small producer

Gardens of the Witches

Already starting to plan this years garden so I thought I should do a post on Witch Gardens


Moonlight Garden

A garden that blooms in the moonlight, a great place to perform night time rituals, meditations, or to just take a midnight stroll. A garden that is full of magick even after the sun sets. 

Plants to add in your moonlight garden:

  • Moonflower: (Ipomoea alba) A nocturnal relative of the morning glory. Has fragrant flowers that open at dusk and close by dawn.    
  • Evening Primrose: (Oenothera biennis) Has beautiful, scented flowers that bloom only at dusk. 
  • Night Flox: (Zaluzianskya capensis) A sweetly fragranced flower that only unfurls its pinwheeled shaped flowers after dusk. 
  • Four O’Clock: (Mirabilis jalapa) Its scented flowers bloom at around 4:00pm (hence its name) and do not close up until morning. 
  • Queen of the Night: (Epiphyllum oxypetalum) A species of cactus whose flowers only open at night. Attracts moths and bats!!!
  • Night Blooming Jessamine: (Cestrum nocturnum) Strong, sweet scented star shaped flowers that only bloom at night. Attracts moths and bats!!! All parts are toxic, do not ingest!
  • Angel’s Trumpet: (Brugmansia) Produces a strong scent on warm summer evenings. All parts are toxic, do not ingest!
  • Evening Stock: (Matthiola longipetala) Produces lots of small blossoms that produce a perfume described as a mix of vanilla, rose, spice, and cloves only after the sun sets.
  • Ever-Flowering Gladiolus: (Gladiolus tristis) Release a strong almond fragrance after dusk.  
  • Lilac: (Syringa vulgaris) Although has a perfume during the day, it is said to be a lot stronger after dark. 
  • Flowering Tobacco: (Nicotiana) Open in the late afternoon and have a fragrance that smells of jasmine. All parts are toxic if ingested!
  • Summer Snapdragon: (Angelonia angustifolia) Preferably in white, to reflect the moonlight. Has a scent apple-scented foliage. 
  • Silvermound: (Artemisia schmidtiana) Has thick foliage that will shimmer under the moonlight.
  • Jack Frost: (Brunnera macrophylla) Hdeart shaped leaves of silver and green, perfect to add more highlights of silver to your moon lit garden. 

Any plant that blooms after dark or has white, lavender, pale pink, pale yellow on it is a perfect addition to your moonlight garden. 

Things to add:

  • Stepping stones that have the phases of the moon.
  • Fairy lights
  • A place to sit
  • Candles
  • A small fountain to sing along with the insects and birds of the night
  • String charms and bells on tree branches for a soft jingling every time a gentle breeze passes. 

Herb Garden

For witches who need a more practical garden for uses of healing, tea crafting, drying, and growing plants used in their practices.

Plants to add to your herb garden:

  • Anise: Helps to ward of the evil eye, find happiness, and stimulates psychic abilities. 
  • Basil: Use for anything pertaining with love, exorcism, wealth, sympathy, and protection. Dispels confusion, fears & weakness. Drives off hostile spirits.
  • Bergamont: Corresponds with money and prosperity. Provides with protection from evil and illness, improves memory, stops interference, and promotes restful sleep.
  • Borage: Corresponds with courage and psychic powers. 
  • Cat Nip: Is sacred to the Goddess Bast. Brings forth beauty, happiness, good luck, and good spirits.
  • Chamomile: Corresponds with love, healing, and sleep. Is known to reduce stress.
  • Chervil: Brings a sense of the higher self, placing you in touch with your divine, immortal spirit.
  • Coriander: Corresponds with love, health, immortality, and protection.
  • Dill: Corresponds with money, protection, luck and lust. 
  • Lemon Balm: Corresponds with love, success, healing, and psychic/spiritual development. 
  • Marjoram: Used to cleanse, purify, and to dispel negative energy.  
  • Mint: Promotes energy, communication and vitality.
  • Oregano: Corresponds with joy, strength, vitality, and added energy 
  • Parsley: Calms and protects the home.
  • Rosemary: Protects, cleanses, purifies, and aids memory. 
  • Sage: Used for self purification and dealing with grief and loss.
  • Thyme: Attracts loyalty, affection, and the good opinion of others.

