

24) Homeland: Where do they live? Describe their cities, architecture, and lands. Do they have a preferred environment? How do they interact with water? What other species live in their realm? How do they treat intruders/visitors? Is there a capital? Sacred lands? Monuments? Other things of interest? What is housing like? 

25) History: Record what you can of their history. Where did they originate from? How old are they? Are there any monumental wars, rulers, time periods, etc? Do they record time and ages? Are there any important figures in their history, heroes or villains? Do they care for the past or focus on the present? Do they have predictions for the future, such as prophecies?

26) Customs: What is social etiquette? Are there any rituals, such as marriage or a coming of age ceremony? Do they hold festivals? What is celebrated and how?

27) Social Issues: Whether by their standards or your own, what are some social issues? Are there any efforts to fix these issues? Do these issues create unrest? Is there bias against races, species, social groups, genders, or anything else?

28) Arts: How do they view the arts? Is great value placed upon them? Are artists, writers, musicians, etc considered valid or important careers? Describe some of their arts. Do others consider them to be masters in any of these areas? Is there censorship of the arts? What do their craftsmen produce? Do they prefer beauty or function?

29) Spirituality: What religions are present? What is their main religion? What are the morals and beliefs of this religion? What are their myths? Does religion play a role in their politics or social system? Are there fanatics or religious wars? What is worshiped or held in high regard? Are deities present, and what role do these deities play in peoples’ lives? How do they treat their deities? What are common offerings? Are there churches or shrines? Are there spirits associated with their deities, such as angels? How do they view the afterlife? How tolerant are they to other beliefs? Do they practice any other forms of spirituality? Do they practice divination? What is their view on fate? Past lives?

30) Magic: Do they practice magic, and what is their magic system like? What types of magic do they practice? Is their magic secular or religious? Is their magic used to heal, harm, learn, or something else? Does magic play a large role in their politics or social system? How are magic users treated? What types of energy do they work with, and do they distinguish between energy work and magic? Do they explore the astral?


In case you need a substitute day or want to do additional themes, here are some things I didn’t fit into the 30 days.

Holiday: Attend one of their festivities and describe it. This can only be done if one of their holidays falls within the time you’re working on the 30 questions, but you can also describe a birthday celebration, marriage ceremony, festivities related to childbirth, etc.

Literature: Describe some of their literature. If you can, record a short story such as a myth or folk tale. Good automatic writing practice.

Pets: If they have any pets, describe them. How do they treat their pets? Are their pets intelligent and thinking? Are they magical or technological constructs? Are there any illegal pets? How are pets tamed? Are creatures tamed for other purposes?

Fashion: What is their clothing like? Do they adorn themselves with anything, such as trophies or jewelry? Do they have body modifications? How does clothing differ between castes or social groups? How do they judge one another based on clothing? What do they wear as armor?

Gender: Do they have a concept of gender? Does their gender typically match their sex, and how do they view various gender identities? Does sex and gender play a role in their politics or social system?

Approaching: Are you comfortable with others approaching this species, if it’s something you discovered? If so, how would one approach them? What must you do and what are things to avoid? How do they expect to be treated? What are offerings to give them? How will they react to someone approaching them?

Spine Breaker 등골 브레이커 1

수십짜리 신발에 또 수백짜리 패딩
수십짜리 시계에 또 으스대지 괜히
교육은 산으로 가고 학생도 산으로 가
21세기 계급은 반으로 딱 나눠져
있는 자와 없는 자
신은 자와 없는 자
입은 자와 벗는 자
또 기를 써서 얻는 자
이게 뭔 일이니? 유행에서 넌 밀리니?
떼를 쓰고 애를 써서 얻어냈지, 찔리지? 

