Troglobites: Creatures of the Cave

Troglobites are generally small creatures which are adapted to live in caves. These adaptations are so extreme that these creatures are unable to survive on the surface, and thus spend their entire life in caves. For example, due to the dark nature of caves eyes are not used; many Troglobites, therefore, have underdeveloped eyes which may even be covered with skin. Darkness also removes the need for camouflage colouring animals on the surface may have, as such many Troglobites are albino. As seen in the photo, the Titanophyllum spiriarum is a species of millipede which is a Troglobite. This species was discovered in 2011 in Greece, has no eyes, and has a very palely pigmented body. Other Troglobites include the White Cave Velvet Worm, the Alabama Cave Shrimp, and the Beauty Rat Snake.

Due to Troglobites sedentary lifestyle they do not need much food to survive and thus gain most food from scavenging. Examples of food sources for Troglobites include plant debris, bacteria and animal faeces (such as bat guano – the excrement of cave-dwelling bats). So far 7700 species of Troglobites have been discovered; however, biologists believe this number is not nearly at its maximum due to the number of caves yet to be explored or even discovered at all.

It should be noted that bats are not Troglobites but are Trogloxenes instead (animals that use caves but only for a short period e.g. overnight or to hibernate in over winter).Trogloxenes include birds, snakes and insects. There are also Troglophiles which spend part/ all of their life in caves; however, these species differ as they are not adapted to permanently living in caves so still maintain vision and pigmentation.

The first examples of Troglobites were discovered in Slovenia in the 1600s when heavy rain flooded caves and flushed out flesh-coloured creatures that were up to 10cm long with flat heads. At the time, this caused much hysteria as locals believed these were underdeveloped baby dragons.

~SA

Picture: http://bit.ly/1JDBKv2 by P Stoev, N Akkari and H Enghoff.
Further Reading: http://bit.ly/1cQ5iZl - The paper on T.spiriarum’s discovery

Eurovision 2015 in a nutshell (live update!)
  • Slovenia:she wore headphones because she was nervous and pretends that she's in a studio...that's adorable
  • France:such a powerful song and first that's non-English (ballad 1)
  • Israel:omg makes you wanna dance golden boy
  • Estonia:cute duo~
  • United Kingdom:20's electro swing with glowing light costumes...LET'S DANCE!!
  • Armenia:"face every shadow you denied...don't deny" (ballad 2)
  • Lithuania:ONE KISS ...technically three kinds on stage ;)
  • Serbia:OMG A SONG ABOUT ACCEPTING YOURSELF BECAUSE BEAUTY NEVER LIES
  • Norway:another cute duo about letting their love go because they see themselves as monsters (ballad 3)
  • Sweden:singing simultaneously with cartoons and visual effects THAT'S HOW YOU USE A STAGE GREAT WORK SWEDEN
  • Cyprus:Such a crisp voice (ballad 4)
  • Australia:SOUL MUSIC
  • Belgium:"We're gonna rappabab tonight" Sounds like Lorde but sounds so flesh! Such great vibe
  • Austria:THE PIANO IS ON FIRE why am I not surprised (ballad 5)
  • Greece:SUCH POWERFUL VOICE!!(ballad 6)
  • Montenegro:second song NOT in English! (ballad 7)
  • Germany:the background looks like James Bond (ballad 8)
  • Poland:despite being in a wheelchair after a car accident back in 2006, Monika shows that you can still go strong! (ballad 9)
  • Latvia:such fabulous dress! And THAT VOICE (ballad 10...drink up)
  • Romania:third song not in English and its very uplifting (ballad 11)
  • Spain:fourth song not in English, guess which language. fabulous and hot dress reveal with sexy guy (ballad 12)
  • Hungary:A powerful message. Make love not war, as music is the universal language for peace! (ballad 13)
  • Georgia:BALLAD COMBO BREAK (finally) did I mention how much I love that costume?
  • Azerbaijan:such a crisp strong voice (ballad 14...)
  • Russia:BEAUTIFUL VOICE, POWERFUL SONG, THAT DRESS, THE STAGE EFFECTS (ballad 15...this is an exception though)
  • Albania:Pretty good voice and dress (ballad 16...the last one better not be a ballad)
  • Italy:THREE GORGEOUS MEN IN SUITS and fifth song that's not in the English language. Their harmony is so HEAVENLY GOOD (ballad 17...sighs)
WHY YOU SHOULD VOTE ROMANIA TONIGHT
  • The song is great and has a true message
  • It is focused on family values and is about children that are left alone by their parents who go in Europe to work
  • THEY ARE SINGING IN ROMANIAN 
  • The staging is amazing 
  • SEBASTIAN STAN IS FROM ROMANIA
  • Romania has never won
  • JUST VOTE FOR ROMANIA (20)!!!!!!!