Things to add:

  • A place to dry herbs
  • A place to compost any herb scraps
  • Rocks
  • A place to leave offerings before you harvest

Bee Garden

Make yourself a sanctuary to watch bees frolic and thrive

Plants to add to your bee garden:

  • Bee balm
  • Lavender
  • Crocus
  • Snow Drop
  • Wildflowers/Any native species
  • Catmint
  • Borage
  • Anise hyssop
  • Heliotrope
  • Sunflower
  • Oregano
  • Yarrow
  • Coneflower
  • Black eyed susan
  • Asters
  • Goldenrod
  • Foxglove
  • Marigold
  • Pansies
  • Sweet peas
  • Nasturtiums

Things to add:

  • Bee houses
  • Bee waterers/bee baths
  • Bee feeders
  • A place for offerings to the bees

Some other ideas for your garden:

  • Hummingbird garden
  • Medicinal garden
  • A garden whose plants and decorations represent/correspond with your practice.
  • Butterfly Garden
  • Faerie Garden 

The options are endless! I hope this gives you some ideas for this years garden.

Happy planting!

==Moonlight Academy==

  • samuel: hyung sometimes i feel like you don't realize how strong you actually are
  • dongho: what do you mean?
  • samuel: when i was 10 you put me in a twister mat and proceeded to fling me around the practice room
  • dongho: you said you wanted to experience riding a roller coaster
  • samuel: hyung i nearly broke my neck!
10

The nation’s leader Jonghyun & Hyunbin during the preparation for the ‘Sorry Sorry’ stage ★ [trans cr.]

+bonus: Jonghyun encouraging Hyunbin

No your cat cannot be fed a vegan diet.

This is a biological fact not an opinion. Not an agenda or bias. It is pure scientific fact. You cannot feed your carnivorous pets a vegetarian or vegan diet.  Especially cats. Cats are obligate carnivores which means that they live on a solely meat based diet that is biologically essential for their survival. 

Not only does the meat contain enzymes, amino acids, nutrients and other essential minerals, cats can’t utilize plant-based proteins at all. Cats require high levels of amino acids like taurine and arginine that plants do not provide and require vitamin D (D3) that is only found in meat. So while eating a vegetarian / vegan based diet might “fill” their stomachs they cannot get any nutrients from it as they are unable to break down plant matter. 

This is because of a number of reasons. Firstly plant matter if hard to digest and herbivores require special biological systems to be able to live on a plant-only diet. Such as an enzyme called cellulose that that breaks down the cell wall of plant matter and bacteria that live in their gut, that herbivores cannot do themselves. Cats instead have an enzyme called amylase that can be used to break down small amounts of plant matter. But it is only produced in small amounts and therefore cannot handle high levels of plant matter. 

There is also the fact their digestive tracts are vastly different from that of herbivores. 

As you can see, carnivores have a rather short digestive tract. This because the nutrients and energy in meat is easier to absorb then an animal eating a herbivorous diet.  

Herbivores therefore have long digestive tracts in order to lengthen the time the plant matter is in their body and therefore have a chance to absorb more of the energy. In fact ruminant herbivores have a hour chamber stomach and ruminant (regurgitate) their food in order to better break down the plant matter and absorb more of the nutrients.

The dental structure of a carnivore such as a cat and a herbivore is also vastly different as they are adapted for their different diets. Cats have teeth (incisors and canine) that are used for tearing flesh and holding onto prey. They have only one set of molars as shown and three sets of pre-molars. These teeth are used for grinding / chewing. Compared to that of a herbivore, it’s hardly enough to break down and chew a plant based diet.

A herbivore’s dental structure (horse) contain of mostly molars rather then teeth used for tearing / holding onto prey. As shown below, a horse has many sets of large molars and a large mandible. That allows for long periods of chewing and grinding down on tough plant-matter / grains ect. 


Your cat cannot live on a meatless diet  Any good vet will tell you this and if they don’t they are either not properly qualified or pushing an agenda. If you are uncomfortable with feeding meat to a cat or dog or any other carnivorous pet. Then don’t get that pet. Get an animal that lives on grains or plant matter because you should not own a cat if you’d rather put your own agenda / “morals” over that of an animals life and well being. 