➼ 수십짜리 and 수백짜리 : 수십 - dozens; 수백 - hundreds; 짜리 - worth
➼ 신발 - shoes
➼ 패딩 - a padded jacket
➼ 시계 - a watch
➼ 으스대다 - to brag
➼ 교육 - education
➼ 산으로 가 - go to the hill
➼ 계급 - social class system
➼ 반 - half
➼ 딱 - exactly
➼ 나눠지다 - to be divided
➼ 자(者) - a man, a human
➼ 있는 자; 없는 자 - those who have; have not
➼ 신다 - to wear shoes
➼ 입다 - to wear clothes
➼ 벗다 - to take off clothes, 
➼ 기를 쓰다 - to exert oneself to the utmost
➼ 얻다 - to get
➼ 이게 뭔 일이니? - what’s going on?
➼ 유행 - a trend
➼ 밀리다 - to fall behind (”can also mean to pile up”)
➼ 떼를 쓰다 - to beg
➼ 애를 쓰다 - to make an effort
➼ 찔리다 - to stab, here means “to hit a nerve”

On Gender, LGBTQ, Māhū, Leʻaleʻa, and Homophobia

By Adam Keawe Manalo-Camp, author of “Pūlama: Cherishing Our Hawaiian Heritage

To understand culture, it is absolutely necessary to have a firm foundation in the Hawaiian language. The Hawaiian language is the door to a deeper understanding of Hawaiian culture. There is absolutely no way around that. If one ones to understand the world view of ancient Hawaiians, one must learn Hawaiian and leave aside preconceptions about Hawaiian culture, especially given that much of what we were taught in schools is not completely in agreement with what was being written about in Hawaiian language newspapers a century ago. This includes Kanaka Maoli or Hawaiians themselves who are learning their ancestral language.

It is also not only true of those learning the Hawaiian language, but of those learning any foreign language. When one learns language, one eventually learns aspects of the culture because one can not separate language from culture, social norms, class, gender and power structures. Culture, social structure, and history are all embedded in the grammar and terminology of any language.

In most Indo-European (i.e. Greek, English, Latin, French, etc) and Afro-Asiatic (i.e. Hebrew, Arabic, Ethiopian) languages, the social concept of binary gender (male and female genders) is re-enforced through the grammar. English linguistic convention, for example, has historically treated men as default and prototypical of the human species and for “God.” “He” is often used in laws and constitutions (i.e. the Hawaiian Constitution of 1864, the US Constitution, etc) to mean “a person.”

Gender pronouns also help to re-enforce cultural gender-appropriateness of certain professions and socio-religious concepts.

In looking at Hawaiian grammar, one will notice that “he,” “she,” and “it” were all the gender neutral pronoun, “o ʻia.” This is not only true of Hawaiian, but in every single Austronesian language. In Marquesan, to'ia can mean he, she, or it. In Tahitian, ōna or ‘oia means he, she, or it. Siya in Tagalog can me he, she, or it. Dia or ia in Bahasa Indonesia can mean he, she, and it. This is largely a remnant of what some like to call our “deep culture” or “cultural subconscious” from millenniums ago by our first maritime ancestors and that survived through our modern languages and still rests within our linguistic conventions and grammar.

The construction of Hawaiian grammar specifically in relation to gender pronouns shows clearly that Hawaiian, just like other Austronesian languages, did not have a construction of a binary gender, social and class system unlike Europeans or those in the Middle-East. They did not see humanity as being divided simply into two genders nor were binary gender roles re-enforced institutionally.

The view of most Pacific Islanders as is evident in early accounts and in their language grammars in fact shows a more polygender outlook.

In most pre-Christian and pre-Islamic Pacific societies, there were not simply “male” and “female” gender identities but several. For example, among the Bugis, gender identity was divided into five. In most Philippine and Polynesian societies, gender identities were divided into three: male, female, and a third gender. Since multiple identities seem to have always existed in most (if not all) Pacific Island societies and nations prior to colonialism, it makes sense why no personal pronoun defining gender (he / she) would be needed. This would also explain why in most Polynesian languages, inoa or names were also gender neutral. The Hawaiian name “Mahealani” for example can be either the name of a male or a female.

Certainly in most Pacific Island societies, including Hawaiian society, there were gender roles, but as mentioned, there were more than two genders identities.

We also know that in old Hawaiian society, which was a polyamorous society, both females and males kept multiple partners either of the same ('aikane) and / or of a different gender identity.

We also know that both female and male akua had kanawai akua, kanawai kapu or sacred laws which again underlines that Hawaiians were not a patriarchal society and had a polygender understanding. If Hawaiians had a cultural binary view of gender identity similar to the West, they would have restricted “unions” or partners, names and would had gender-specific personal pronouns.

With the introduction of Islam and Christianity, however, gender roles needed to be defined within the context of their own religious traditions.

