Creole, Spanish Criollo, French Créole

The term “creole” denotes a culture which embraces the influences of French, Spanish, African and Native American peoples in Louisiana.

Before the Civil War these free people of color enjoyed considerably higher social status than enslaved Africans. In fact, many of them owned enslaved Africans. After the Civil War, all people of color were categorized together for the first time. This amounted to a significant social demotion for many people whose families were free persons of color prior to the war. They were suddenly denied access to networks and resources (such as education and capital) that had previously been available to them.

There is general agreement that the term “Creole” derives from the Portuguese word crioulo, which means a slave born in the master’s household.  Many Creoles, are descendants of French colonials who fled Saint-Domingue (Haiti) for North America’s Gulf Coast when a slave insurrection (1791) challenged French authority.

In Louisiana, the term Creole came to represent children of black or racially mixed parents as well as children of French and Spanish descent with no racial mixing. Persons of French and Spanish descent in New Orleans and St. Louis began referring to themselves as Creoles after the Louisiana Purchase to set themselves apart from the Anglo-Americans who moved into the area. 

Today, the term Creole can be defined in a number of ways. Louisiana historian Fred B. Kniffin, in Louisiana: Its Land and People, has asserted that the term Creole “has been loosely extended to include people of mixed blood, a dialect of French, a breed of ponies, a distinctive way of cooking, a type of house, and many other things. It is therefore no precise term and should not be defined as such.”

http://www.datacenterresearch.org/pre-katrina/tertiary/creole.html

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/142548/Creole Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Creoles.html#ixzz3TABXG900 

Unidentified African American Woman Colorized by Stacey Palmer TheCivilWarParlor Tumblr.com Accession Number: 1982:1404:0048 Maker: Unidentified Title: Unidentified African American Woman Date: ca. 1870 https://www.flickr.com/photos/george_eastman_house/

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MODERN SLAVERY- Slavery Did Not Start Or End With The American Civil War-The Emancipation Proclamation led the way to total abolition of slavery in the United States.  There Is More To The Story.. 30 million people today are living as forced laborers, forced prostitutes, child soldiers, child brides in forced marriages and, in all ways that matter, as pieces of property, chattel in the servitude of absolute ownership.

The Past: Slavery was not new to Africa: Domestic slavery was common practice and an internal trade in slaves had been going on long before the arrival of the Europeans to their continent.  (Kenny, 2001; Meltzer, 1993; Franklin, 1988; Berry & Blassingame 1982).

The Africans, like other people throughout the world, had practiced slavery since prehistoric times. The medieval Europeans sold slaves even of their own faith or nation, as did the Africans. (Baepler, 1999). Black Africans were transported to the Islamic empire across the Sahara to Morocco and Tunisia from West Africa, from Chad to Libya, along the Nile from East Africa, and up the coast of East Africa to the Persian Gulf. This trade had been well entrenched for over 600 years before Europeans arrived, and had driven the rapid expansion of Islam across North Africa. Modern day bondage has not been confined to blacks. Contradicting the popular belief that race hatred or white racism (Van Deburg, 1984) was the basis for slavery, are the numerous accounts of Christian-Americans held in slavery by North Africans during the time of the European colonization of America. Baeplar’s (1999)

Today: Nearly 30 million people around the world are living as slaves, according to a new index ranking 162 countries. An anti-slavery campaign group says in a new report that Nigeria has the highest number of people living in what it describes as ‘modern slavery’ in Africa, while Mauritania has Africa’s – and the world’s – highest number of “slaves” in proportion to the total population. 

http://www.kon.org/urc/v4/tikhomirova.html

http://www.informationng.com/2013/10/modern-slavery-map-nigeria-among-africas-top-slave-holding-nations-survey.html

http://africanhistory.about.com/library/bl/bl-slavery-stats4.htm

Read the complete article at http://madworldnews.com/muslim-concentration-camps/

Muslim Concentration Camps Like That of Nazi Germany Have Been Uncovered

Islam has a rich history of racism, torture, and slaughter long before Hitler ruled the Third Reich, wiping out around 78 percent of the 7.3 million Jews who lived in Europe. In fact, the masochistic Führer was said to be inspired by the barbaric conquests of the Ottoman Empire, a massive …

Kudos to this caucasoid europid spitting real fiery truth at our Nation’s collective ignorance.
Now will y’all wake the fuck up!!! White folks have been letting you know the fable of so called jesus is a story of a person who never existed - there is no archeological eveidence of so called jesus not because he was so called risen but because he is an “imaginary white guy” whom you continue to praise as ruler of your spirit. Such a shame. Will you seek now to know yourselves and your rightful place?!?! Or do you enjoy your enslavement that much????