  • ha sungwoon: tall people, if we are walking together please take into consideration my tiny legs. i can’t keep up with you. please think of my tiny legs, i don’t want to be jogging to keep up with your leisurely stroll, you TITANS.
  • park sungwoo and kwon hyunbin: just get a pair of roller skates and hang onto my sleeve, we don’t have all day.

anonymous asked:

I'm curious about what procedures you think need to change in the livestock industry?

Practically, or philosophically? There is so much that can be talked about in this field

From a practical standpoint, there are a number of areas where current livestock practices are far from ideal. Farming has a huge history behind it, and many of these practices are ingrained and so difficult to change.

Before I go through the list, I should preface that if you’re not comfortable with the fact that farmed animals die for human benefit, if you just want all farms to stop using animals, then you’re not going to find this list satisfactory. If you’re fundamentally uncomfortable with livestock industries, and you haven’t already questioned why you consume the products it produces or what your alternatives are, then it might be worthwhile.

For now, these industries are not going anywhere. They’re certainly not perfect but we could improve them. Regardless of whether you personally believe all these industries should be ‘just stopped’ you have to agree that will not happen overnight, and that other welfare improvements could happen today.

  • Pain relief being more widely used. There has historically been an aversion to using pain relief medication in livestock due to expense, drug residues and the lack of products made for and tested in the species. This is beginning to change so there are not more options for pain relief at castration and mulesing , for example, but this needs to be more widely used. Another hurdle to this is that they are prescription products, and in order for a veterinarian to prescribe them they must have been out to that farm within the last year and be familiar with their set up and stock. Not every farm will call out a veterinarian on a regular basis.
  • Minimize transport time. Transport, whether by road, train, boat or plane, is incredibly stressful for livestock of all kinds. We can measure their physiological stress, so this is definitely not just anthropomorphism. Livestock are more stressed in transport than they are by witnessing death, which is the opposite to what many people would think. 
  • On-farm slaughter and refrigerated transport. Following on from the previous point, we have the technology to transport chilled carcasses. Performing slaughter on farm removes or eliminates a large percentage of the transport an individual animal needs to be exposed to, and will improve their welfare. Animals don’t perceive death the same way we do, having a mini abattoir at the farm entrance isn’t going to bother them.
  • Using genetics instead of procedures. It astounds me in this modern day that we still have breeders of hereford cattle that breed the horned version, and then de-horn the calves, instead of selecting stock with the polled (no horns) trait. If you want horns then fine, but if you’re going to cut/burn/cauterize them off anyway when why not remove them genetically? The polled gene exists! Similarly there are a small number of merino sheep with a ‘bare breech’ trait, which don’t need mulesing. It would be ideal to spread this trait through the Australian sheep population, but with millions and millions of sheep and a ram only about to impregnate about 60 a month, that will take time.
  • Enrichment. Toys. Something for animals to play with, to investigate, to do. This has been historically neglected for a long time because originally animals weren’t though to have souls, or to be thinking, feeling entities. We know differently now. Enrichment only improves the lives of these animals, and often reduces unwanted or destructive behavior, like piglets biting off each others tails.
  • Dam-neonate bonding in certain industries should be reconsidered. In some situations, the dairy industry in particular, neonates may be taken from their mothers within 24 hours to reduce disease transmission in eradication of certain diseases, like Johnes disease, but in other situations it’s because for some mind boggling reason it is more cost efficient for a farm to sell the mother’s milk and feed the neonate on milk replacer.  
  • In a similar vein, giving sows enough space to nurse their litter would be great. They’re kept in sow stalls (basically a cage that they can stand up or lie down in that the piglets can run through) so that they don’t squash their piglets and kill them. That’s great and all, except you can accomplish the same thing by giving the sow more space to turn around it and slopes on the wall of the pen.

So, the important question I hope you’re asking is why don’t we do these things already?

There are lots and lots of reasons someone could grab, but the short (and I dare say more honest) reason is this: Money.