In some cases, there was also a need to suppress female priestesses and māhū (bissu/asog/bayoguin) identities as often females and māhū were a link to pre-Christian / pre-Islamic traditions and undermined the new gender roles that were being implemented. Normally this suppression occurred through the imposition of the colonial language, through church, and through sodomy laws.

In many areas of Indonesia and the Philippines, this suppression did not normally happen through Islamic institutions (as some considered it adat or customary law) but later through imposed colonial laws, the colonial education system and more recently through the influence of Saudi Arabia.

The imposition of a binary gender world view in the Pacific by colonial or outside powers is extremely important in understanding traditional mana'o (thoughts) concerning third gender, māhū, and other gender identities and the origins of ho'okae māhū (homophobia).

tellings and retellings

…. I don’t really know how to phrase this but I have this weird question about James. You’ve mentioned before that the Last Hours was inspired or even somewhat based off of Great Expectations, much like the Infernal Devices with a Tale of Two Cities. Grace is Estella, Tatiana is Miss Havisham and James is Pip - from what I’ve gathered. After reading the Bane Chronicles (whichever one was about James - I don’t remember it’s name) and basically all of the snippets to be found, I can definitely see Tatiana as Miss Havisham and Grace as Estella- the only thing that confused me was James and his obsession with Grace and how it was so different from Pip and his obsession with Estella. In Great Expectations, Pip spends most of the book pining for Estella Havisham. He becomes obsessed with her. Estella is the unattainable. She represents all that Pip is not and can never hope to be - she is educated, wealthy, graceful, etc. He strives for Estella’s affection because all that he has attained in London (basically everything Estella held over him when they was younger) meant nothing if she did not see and appreciate it. This makes sense; Estella was the first person who ever made him feel ashamed of himself and where he came from. This affected his behavior towards all who knew him throughout the span of the book. Grace poses nothing that James would necessarily want. In fact, the opposite is true. James is of a wealthy, well-known Nephilm family. He is accustomed to the fashions of the time and is integrated into Shadowhunter life. Grace holds none of these advantages. Thus, James (unlike Pip) has no reason to love or even obsess over her. I understand they’re not the same characters, but I assumed James and his infatuation with Grace would be like Pip’s for Estella. James does share a few traits (that I’ve noticed) with Pip, but I do wonder alot about the blurb above. I don’t even think I’ve written a question, so basically: Why would James be obsessed with Grace? Is it not going to be the same type of relationship between Pip and Estella? — cecilyheronwood123

Glad to see you like Great Expectations so much! It is one of my favorites.

The thing about retelling a story that takes place in a world with no magic in a world that does have magic is that you are required — in fact, it is somewhat the point — to make use of fantastical metaphor. In the Shadowhunter Chronicles, we are in a world where magic and monsters exist, and in Great Expectations, we very much are not. Therefore in a retelling you are always asking yourself: What is the magical equivalent of this non-magical thing?

Retellings are also about getting at the heart of a story. There are the bones of story, the structure, and then there are the clothes — the things that make up the detail and color. Essentially Great Expectations is about a boy who loves a girl who embodies what he believes he wants — in this case money and class.  The first part is the bones, the second part is the clothes. It doesn’t have to be money and class to retain the bones of the story intact. In fact, in Shadowhunter-world, it really can’t be. Most Nephilim have about the same amount of money, and they have none of the class differentials that were so enormously significant in Dickens. You can hold an important position, but you have to be voted into it, and the entire idea of an upper and underclass of Nephilim is nonexistent.

Your read on Great Expectations — Pip strives for Estella’s affections because he was poor/working-class and she was upper-class, and even when he has money he requires her approval — is, I think, true-ish but also not the sum of G.E. or the only reading. Estella is not a nice, kind, sweet or loving person. That which was loving in her was crushed by Miss Havisham’s upbringing. In that, she is an odd and interesting character and that rarity in Victorian fiction: neither a good woman nor a bad one. Why does Pip love her? Is it because of what Miss Havisham said to him: Love her, love her, love her? Is it because she was the first beautiful thing he saw in a very unbeautiful life? Is it because she represents the unattainable? Is it because sometimes we just love people and we can’t explain why? Is it because Estella is part of his past and therefore part of him, and we love what’s part of us?