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Ishmael the Arab World

They sold us too!  Mecca was a HUGE center for trade of Israelite slaves.  A lot of us think Allah and emulating the so-called Arabs is the answer.  Not so.  Everyone helped destroy us.  

i don’t trust white people that

1) act like slavery wasn’t a big deal

2) emphasize how long ago slavery was

3) deny the lasting effects on this country from the rape, slaughter, and oppression of my people during slavery

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Muscovado: A Slave-Trade Play that Needs Your Support

EDIT: We have only 1 day left to make the funds! As of 01/03/2015 If we don’t receive the full amount then we don’t get any of it.

Muscovado is a play telling the stories of several slaves on a sugar plantation in Nineteenth Century Barbados. Our aim in creating this play was to showcase the voices of those who tend to be ignored, the part of history that the world tends to forget.

This is especially true in Great Britain today, where our economy stands on the suffering of slaves. The sugar we drink in our tea was once stripped from the plantations of the Caribbean. Many got extremely rich from the abuse and neglect of their fellow human beings.

BurntOut Theatre is a young company that has a passion for spreading knowledge and creating inspiring Theatre in the process.

Your money will not only pay for our travel around the UK but it will help educate the younger generation on these issues. We are in partnership with museums and schools to help with our cause.

We aren’t asking for too much, every little helps. We are also giving gifts to those who donate!

Donate here: Click Me! 

I understand that is a tough financial time for some people so please show your support by Reblogging if you are unable to donate.

Learn more about the play at: htttp://www.burntouttheatre.co.uk

Photos courtesy of Hannah Palmer

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The Slave Trade! The Truth Shall Make You Free! IUIC

I did not stutter, My Mother's Grandmother was born a Slave.

Here’s your receipts for the young lady questioning my math…

My Great grandmother was born in 1863  ( 2 years before slavery ended)

She had 20 children, the last of which being my grandmother, (at the age of 52) in 1915

My grandmother had my mother at the age of 41 or 42 in 1957.

And my mother birthed me in 1990 at the age of 32.

I am 25 and slavery was only a few generations ago in my lineage. 

MY MOTHER’S GRANDMOTHER WAS BORN A SLAVE.

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Hidden Human Computers

Dozens of African American women worked for NASA as expert mathematicians from the 1940s to the 1960s and almost no one knows about it. Segregated within NASA facilities in Hampton, Va., well-educated Black women used slide rules and pencils to do the calculations for flights by astronauts John Glenn and Alan Shepherd.

Image: Melba Roy, NASA Mathematician, at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland in 1964. Credit: NASA/Corbis

That this history is little known makes it ripe for research by collaborators Lucy Short ’15 (St. Louis) and American studies professor Duchess Harris, whose grandmother, Miriam Daniel Mann, was one of these extraordinary women.

Their collaboration began when Professor Harris invited Short, an American studies major, to join her in researching the human “computers,” as these women and their White women counterparts were known.

Professor Harris found this project compelling not solely because of her grandmother’s work, but because, “I am the descendant of enslaved Africans who became the first free Blacks in America. Because of them, I am here.”

They applied for and received a student-faculty research grant that supported travel to Hampton, home of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, now known as NASA’s Langley Research Center. There they met with local collaborator Margot Lee Shetterly (a Black descendant of Confederate general Robert E. Lee and daughter of retired NASA engineer Robert B. Lee) as well as historians at the Hampton History Museum and at NASA. They also visited the archaeological site of the Great Contraband Camp, a community of freed Blacks.

In 1831, Virginia enacted anti-literacy legislation to prevent the education of slaves and freedmen. But in the 1860s, thanks to the efforts of educator Mary Smith Peake and sympathetic generals at nearby Fort Monroe, former slaves had their first opportunities to obtain an education, culminating in the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (now Hampton University), which became the alma mater of Booker T. Washington and scores of other Black educators and leaders. The Black women who became the computers at NASA were required to first take a course at Hampton.

“While we were touring NASA, Mary Gainer, the center’s historic preservation officer, pointed out a building used by the computers,” says Short.  Professor Harris asked, ‘Is that where my grandmother would have worked?’

‘No,’ she said. ‘That’s where the White women worked. The Black women were in another building about a mile away, on the other side of the gate.’” These were women calculating the trajectories for America’s first manned space flights—segregated in a building with few amenities at a research center built on the site of the former Chesterville plantation.

The interconnections of the computers, the plantation, pioneering educational efforts, and a community of freedmen interested the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, which provided a grant for Shetterly, Short, and Harris to expand their study. This grant was followed by a sustainability grant from Macalester, which allows further exploration of this unsustainable, segregated way of life.

Short is continuing the research as part of her senior honors project, which focuses on Black feminism. Another product of this work is a digital archive, Human Computers at NASA, developed in collaboration with the Macalester Library.

“The project has been a wonderful culmination of my American studies major,” says Short. “After being onsite at [the former] Chesterville Plantation, now part of NASA, the honors thesis chapter essentially wrote itself with the emergence of uncanny connections to slavery. I feel so lucky to have support from Macalester to pursue research on a microcosm of the invisibility of Black women’s bodies.”