slave trade

anonymous asked:

you lost my respect, you are trully and actually, you can deny it but we all know better, saying germans are bad because of history, russians because of stalin regime hostory, muslims because of terrorism history and whites for slavery history, makes us bad too. Don't try to make you look like a phrophet because you actually are saying that but pretend yourself you do not.

but that isn’t what i’m saying?

i’m not saying i, as a white person, am solely responsible for the slave trade. i’m saying that i, as a white person, have a responsibility to work against the social power i get today from being a white person, and that power has its roots in imperialism & slave trade & all that.

this social power is visible in situations like how i’m statistically more likely to get an apartment than a person of color, especially if that person has an “ethnic” sounding name. that is explicit racism that i personally benefit from, whether i want to or not. and because i benefit from that racism, i’m complicit to the racist system.

How the Atlantic Slave Trade affected Igbo Societies

A lot of the abhorrent practices like human sacrifice in Igbo religious institutions can be traced to, or were heightened by the Atlantic slave trade. It’s at this time that the practice of condemning people as osu or ritual slaves became intensified. The slave trade created an environment in which African religious practices became very violent which may have consequently led to the rapid spread of Christianity in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

The pursuit of conspicuous consumption promoted greed, impoverished people and rendered them vulnerable to enslavement by their creditors. A growing culture of conspicuous consumption ensured the extremely high cost of funerals, marriages, and other ceremonies. “Gun salutes,” or multiple firing of canon, as well as human sacrifices — practices that developed during the overseas slave trade era — became regular features of the funerals of the rich. Slave-ship captains ordered gun salutes when coastal kings boarded newly arrived ships to collect customs, and human sacrifice developed as the overseas trade cheapened human life.46 Even though the sale of human beings generated revenues, diminished value for human life was an inevitable consequence of a culture of violence and death that resulted from slave capture, warfare, raiding, and resistance. Although slave traders calculated the value of their captives in terms of profits, nothing would stop them sacrificing the captives if they calculated that such sacrifice would replenish their cost in manifold proportions. The primary focus of their interest was not human life but profit, which they could apparently achieve through either destruction or preservation, as they might calculate in any given circumstance. Economic and spiritual considerations were linked. These extremely expensive, decadent and sometimes gruesome undertakings deepened stratification. Human sacrifice also fed on and promoted the domestic slave trade, as perpetrators had first to acquire the individuals needed for the purpose. Even head hunting is associated with the late-nineteenth-century history of Arondizuogu.47 These untoward practices represented cultural changes that were the consequences of either the overseas slave trade or of its suppression. 

46 The practice of “gun salutes” had developed by the end of seventeenth century when European slave traders used it to entertain and honor both themselves and prominent Africans they dealt with. For example, on or about May r, 1699, the slaver Albion-Frigate fired seven-gun salute for King William of New Calabar when he went aboard to collect duties. In late June of the same yea; King William and master of another English ship at the port were also each recipients of a seven-gun salute; late; Captain Edwards of the Albion-Frigate received another seven rounds, when “he returned ashore” (James Barbot).

G. Ugo Nwokeji (2010). The Slave Trade and Culture in the Bight of Biafra: An African Society in the Atlantic World. Cambridge University Press. p. 201.

youtube.com
Somalis in the East African Arab Slave Trade
This video talks about the East African Slave Trade as it pertains to Somalis. Many Somalis were victims of the East African Arab Slave Trade. Click on this ...

This video talks about the East African Slave Trade as it pertains to Somalis. Many Somalis were victims of the East African Arab Slave Trade. Click to learn about an untouched aspect of Somali history using widely accepted authors and geographic explorers.

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Sharing my reading tonight.
Middle Passage Monday…sigh.

This is by far one of the heaviest nights of the week for me. Doing research on the specifics of the slave trade and the gruesome middle passage our ancestors endured before even making it to the “New World”

So many emotions. This is going to be difficult. Share this information far and wide.

Brexit

People are seriously saying F*ck the single market, great britain can be the great trading nation it was hundreds of years ago…


So I guess I should hand in my mobile device which connects me to all parts of the planet and trade in my car for a horse and carriage. Let’s not even mention the dark trade that made it all possible…smdh

The thing about scotland and racism is, theres this street in the city centre of Glasgow called Jamaica Street. It stands as a testement to a city built off the slave trade. There was some debate about renaming it, but it was decided that this shameful part of our history should not be hidden away.

There is another street, adjacent to it, called Nelson Mandela Place. Here used to stand the south african embassy. At a time when the UK government was calling for Mandela’s head, what seems like an insignificant act of protest was a powerful statement of intent.

There are racists in this counrty. Hundreds of them. Thousands. There always have been and there always will be. But a racist past is not an excuse for a racist future. Wanting a more equal future can never erase atrocities of the past, and no one is saying that. 

My point is, you can keep walking up Jamaica Street, or you can turn onto Nelson Mandela Place. 