Some and all of those things are true. I always think in terms of book-pairings, it’s interesting to read Great Expectations and then Of Human Bondage, which is essentially about a man who falls in love with a woman who absolutely isn’t worth it. She’s not smart, she’s not kind, she’s cruel and small-minded, bigoted and vicious. And yet he loves her totally and completely, though she never (spoiler) loves him. Pip loves Estella totally and completely too, but does she love him? It brings up the question Sophie and Tessa discuss in Clockwork Angel: if loving someone is still worth it, even if they aren’t worth it. Like all good books, neither Great Expectations or Of Human Bondage tries to answer that question: only illuminate it.

Anyway, to return to the question at hand — sure, James is from a well to do family, which is also a well-known family. But they are not well-known for entirely good reasons. If you’ve read Nothing but Shadows, then you know James is considered to have demonic parentage because of Tessa. He is treated badly by the other students at the Academy, and he is bullied and called names. A retelling is called a transformative work for a reason: if the goal of retelling Great Expectations was to retell it exactly with no changes to the relationships, then why bother? If you don’t ring changes that hopefully illuminate the original, again why bother? Here were are re-imagining the complexities of Pip’s relationship with Estella in a world that has not only magic but a totally different social and class system than Great Expectations. Pip’s poverty becomes James’ “demonic” heritage.

“James is of a wealthy, well-known Nephilm family. He is accustomed to the fashions of the time and is integrated into Shadowhunter life. Grace holds none of these advantages. Thus, James (unlike Pip) has no reason to love or even obsess over her”

This would be true if 1) James wasn’t considered a suspicious possible monster by the rest of his society aside from friends and family, while Grace comes from an impeccable line of pure Shadowhunters 2) James wasn’t kind of shy, while Grace is instantly popular and beloved in their social group 3) People had no reason to love or obsess over other people than wasn’t money or class. In TLH, money and class are re-imagined as 1) magical power, 2) Shadowhunter beliefs about purity and heritage, and 3) Shadowhunter politics. And then there’s just love, in all its ineffability.

In the end, also, The Last Hours is a loose retelling of Great Expectations, just like The Infernal Devices was a loose retelling of Tale of Two Cities. Themes and outlines remain the same, but many details differ. Just like no one got their head chopped off in Infernal Devices, but rather the whole concept was transmuted into the idea of becoming a Silent Brother, Pip and Estella’s relationship is transmuted into James and Grace’s.’ The clothes are different, but the bones are the same.

Jigokudani Monkey Park - Japan

Jigokudani, meaning “Hell Valley”, is famous for its population of Japanese Macaques. During the winter, when snow starts to fall, the monkeys head down to the valley, to take advantage of the natural hot springs. There, the steam and boiling water keeps them warm. During the summer, most monkeys return to the surrounding forest areas, although many still remain by the hot springs. 

Japanese Macaques are born into a strict social class system. Groups have an alpha male, which changes whenever the alpha male dies or leaves the group. Female’s can maintain or achieve a higher social status, by grooming their peers.

This is your daily reminder that the infrastructure of class society exacerbates bigotry and division; those at the top of the pyramid have a vested interest in forcing the population into horizontal struggle rather than vertical struggle.

Biopsychological Approach

·     Illness cannot be understood by only examiningthe biological factors
·      Two Primary claims
o   1. Illness is determine by a variety of influences, rather than a single cause
o   2. The causes and effects of illness can be examined  at multiple levels in the life of an individual.
·      Person is both the largest unit of the organism and the smallest unit in society.
·      MAIN IDEA!!
o   Understanding of vocab from passage and writers concerns
o   If answer choice stands out, likely incorrect (unless you know its right)
·      Model = approximation

Social Processes

·      Social Constructionism

o   Adds to the idea of scientific models as representations of reality
o   Beliefs and shared understandings of individuals create social realities.