Granting an animal more space costs you money because it reduces the number of animals you can stock in your space. Using more pain relief medication costs you money. Calling out a vet costs you money. Providing enrichment costs you various amounts of money. On-farm slaughter and refrigerated transport is more expensive than the current system.

So if this is all about money, is it the fault of greedy farmers? Well, generally no.

Most farmers actually like the species of animal they work with. And most of them, especially with recent droughts, the current political climate and monopolization of the companies that buy their products, are not making big buckets of cash. More and more farms are selling up and small producers are not keeping up.

They are under constant pressure to lower the prices of their animal products because there’s only a few big buyers, and right now it’s the buyers that dictate what price they’re willing to pay. Because these animal products are perishable, you can’t save them for a rainy day if you don’t sell them, and these buyers are big enough, they can hold out and only pay what they want to pay. This severe downward pressure means farmers get paid progressively less, and these companies make more profits while claiming it’s good for consumers.

^ Look familiar?

So we get cheaper food, the company makes more profit, and the individual farms get screwed.

Especially with milk, there was a huge crisis recently where one of the big milk buyers suddenly declared it had been overpaying dairies, and that not only was it now going to pay them much less for the season (on contract mind you), but that all their dairies now owed them thousands of dollars. After years of downward price pressure on their product many farms could not, and can not, afford this. You can get an overview here.

The point I’m trying to get to is that if these industries are gong to improve, then we need to value the individual animal and its experience of life more than we currently do. 

If we value the experiences of the individual animal, and consequently put our money where our mouth is when it comes to their products, then there should be both motivation and financial ability to improve their lives. We could progress from mere ‘prevention of cruelty’ and minimum standards towards animal welfare and good welfare states.

Changing consumer patterns is probably the only way to do this, and it’s quite hard when you’re already paycheck to paycheck, but a in depth rant/discussion about politics/policy/economics etc is beyond my scope, though I would happily add veterinary and industry specific detail to a discussion if someone wants to tackle that side of it.

3

Eternal Flame Falls

The Eternal Flame Falls is a small waterfall located in the Shale Creek Preserve, a section of Chestnut Ridge Park in Western New York. A small grotto at the waterfall’s base emits natural gas, which can be lit to produce a small flame. This flame is visible nearly year round, although it can be extinguished and must occasionally be re-lit.

Dandelions: finished summary!

again, I’m sorry I had to stop this project. I had a LOT more story to tell and my depression just wasn’t letting me have the motivation to do so. School is starting back up again and I knew I wouldn’t be able to work on any comic pieces once that happened so here is the summary of what I want to do with the rest of the story! 

Keep reading

5

The upper atmosphere of the Sun is dominated by plasma filled magnetic loops (coronal loops) whose temperature and pressure vary over a wide range. The appearance of coronal loops follows the emergence of magnetic flux, which is generated by dynamo processes inside the Sun. Emerging flux regions (EFRs) appear when magnetic flux bundles emerge from the solar interior through the photosphere and into the upper atmosphere (chromosphere and the corona). The characteristic feature of EFR is the -shaped loops (created by the magnetic buoyancy/Parker instability), they appear as developing bipolar sunspots in magnetograms, and as arch filament systems in . EFRs interact with pre-existing magnetic fields in the corona and produce small flares (plasma heating) and collimated plasma jets. The GIFs above show multiple energetic jets in three different wavelengths. The light has been colorized in red, green and blue, corresponding to three coronal temperature regimes ranging from ~0.8Mk to 2MK. 

Image Credit: SDO/U. Aberystwyth

Too Small - Kim Donghyun Requested Scenario

@unicornshua

Genre: Flufffffffffy

Message: Donghyun’s so underrated it hurts

__________________

“Donghyun!” I exclaimed. “Give it back!”

“Huh? What was that?” he asked, looking around. “It sounded like someone said something but I can’t, I can’t see anyone?”

“Donghyun! Seriously! Your not even that tall!” I shouted.

Donghyun looked confused, looking around and started walking to the practise room, still holding my make-up bag above his head.

“Hey Daehwi,” Donghyun said. “I hear a voice, can you see anyone?”

Daehwi laughed and I pouted.

“Daehwi please!” I pleaded.

