slovenian language


■ Broadly speaking, Slavic languages can be divided into those using the Cyrillic alphabet and those using the Latin alphabet, but in truth each language has developed its own modified alphabet. These language-specific letters and diacritic signs can serve as surefire clues, but unfortunately the task is much harder with speech, since accents and dialects tend to confuse even the most skilled listeners.

So how do you tell Slavic languages apart?

The Cyrillic alphabet:


■ Belarusian is the only language which uses the letter ў. It sounds similar to an English ‘w’, and the Latin transcription is ‘ŭ’. It is most often encountered in word endings equivalent to the Russian -ov or –ev suffixes, e.g., last names like Быкаў (Bykaŭ) or Някляеў (Nyaklyayeŭ).

UKRAINIAN – ї and є

■ ıf you see an ï amidst Cyrillic letters, you’re most likely reading Ukrainian. This letter is pronounced /ji/, and should not be confused with ‘i’ (/i/), or with ‘й’ (/j/) and ‘и’ (/ɪ/), which all look and sound slightly different.

Ukrainian is also the only language with the letter є ‒ in Russian the corresponding ‘э’ character faces the other way…


■ Ъ is a solid hint that you’re looking at Bulgarian ‒ it even pops up in the name of the country: България.  Though this letter (called ‘yer golyam’/‘ер голям’) also appears in Russian and other Slavic languages, it is not used frequently, whereas it appears regularly in Bulgarian. This is perhaps because it is silent in other Slavic languages, but in Bulgarian it symbolises a schwa sound (like the ‘u’ in ‘turn’). Make sure you don’t confuse it with the soft sign, ‘ь’.

Additional hint: ата is a frequent grammatical ending in Bulgarian.

SERBIAN – ђ and ћ

■ The similar ђ (dzhe) and ћ (tshe) are evidence you’re dealing with Serbian. Serbian Cyrillic doesn’t have many of the letters used in Russian Cyrillic; forget about ‘ё’, ‘й’, ‘щ’, ‘ъ’, ‘ы’, ‘ь’, ‘э’, ‘ю’, and ‘я’. If you want to tell Serbian apart from Russian, you can also look for љ (ly’) њ (ny’) and џ (dʒ), but these are also present in Macedonian.  


■ Macedonian is the only language with the letters Ѓ and Ќ. The little accents over these Cyrillic letters are a surefire way to tell Macedonian apart from Serbian. The letters stand for sounds similar to the English [dʒ] and [t͡ʃ] – the latter sounding really Chinese.

Additionally, Macedonian features the letter ‘s’ [d͡z], which otherwise does not occur in the Cyrillic alphabet.


■ Famous for its inverted letters, Russian is probably the most recognizable Slavic language out there. On the other hand it is quite easy to confuse it with Ukrainian, Bulgarian or Serbian, so if you have a full sentence on your hands, it’s best to proceed by elimination using all the tips mentioned above.

The Latin alphabet:


■ If you see the letter ł with the characteristic slash through it, you’re looking at Polish. Ą and ę (which are nasal consonants) are also giveaways but be careful, both letters are also in the Lithuanian alphabet (which is not a Slavic language). Digraphs like ‘sz’, ‘cz’, and ‘dz’, sometimes combined into consonant clusters like ‘prz’, ‘trz’, and ‘szcz’, are clues, but watch out for Hungarian, which has similar consonant clusters.


■ Slovak is the only Slavic language to use ä, or ‘a s dvoma bodkami’ as the Slovaks call it. It comes up in words like ‘mäso’, ‘sôvä’, ‘rýbä’ (meat, owl, fish) and is pronounced like the English ‘a’ sound in ‘bad’. The same goes for ŕ, which is not used in any other Slavic language.


■ The Czech and Slovak alphabets are really similar. To tell them apart, look for the tiny difference in the diacritic sign over the letter r – where Slovak uses ‘ŕ’, the Czech letter has a tiny hook: ř. Also, if you see the letter ů, it’s Czech.


■ Written Croatian can appear hardly discernible from Slovenian, Czech or Slovak, with which it shares the letters as ‘č’, ‘š’, and ‘ž’, it has an easy distinctive feature ‒ the so-called crossed đ. [dʑ]


■ The Bosnian alphabet is indistinguishable from Croatian. To identify the language you would have to dig much deeper and look for differences in vocabulary since Bosnian has some unique words, mostly of Persian and Arabic origin.