·      Symbolic Interactionism (small scale interactions)

o   Social determinism of shared realities
§  Interaction b/w individuals and in small groups
o   Through social interaction people develop shared meanings and lables for various symbols
o   EX. ISLAND STORY… two people stranded …

·      Functionalism (societal stability)

o   Factions of society work together to maintain stability.
§  Is a system that consists of different components working together.
§  Act like a homeostatic mechanism à Social Eq
§  Actions of individuals and groups affect society

·      Conflict Theory ( societal change)

o   Society as competing groups that act according to their own self-interest vs. a need for social Eq
o   Social groups naturally come into conflict when there interest collide, society changes over time due to continual competition for resources and power
o   View Larges forces of inequality but leaves out motivations and choices of individuals
o   Views of oppressed from people with more power = change must occur


·      Culture: all the beliefs, assumptions, object, behaviors, and processes that make up a shared way of life.
o   Individual differences but shared common values, learned behaviors, and approaches to life.

·      Material Culture:

o   Objects involved in a certain way of life, every object that supports and enriches life… what archaeologist dig up.

·      Non-material culture:

o   Non-physical elements of culture.

§  Shared ideas, knowledge, assumptions, values, and beliefs that unify a group.

·      Social norms – expectations that govern acceptable behavior

·      Social group – subset of population that maintains social interactions.

·      Symbolic Culture

o   (type of non-material culture) Elements of culture that hace meaning only in the mind.
o   Based on a shared system of beliefs, meaning tied to symbols determined by social norms and values.
o   Includes meaning associated with rituals
o   Ex. Language

Society, Systems and Structures

·      Society: two or more individuals living together in a community and or sharing elements of culture.

·      Social Institutions: hierarchal systems that bring order to interpersonal interactions à structuring society.

o   1. Government and Economy
§  services, enforcement, distribution of goods and services
o   2. Education
§  formal structuring in childhood and transition to adulthood
o   3. Religion
o   4. Family
o   5. Health and Medicine

·      Demographics: stats that examine nature of population by quantifying subset of that population

o   Age, gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, immigration status.

·      Demographic transition: demographic change due to fertility, mortality and migration rates.

·      Social movement: group of people who share an ideology, work together toward a specific set of goals.

·      Urbanization – increase proportion of people living in urban areas

·      Globalization – increasing amount of interaction and integration on international scale.

Social Inequality

·      Spatial Inequality – unequal access to resources and variable quality of life within a population or geographic distribution

·      Global Inequality – disparities between regions and nations

·      Environmental Justice – the equal treatment of all people regardless of race, gender, or other social grouping with regard to prevention and relief from environmental and health hazards. Ex. Hurricane Katrina.

·      Caste System

o   Inherited, no social mobility, marry within caste, hierarchal

·      Social Class-

o   A system of stratification that groups members of society according to similarities in social standing.

§  Status and power, associated with SES and

o   Privilege  - advantages of power and opportunity

o   Prestige – relative value assigned to something within a particular society.

o   White-collar = upper middle class

o   Blue-collar = working middle class

o   Mobility – up and down

§  Intergeneration mobility – next generation moving up or down in social class.

o   Meritocracy – society in which advancements is based on ability and achievements

o   Cultural Capital – non-monetary social factors that contribute to social mobility, “WHAT you Know”

o   Social Capital – social networks and connections that may confer economic and personal benefits (ex. nepotism). “WHO you Know”

o   Poverty – lack of access à leads to social exclusion from opportunities.

§  1. Absolute Poverty: lack of essential resources such as food, shelter, clothing and hygiene

§  2. Relative poverty: social inequalities in which people are relatively poor compared to other members of the society in which they live in.

·      Health Disparity / Health Inequality

o   Differences in health or health care for groups of people

o   Social class is correlated with health within a society

Social Reproduction - inheritance of social situations

Culture Shock - experiencing things foreign to your cultural norms

It’s absurd and anti-life to be part of a system that compels you to sit in confinement with people of exactly the same age and social class. That system effectively cuts you off from the immense diversity of life and the synergy of variety; indeed it cuts you off from your own past and future, sealing you in a continuous present much the same way television does…
—  John Taylor Gatto

its so damn obvious that twerfs are biological gender essentialists; they can claim they think gender is socialized all day but when it comes down to it they only subscribe to a false ontology of gender as sex. they only use the concept of gender socialization as an circular argument to apply to anything they want it to while ignoring, and in fact reinforcing, the actual construct of gender

they constantly act as armchair psychologists, attempting to prescribe some preconceived and predetermined gendered truth to anything trans women say (while, i might add, fulfilling their own lackluster and incomplete criteria for male socialization/violence by harassing women and dogmatically believing that only they are unquestionably right)