“Wait. Donghyun, I think I heard that too,” Daehwi stopped.

I screamed.

“What the fuck?!” Woojin exclaimed, walking in. “Y/N—"

“Y/N’s here?!” Donghyun exclaimed. “Is that who’s talking?”

He looked around again, “but I can’t see her!”

Woojin laughed evilly.

“Not you too!” I exclaimed.

“Wait. What was that?” Woojin asked, looking around.

I ran into Youngmin’s training room, hearing Donghyun laugh so flipping him the finger on the way.

“Youngmin!” I exclaimed. “Help me!”

“What?” he asked. “Why are you so loud?”

“They’re taking the piss out of my smallness by pretending to not be able to see or hear me,” I pouted.

He laughed, “come on then.”

He picked me up so I was his height and walked into the practise room with me in his arms.

“Hey look it’s Y/N,” Donghyun laughed.

I finally laughed but slapped Donghyun on the shoulder when Youngmin put me down.

“Now give me my make-up case,” I said.

“Why should I?” he asked, throwing it over my head to Youngmin who then proceeded to throw it to Daehwi who threw it to Woojin.

“Ugh!” I exclaimed, burying my head in Donghyun’s chest. “You guys are so annoying.”

Donghyun chuckled, bringing me closer to him, “I know right.”

“But you love us all!” Daehwi sang.

I heard Woojin throwing my make-up case again as I took my head out of Donghyun’s chest.

Woojin had thrown my make-up at the door but quickly regretted it as we saw Rhymer standing there.

We all bowed quickly and I went to sit down as the boys stood in a line in front of him.

“What’s all the screaming?!” he exclaimed. “My office is two floors above you and I can hear you.”

The boys bowed, apologising, while I looked up at him blankly.

I made eye contact with Rhymer and he smiled, “aw, cute.”

I looked at him leave the room, confused.

“What did you do?” Donghyun asked, sitting next to me. “He called you cute.”

“I didn’t do anything,” I pouted.

Donghyun laughed, pulling me into his waist as the other boys went back to what they were doing.

“I don’t like you all that much, you know?” I said to Donghyun.

“Uh-huh,” he nodded. “But you love me a whole lot.”

Candles

I just thought of a thing that aliens might find extremely dangerous and confusing. Candles.

Like, I imagine that there must be some, if not many, planets that don’t require the use of fire for light or cooking, or anything really. So when they get to Earth and they learn about fire and what it does, they’re like “HOLY CRAP and you just DEAL with this stuff??”

And then we tell them that fire is a very commonly used thing and it is useful in a great many of situations, and they’re like “so you’re telling me that you discovered this highly dangerous, easily spread, potentially very lethal thing, and you HARNESSED it’s power?” and the humans are just like yep.

But then, they go on to tell the aliens all of the ways in which we use fire to our advantage, and eventually they get to candles like

“So before light bulbs and things like that were invented, we used fire to see in the dark, and we would construct little cylinders of wax and light them on fire with a piece of string in the middle called a wick. This would allow us to transport fire easily and contain it so that we could use its light and sometimes its heat, without hurting ourselves or burning our possessions. We don’t generally use them for that anymore, but we find them relaxing, so often times we put them in our homes and light them just to look at the fire. We also put them in places that we consider sacred, such as churches and places like that. In some cultures, fire is now believed to be cleansing.”

And the aliens are like “So you developed a way to make fire that is not harmful? And it simply produces small amounts of light and heat?”

“Oh no no, it can’t still very much burn you. There are many fires caused by knocked over candles every year. Those fires can burn down houses and take lives, and be all around devastating. But we keep them around, cuz I mean, look how pretty they are.”

“WHAT?? People were killed as a result of these small fire containers AND YOU STILL PUT THEM IN YOUR HOMES?? How is that RELAXING?? You find so much beauty in this enormously destructive thing that you RISK YOUR LIVES to be around it?”

“Well.. we do put them in glass or ceramic containers nowadays…”

Cheap Vegan Essentials

Below is a short list of foods which I think should be in the basket of every new vegan when they go on that first vegan shopping trip. Prices will vary according to location, but in the vast majority of places these foods will be some of the cheapest items in any supermarket.  You can find a selection of simple recipes that make use of these items as their main ingredients here.