■ Slovenian, which is the westernmost Slavic language, is also the most discrete in terms of alphabet. In fact, it has only three special characters, ‘č’, ‘š’, and ‘ž’, which also appear in Czech, Slovak and Croatian. Again, your best bet is to proceed by elimination. (

Slovenian language

Slovenia is a country with a population of about 2,000,000 people. However, the language is extremely versatile, with many accents (almost every town has its own accent), most of which can sound quite bizarre. Here are a few examples (I did not make those examples, it was sent to me through a chain mail, or something similar)

In English: 

1. I’ve put too much sugar in my coffee today. 
2. Why are you calling me while I’m walking my dog? 
3. Did you see the cat walking on the roof? 
4. Yesterday, an older man threw himself off the roof. 

Textbook Slovenian: 

1. Danes sem si kavo preveč sladkala. 
2. Zakaj me kličeš, ko se sprehajam s psom? 
3. Si videl, kako se maček sprehaja po strehi? 
4. Včeraj se je en starejši gospod vrgel s strehe. 

*Po mariborsko (Maribor accent): 

1. Joj, kak s'n si toti kafe danes fejst pocukrala, čuj. 
2. Kaj mi te težiš ko s'n glih s pesom vuni? 
3. Glej si ti totega mačka kak on po strehi hoi. 
4. Čuj, včerej se je en stari s strehe dol fukno. 

*Ljubljana - japijevski srednješolčki (Ljubljana #1 - Yuppie Highschool students): 

1. Dons sm si kofi čist ful pošugrala. 
2. Kva me kolaš lih k doga wokam? 
3. A si vidu keta kok po rufu klajmba? 
4. Učer se je en oldi z rufa skenslu. 

*Ljubljana #2 - žabarsko: 

1. Dons sm si kavico u ibr preveč cukrala. 
2. Kva moriš k psa šetam? 
3. A si vidu mačka kva ga pu strehi pleza, mudel, ne prbiji! 
4. Učer se je en stari s strehe ruknu. 

*Po koroško (Carinthian accent): 

1. Matr sn s swadek kafe naredwa. 
2. Ka težiš ko sn s paso zuna? 
3. As vidu mačko gr u lufto? 
4. Učera se je edn s strehe bk spraju. 

*Po prekmursko (Prekmurian): 

1. Gnes san si kavo preveč pocukrala. 
2. Zakoj me zovejš glij te gda psa šejtan? 
3. Si vido kak se maček šejče gor po streje? 
4. Včeraj se je en stare doj s streje vrgo. 

*Po prleško (from Prlekija): 

1. Gnes sen si kofe vünta preveč pocukrala. 
2. Čüj, ka me zoveš, gli te kda pesa sprehojan? 
3. Si vida mačoka, kak se po streji sprehoja? 
4. Fčera se en stori s strehe fukna. 

*Gorenjsko (Upper Carniolan): 

1. Dons sm s'kofe čist preveč ucukrowa. 
2. Zakuga me kličeš lih k psa sprehajam? 
3. A s'vidu mačka k pu streh pleza. 
4. Učer sej en ta star s strehe fuknu. 

*Kraški prevod (in Kras): 

1. Joj, ma kej je dns tu kafe t'ku sltku! 
2. Kej me hnjav'š lih ku sm wnh s p'sm! 
3. Kej si vidu mačku, ku je šla nan đjro po strjhi? 
4. Učjra j an n'wnč skwaču ss strj'he. 

*Idrijsko (Idrian): 

1. Dans sm si kafjee preveč cukrala. 
2. Kwa me mona kličeš, ka hlih s kuzla špancirawa. 
3. A s’ widu, kak se enu mače huar pa striih sprehaje? 
4. Učiri se je en stari s strihe ruknu. 

* “Knjižno” zasavsko (“Textbook” Zasavsko): 

1. Pizda, kuk sm’m si dons kufea pucukrala. 
2. Kuga me zaj'bavaš, ku s’m glih s p'sam uzuni? 
3. As vidu, kaku en mačk pu streh špancira? 
4. Mat kurba, učjiri sej en tast'r k'r s strehe fuknu! 