but when people point out that their logic is entirely circular and self-serving, they immediately fall back to invoking biology (chromosomes, genitalia, gametes, sex characteristics, etc) as some fundamental inherent truth of gender

and when people say hey, you’re being gender essentialist, they go “no thats not gender that’s ~sex~”, neatly sidestepping simple analysis to pretend that gender is not men/women, just some behavioral aesthetic of “masculinity/femininity” applied to men/women. they literally think that men/male and women/female are not genders, but “sexes”

and what they never stop to consider is that gender is the exploitative and binary social class system itself that is built on a masculine role/class (men) and a feminine role/class (women), which perpetuates itself by assigning meaning to bodies in order to force them into two rigid binary groups - aka exactly what twerfs do

Inverse Caste System?

Anonymous asked:

I have a fantasy merchant republic with a stratified society. To simplify - elites and serfs. I had it planned out with histories, religions, etc, none consciously modeled on a particular culture. Then I realized that this might LOOK like an inverse Indian caste system w/ darker>med. There aren’t clear similarities beyond a gradated stratification - no mirrored correspondence. Could this still be problematic? I could flip it, but I was trying to have more powerful non-white/light characters.

First of all, what you’re worrying about is not looking like the caste system, but looking like the varna system.  This is a common mistake in Western circles and it’s nearly futile trying to correct it, but I’ll discuss some of this later on.

However, what you describe doesn’t strike me as particularly reminiscent of the varna system.  I’d expect to see some fourfold division, and your “elites” would in turn be divided into the classic “three estates” of medieval France, actually: clergy, nobility, and freemen/urban bourgeoisie, in addition to the “serf” class. 

Unless that’s your class division system, what you describe doesn’t seem much like varna, but more like a plain-old feudal system.  To avoid seeming like you’re modeling a system off of varna, avoid these points, and avoid using the word “caste.”  Those are the easy points, but I feel that’s actually missing the heart of the issue.

By putting darker-skinned people at the top and making lighter-skinned people oppressed, you do seem to be invoking some colorism, albeit of an inverted sort to the kind usually seen.  There was a YA SF novel called Revealing Eden that used a similar conceit in its imagined social structure and it received all sorts of backlash for coming off as racist, intentionally or otherwise.

Finally, “caste” is not the same as social class, but is actually a lineage or community group who’ve been in the same line of work (or similar lines of work) over the generations.  A given caste usually falls within a certain varna, though may cross varna and in different regions the associated varna may be different (for example, members of the Kayasth caste may be found in any varna depending on where they’re from).  The caste “system” is less a system and more a knotted web of hangups (sometimes severe or even deadly) that certain caste groups have about associating with other caste groups based on what work they do, respectively.

In earlier times, both caste and varna were very fluid and were less about how you were born than about what work you did, but as work became more hereditary, the concepts of varna and caste started to crystallize (about the 1st century AD), and were quite entrenched in certain circles by around the 10th century.  There’s been a huge amount of religious, philosophical, and legal debate about the concepts since the early Vedic period.

Overall, I would advise some reimagining of your society’s social structure, but not for the reasons you might be worried about.  Why must there be a stratification based on skin color?  Colorism exists in India, for sure, but even in the most restrictive imaginings of the varna system, it’s not like all the fairer skinned people automatically become Brahmins.

~ Mod Nikhil

The only way to “break the cycle of poverty” is to change the entire system and abolish capitalism.

I despise things that talk about “breaking the cycle of poverty” meaning “slightly increasing but not by much the chances a handful of poor people will be upwardly mobile while victim blaming the millions that aren’t.”

Denial of resources to the poor, lack of social mobility, class stratification, other systems of oppression, etc. are all subsumed under the idea that poor people and out communities just have a problem where poor people create “cycles” of poverty.  It’s about trying to set up bullshit rhetorical classes of “good poor” who are “upwardly mobile” and play by the rules vs “bad poor” who are in “poverty cycles” and misbehave.  It’s a fundamentally classist, capitalist, bigoted viewpoint that is behind this talking point.  Poverty cannot be eliminated by individual measures, all of capitalism relies on it in order to coerce the selling of labor power by the workers.  Fixing poverty means raising up all poor people.  All of us.  Not just the few rich people see as “more deserving” than the rest.

unityworldtian  asked:

What are your inspirations for making costumes for your portfolio? ;w;

well, if you’re designing anything that’s meant to actually exist in a world, then you’ve got to have cultural inspirations that feed into it! Most of the time, world building is basically (respectfully) assimilating aspects of already existing cultures into something new and interesting! 