  • Rice: Rice is an extremely cheap and filling staple. A cup of rice contains roughly 45 grams of carbohydrates and 4-5 grams of protein. In an airtight container it lasts around 6 months. It is even cheaper when bought in bulk. 

  • Beans: Beans are one of the most accessible protein sources and have been a staple around the world for thousands of years. Just one cup of soybeans, for example, contains a massive 28.62 grams of protein, while even standard baked beans contain around 14 grams. They also contain lysine, which is missing from most other plant sources.

  • Chickpeas: Chickpeas can be purchased very cheaply canned, and in large bags in bulk if you’re willing to prep them yourself.  Each cup contains about 15 grams of protein, tonnes of fibre as well as magnesium and folate. 

  • Lentils: Similar to chickpeas, lentils can be bought canned or in large bags as bulk products. A cup of cooked lentils contains a massive 18 grams of protein, they also lower cholesterol, improve heart health and help stabilise blood sugar. 

  • Oats: Oats are very cheap, can be bought in bulk and have great shelf life. They are high in protein, fibre, and B12; they are even thought to help lower blood pressure and cholesterol. 

  • Cereals: Most cereals, especially supermarket’s own brand products are very cheap. Whole grain cereals like bran or oat based products are high in fiber, calcium and iron, and most are fortified with B vitamins.

  • Pasta:  Pasta is another great product to always have on hand, it is one of the least expensive items in any supermarket, can be bought in bulk and has a very long shelf life. Depending on the type, pasta can be a good source of fibre and carbohydrates; it is a high energy food and is very filling.

  • Potatoes: Potatoes are one of the cheapest foods available in most supermarkets, at an average of just $0.56 per pound. They are versatile, filling and despite their reputation as unhealthy, they are an excellent source B6 and a good source of potassium, copper, vitamin C, manganese, phosphorus, niacin, dietary fiber, and pantothenic acid.

  • Sweet potatoes: Sweet potatoes are as versatile as white potatoes, are high in vitamins B6, C, D, iron, magnesium and potassium. They’re also a more balanced source of energy than white potatoes, as their natural sugars release slowly, avoiding blood-sugar spikes.

  • Noodles: Many varieties of noodles are vegan, they are very cheap and last a long time. Noodles are very filling and contain high levels of B vitamins, vitamin E, magnesium, iron, riboflavin, and calcium.

  • Nut butters: Depending on the type, nut butters can be purchased very cheaply and in large quantities. It has a surprisingly good shelf life, is an excellent source of heart healthy fats and is very high in protein. 

  • Falafel: Falafel is usually cheap to buy pre-made but it is even cheaper when made at home just using chickpeas and spices. It is filling, can be used to make great vegan burgers and is a good source of protein, fat and soluble fibre. 

  • Hummus: Though buying pre-prepared hummus is usually relatively cheap, it is far more cost effective to make your own in larger quantities, depending on the recipe you usually only need chickpeas, tahini and  lemon. 

  • Couscous: Couscous can be great in salad or as its own side dish, it is cheap to buy and is a convenient option since it is so easy to prepare. It is a good source of lean protein, dietary fibre and B vitamins. 

  • Tofu: Tofu has an odd reputation for being expensive, quite probably among people who have never bought it. Tofu has been a Chinese staple for thousands of years, it is now widely available in supermarkets and is far cheaper than comparable animal products, averaging less than $2 per pound. It is filling and is high in both protein and calcium.

  • Tempeh: Tempeh is similar to tofu in price and use, but has a different texture and slightly different nutritional properties. The fermentation process and its retention of the whole bean give it a higher content of protein, dietary fibre and vitamins compared to tofu, as well as firmer texture and a stronger flavour

  • Seitan: Seitan is made with wheat gluten and is extremely high in protein, as well as being one of the cheapest sources of protein per dollar when made at home and is around the same price as low quality beef in stores. It has a steaky texture and is very filling.