Hello and welcome to my langblr! I made this blog so I could stay motivated, revise and learn regularly. Apparently, an introduction is in order, so I thought we’d kick things off with a few basic information and goals.


  • Hi, I’m Ana
  • teenager
  • Hobbies include movies, books, playing piano, running and learning foreign languages


  • Slovenian (native) 
  • English (fluent)
  • German (B1 level)
  • Spanish  (A2/B1)
  • Learning Korean, French, Portuguese (Pt)
  • Serbo-Croatian but I never officially learned either the languages individually or as a mix so I don’t know anything regarding grammar  (will probably only post vocab or reblog stuff in it) 


  • Posting photos of notes or other stuff in all kind of different languages, vocabulary and grammar posts, masterposts, …
  • Helping people with studying or explaining things if they have any questions,…
  • Reblogging a bunch of jokes and memes (especially language related)
  • Movies and music suggestions in the languages I speak or am learning
  • Make new friends and find some people to practice the languages I’m learning with 
  • Teach people more about Slovenian because it’s an amazing language but not many people want to learn it


If you’re a langblr, like or reblog this and I’ll check out your blog (all follows go from main blog @gallagherish)!

A Map of Lexical Distances Between Europe's Languages

Europe’s defining trait is its diversity. Europeans don’t have to travel far to immerse themselves in a different culture. And if each only spoke their own language, they wouldn’t even be able to make heads or tails of it.

Or would they?

Finnish people probably won’t make a lot out of Spanish, and if you’re from Spain, Finnish might as well be Chinese. But not all languages are as far apart as those two. A Frenchman could understand a bit of Spanish, just because it resembles his own language. And an Estonian can pick up a some Finnish, for the same reason.

But the Estonian will have a slightly harder time of it than the Frenchman, and this map shows why.

Keep reading

wild polyglot adventures

Didn’t understand Slovene cases explained from a French textbook, so I translated them into Macedonian and they still weren’t clear, so I translated them to Serbian and learned about Serbian cases so I could return to Slovene cases and finally understand them.

cozy vocab in Slovenian

Originally posted by bohemianromance123

Inspired by x and x

  • poljub – kiss
  • film – movie
  • cartanje/crklanje – cuddles
  • pulover – sweater
  • blazina/povšter – pillow
  • kava – coffee
  • nogavice – socks
  • knjiga – book
  • udobje – comfort
  • odeja – blanket
  • dremež – nap
  • kamin – fireplace
  • maček– cat
  • toplota – warmth
  • zvezde – stars
  • čaj – tea
  • objem – hug
  • sveča – candle
  • mehko – soft
  • delikatno – delicate
  • sladko – sweet
  • udobno – comfortable
  • toplo - warm
  • poljubiti – to kiss
  • objeti – to hug
  • poskrbeti za – to take care (of smb.)
  • uleči se – to lie down
  • cartati/crkljati se – to cuddle
  • brati – to read
  • spati – to sleep
  • počivati – to rest

my favourite Slovene-French word correspondence is colloquial Slovene kva and French quoi which both have the same meaning (“what”) and the same pronunciation ([ˈku̯aː] for Sln. and [ˈkwa] for Fr., but they are esentially the same)

in light of recent events:

protests ~ protesti

revolution ~ revolucija

feminism ~ feminizem

government ~ vlada

human rights ~ človekove pravice

misogyny ~ mizoginija

rape ~ posilstvo

uterus ~ maternica 

restrictions ~ omejitve

equality ~ enakost

abortion ~ splav

economy ~ gospodarstvo

reproductive rights ~ reproduktivne pravice

voting ~ glasovanje 

laws ~ zakoni

debate ~ razprava

politics ~ politika

violation ~ kršitev


Zima - Winter

Zimski športi - Winter sports

Pomlad - Spring

Pomladansko čiščenje - Spring cleaning

Poletje - Summer

Poletne počitnice - Summer holiday

Poletni dan - Summer’s day

Jesen - Autumn

V pozni jeseni - [In] late autumn 

Vreme - Weather

Slabo vreme - Bad weather

Oblačno -  Cloudy  

Mrzlo - Cold

Hladno - Cool

Megleno - Foggy

Vroče - Hot

Lepo vreme - Nice weather

Lije -  Pouring 

Dež - Rain

Dežuje - Raining 

Sneg - Snow

Sneži - Snowing 

Led - Ice

Sončno - Sunny

Vetrovno - Windy

Kako lep dan! - What a lovely day!