Whenever I’m designing clothes specifically for a certain region, or universe, I try to think about all the logical and technical stuff that would dictate what they’re wearing! Questions you could ask yourself while designing:

What kind of culture(s) am I basing this off of?

Why would they wear it like this/in this way?

What kind of climate are they wearing this in?

What purpose does this garment serve?

Is this a practical piece of clothing, or are they just going to wear it on special occasions?

If it’s practical, is this fabric I’m making it logical?

Alternatively, if you have a class-based social system, is this the kind of cloth they have access to?

How do these clothes represent my characters personality/person? (we pick our clothes afterall, for the most part)

Does it fit them? Should it fit them? What part of their circumstance or life would lead them to dress like this?

All those questions are super helpful for you to ask yourself if you plan on making something that is functional/logically based/believable! 

On top of all this, there’s also just personal taste! I love Hindu/Indian/Asianic dress, so a lot of my casual designs consist of beadwork and embroidery that have a lot of symbolic meaning to their culture!

Most importantly tho, you’ve gotta have fun!! A good design is sometimes killed by the enthusiasm of the artist themselves. So keep at it till you love it!

anonymous asked:

Hi, I have a question! Mexicanxs are native american (aztecas, right?). Do you guys get any recognition for being indigenous in the u.s. even though the entire south used to be Mexico? How is mestizaje viewed also? Aren't most mexicans indígenos and the mestizos are the light skinned native ones? (no soy mexicana pero me gusta mucho la cultura de ustedes! perdoname si estas preguntas te molestan)

Good question. Mexico has many indigenous groups within its borders. There are over 60 indigenous groups living in Mexico as of today. Not all Mexicans will claim an indigenous group. However, whether they like it or not, most Mexicans will have more indigenous blood than European. During colonial times when the Spanish were out exploring for every one Spaniard there was 10 - 20 indigenous or mestizos travelling with them. There were much more indigenous and mestizos than there were Spanish.

Now although these indigenous groups in Mexico are natives to (what is now called) America, I would stay away from calling them Native American, as that term usually applies to those indigenous groups that live within the borders of the U.S. (and many don’t even like that name.)

The United States don’t recognize shit if they don’t have to. And when they do it’s still half-assed and racist. They don’t recognize Chicanos that’s for sure. And they won’t recognize any indigenous from Mexico. That’s just more money out of their white pockets.

Most Mexicans in Mexico today claim mestizo. That is the claim that they choose neither full European heritage nor full indigenous heritage, but rather a mix (my ma, tios and tias do this). The younger generation seems to be moving away from this word as it was brought upon by the Spanish during colonial times for the castas system, which was a social class system based on your ancestry at birth (European, indigenous, African). They want to get away from anything white and embrace their indigenous roots.

Gracias por la pregunta. Y usted puede pedir en cualquier momento. Usted no me esta molestando.

Anyone who would like to add to this please feel free. 


anonymous asked:

what do you think of the jon/sansa and hades/persephone parallel?? it's been mentioned before on different sites and i would just like to know your thoughts on this x

well … i really do not see jon as hades in any way, nor do i ship jon/sansa but …

[rambling below the cut of the starks and their arcs in general, including relations to gods, resurrection and transformation, and how i kinda think what is happening to the starks - who we were introduced to as a happy, ‘good’ kind of westeros family - is reflective of the descent of westeros into chaos and war, and also the rottenness of the old codes and cultures of westeros at their heart. which itself is kinda tangentially tied into how fucked up all the gods are and how i’m pretty sure none of them are actually on the side of humanity]

also spoilers for the asioaf series

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Don’t Move

Art School AU

Beauty was not enough here. The students here saw beauty in everything, and sought to capture it with paints and lenses and words alike. So she blended in with the rest of the beautiful things around her, until she became a chameleon, invisible to all who were not blatantly searching.

Prompt from ukulelekatie: Art school au where person A is taking a figure studies class and person B is the model

Also wanted to play with a bit of role reversal. Enjoy!

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