  • Frozen fruit/vegetables: Large bags of mixed frozen vegetables can be bought extremely cheaply almost anywhere. Despite popular opinion to the contrary, frozen vegetables are almost as healthy as fresh produce since they are frozen while fresh and don’t endure the loss of nutrients associated with long travel and extended shelf time. Frozen fruit like mixed berries can be a cheap way to prepare smoothies or dessert.

  • Canned fruit/vegetables: Having a few cans of fruit or vegetables around is always a good idea, things like canned peas or corn can be a side on their own, canned peaches or orange pieces are an instant dessert and canned tomatoes can be used to make sauces. 

  • Bananas: Bananas are one of the cheapest fruits available, especially when bought in bulk and deserve a mention based on their nutritional value and their versatility. They can be used in desserts, as a healthy snack and can be used to make cheap vegan ice cream.

  • Citrus Fruits: Citrus fruits like lemon, orange and limes are cheap to buy in bunches, especially when in season and can be eaten as a healthy snack or used as a cheap way to add flavour to existing dishes. 

  • Vegetable stock: Vegetable stock is good to have around for a variety of purposes; it will add flavour to any dish from gravies to soups and roast dinners. It is extremely cheap and relatively healthy if you go for a low sodium option.

  • Olives: Olives are a healthy source of fat, they are thought to have anti-inflammatory properties and contribute to good health health, as well as being good sources of iron. They can be bought in large jars very cheaply and can be a healthy snack. 

  • Olive Oil: Thought to be the healthiest oil to cook with, it is heart healthy and can be used to add flavour to a variety of dishes like pastas and salad.

  • Spinach: Spinach is often called a super-food in terms of nutritional content, it is is high in niacin and zinc, as well as protein, fiber, calcium, iron and a multitude of vitamins. You can also buy large bags of pre-prepared spinach very cheaply.

  • Kale: Kale has a different flavour and texture to spinach, but has similar uses. It is a great source of dietary fibre and is packed with nutrients, vitamins, folate and magnesium. Even a 500g bag should only set you back around $2.50. 

  • Bread: Many new vegans assume bread is off limits, but many breads are vegan. Even speciality loafs are very cheap considering the amount of meals they can contribute towards, and they can be a good source of carbohydrates and protein. 

  • Plant Milks: Plant milks have an undeserved reputation for being expensive, this is only in comparison to heavily subsidised dairy milks, though even then the price is comparable, in fact, some supermarket’s own brands are even cheaper. Plant milks are packed with calcium and are usually supplemented with vitamins B6 and B12.

  • Non-Dairy Spreads: Non-dairy spreads can be made form a variety of sources, from soy or olives to coconut oil. They tend to be comparable to dairy butter in terms of calcium, but without the unhealthy fats and cholesterol. They are usually priced similarly or cheaper than their dairy counterparts.

  • Peppers: Peppers tend to be very cheap to pick up in large bags, particularly bell peppers. They can be stretched over several meals, and can add flavour and texture to curries, stir fries and salads.

  • Nutritional Yeast: Seen as something of a speciality health food, nutritional yeast is actually very cheap, lasts a long time and is one of the best sources of vitamin B12. It has a nutty, cheesy taste, so you can use it in place of anything you’d usually sprinkle cheese on. It is also great in soups and when used to make “cheesy”, creamy sauces. 

  • Flax seeds: Each tablespoon of ground flax seed contains about 1.8 grams of  omega-3s. It is included in this list as they make a great egg substitute in baking, can be sprinkled on cereal, yogurt or oatmeal. It is cheap to buy, and even a small packet lasts a long time.
     
  • Dark chocolate: Dark chocolate is not only far healthier than milk chocolate, it is usually cheaper to buy in the same quantities and is far more filling. It is versatile for use in baking and desserts and is a healthy snack in small quantities.

  • Selected Produce: Fresh vegetables are not always expensive. Seasonal vegetables are usually cheap in most supermarkets, but some vegetables like carrots, turnips, onions, cabbage and cauliflower are inexpensive all year round, and can often be bought on offer or as “irregular” (but still perfectly edible) for even less.
     
  • Herbs and Spices: Having a range of spices on hand is always a good idea; things like cumin and garlic can add depth and flavour to simple meals and they last a very long time. Investing in a good spice rack and some curry powder will save you money in the long term.