Kako grozno vreme! - What an awful weather!

Hladno / vroče je - It’s cold / hot

Misliš da bo deževalo? - Do you think it’s going to rain?

 Misliš da bo sončno? - Do you think it’ll be sunny? 

sisterofiris  asked:

Hi! How are you? :) I was wondering if you could help me out with something? I'm researching religious vocabulary in Indo-European languages for a uni project and I was wondering if you knew of any Slavic/Slovenian religious terms (god, sacred, altar, offering...) that come from PIE? I've mainly got Greek, Latin, Sanskrit and Germanic words at the moment and it would be awesome if I could bring in another perspective. I hope you don't mind me asking, I thought it might be your kind of thing :)

Hi! I’m doing great, especially now that I got this very stimulating question :D I hope you don’t mind if I answer this publicly, since I figure this might be interesting to others as well (and to spite that anon from ages ago who complained about the lack of Proto-Indo-European content on this blog lol).

First of all, I don’t know if you’ve already been using it, but it’s worth mentioning anyway: the general and most comprehensive work (that I know of) that tries to reconstruct as much as possible about Proto-Indo-European culture (material and otherwise), society, environment etc. based on reconstructible vocabulary is The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World by Mallory and Adams (which I’m sure you could find somewhere here, if your nearest library doesn’t have it :P). Admittedly it only has a small section devoted to exclusively religious vocabulary (6 pages or so), but it’s quite dense and you can find religious aspects in other sections as well (which does (unfortunately) mean you’ve got to look through basically all of it, but there is stuff like that there too).

Now to turn to Slavic, there’s Proto-Slavic *bȍgъ ”god”, with descendants in Belarusian, Russian, Rusyn, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Macedonian бог, BCSM (Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian-Montenegrin) бо̑г/bȏg, Slovene bọ̑g, Lower Sorbian bog, Upper Sorbian bóh, Slovak boh, Czech bůh, Silesian bůg, Polabian büg, Kashubian, Polish bóg.†

If the reconstruction from the PIE root *bheh2g- “to apportion, to give a part, to distribute a share” (also reconstructed as *bhag-, though that might be controversial, as many believe that *a did not exist as a phoneme in PIE) is correct (the form we’re discussing is then ultimately a formation like *bhh2g-o-s), then it has cognates in Avestan and Old Persian baγa “god, (the) lord” (some also propose it was actually borrowed from the latter into Slavic), from the same root also Sanskrit bhāgá- “a part, a share, an inheritance, Vedic also lot → fortunate lot, good fortune, luck, destiny” along with the verbal root bhaj- with the same meanings as the PIE root, Ancient Greek ἔφαγον “I ate” < *“I received a share”. So “god” in this view is something like “the one who bestows things upon you” (be it material goods or good fortune/luck).

The word has a wide family, to give examples from Slovene: bogínja “a goddess”, bóžji “related to god”, božȃnstvo “a divinity”, božȃnski “divine, god-like”, pobọ́žen [ə] “devout, pious, godly”, pobọ́žnost “devotion, piety, godliness”, brezbọ́žen [ɛ-ə] “godless” etc.; capitalized Bog means the Christian “God”.
—{LIV, NIL, Fran, Wikt}

Because this is long, the rest will be under the cut. Words featured below are: *svę̑tъ “holy, saint”, *žь̋rtva “an offering (to the gods), praising of gods”, *žьrьcь̍ “a (pagan) priest”, *dȗxъ “a breath, a spirit, a ghost, secondarily a demon, as well as mind (=mental ability, mentality)”, *duša̍ “a soul”, *bě̑sъ “a demon, an evil spirit”, *čűdo “a miracle, a wonder”, *vȏrgъ “an enemy, a foe, a murderer”, *vorža̍ “divination”, *vě̋ra “faith”.

Keep reading