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March 31st 1797: Olaudah Equiano dies

On this day in 1797, the abolitonist Olaudah Equiano died in London aged 51/52. Equiano wrote in his autobiography that he was born in Nigeria, and was kidnapped and sold into slavery when he was 11. He was shipped to Barbados then Virginia before being sold to a British officer in the Royal Navy. During this time, Equiano travelled widely with his new master, and experienced battle in the Seven Years’ War. He was taught to read and write by the sailors, and was baptised in 1759. He was later sold to a merchant in the West Indies, and worked as a deckhand, valet and barber. Equiano began to trade privately, independent of his master, and eventually earned enough money to buy his own freedom. After years of enslavement, Equiano was now a free man. He spent the following years traveling extensively, and in the 1780s returned to London. There, he became deeply involved in the anti-slavery movement, joining the ‘Sons of Africa’ group of black abolitionists and working with the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade. The publication of his autobiography in 1789 highlighed the horrors of slavery, describing in graphic detail the horrendous conditions endured by African slaves. Equiano’s candid account was a bestseller and, coupled with his powerful speaking tours across Britain, it bolstered the abolitionist cause. Equiano’s involvement contibuted to Britain’s abolition of the slave trade in 1807, which was followed by the total abolition of slavery throughout the empire in 1833.  Equiano married in 1792, and became involved in the campaign for universal suffrage. He was tasked with settling former slaves in Sierra Leone, but died before he could emark on the expedition. Olaudah Equiano has been hailed as the father of African literature, and is remembered for his role in bringing an end to the slave trade.

“But is not the slave trade entirely a war with the heart of man? And surely that which is begun by breaking down the barriers of virtue involves in its continuance destruction to every principle, and buries all sentiments in ruin!”
- from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano

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November 29th 1781: Zong massacre

On this day in 1781, hundreds of captured Africans were killed aboard the British slave ship Zong. The ship had left the African coast on September 6th carrying 470 slaves, which was far more than the ship could accommodate, but Captain Luke Collingwood insisted on taking more people to maximise his profits from selling them as slaves. The horrific, cramped conditions aboard the ship led to rapidly spreading disease and malnutrition, which claimed the lives of fifty slaves and seventeen crew members. In order to prevent further deaths and to allow himself to collect insurance money on the lost slave property, Collingwood decided to throw 132 sick and dying captives overboard, beginning on November 29th. Ten of the kidnapped Africans threw themselves to their deaths in an act of defiance against Collingwood’s barbarity. Upon the Zong’s arrival in Jamaica, the ship’s owner filed an insurance claim of £4,000 for the loss of the human cargo, asserting that the ship lacked the water supplies to sustain the full crew and captives. This claim was refuted, however, as it was soon discovered that the ship had 420 gallons of water aboard. Despite the weakness of the ship owner’s claim, a Jamaican court in 1782 ruled in their favour, forcing the insurers to pay out. The insurers appealed the court’s decision, and the ensuing legal battle soon acquired a moral element, as it enflamed the growing abolitionist movement in Great Britain. The high publicity around the case, and the fact that abolitionists like Olaudah Equiano and Granville Sharp used it to further the anti-slavery cause, led to a second trial in Britain ruling in favour of the insurers. However, prevailing inhumane attitudes towards the plight of the kidnapped Africans prevented criminal charges from being brought against those responsible for the massacre. Britain’s Solicitor General flippantly rebuffed the case, claiming that as slaves are legal property, the incident is akin to as if wood had been thrown overboard. The tragic deaths of hundreds of captured Africans, and the injustice of their murderers’ reprieve, did, however, strengthen the abolitionist movement. The Zong massacre provides one the darkest symbols of the horrific Middle Passage, and paved the way for the eventual abolition of slavery across the British Empire in 1833.

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August 1st 1834: Britain abolishes slavery

On this day in 1834, slavery was abolished in the British Empire as the 1833 Slavery Abolition Act came into force. Britain had dominated the Atlantic slave trade for hundreds of years, with millions of people being forcibly taken from Africa to the Americas while businessmen in Britain profited from their plight. The campaign for abolition began in the late eighteenth century, countering claims that slaves were content with the brutal reality of life aboard a slave ship and toiling in a plantation. One of the primary actors in the movement to abolish the slave trade was freed slave Olaudah Equiano, whose eloquent autobiography articulated the horrors of slavery. The slave trade was thus banned in 1807, and this was enforced by the British navy on the West African coast, but the practice continued and captains would throw slaves overboard to avoid fines. The Anti-Slavery Society was formed in 1823 to campaign for the complete abolition of slavery in the British Empire, led by the politician William Wilberforce. The abolition movement was partly fueled by humanitarian concern, but also changing economic interests, as the newly industrial Britain no longer relied on slave-based goods, and slave rebellions in Haiti and Jamaica indicated that slavery was becoming unprofitable. The 1833 act was passed by the House of Commons and the House of Lords, before receiving Royal Assent from King William IV in August; Wilberforce died three days after hearing that the bill would pass. Due to come into effect a year later, it provided for the eventual emancipation of slaves in the British Empire (they were to become ‘apprentices’ for six years before freedom), while providing £20 million (nearly £70 billion in modern currency) in compensation for slaveowners. Whilst this act ostensibly ended slavery, it did not completely eradicate the practice, as some areas of the British Empire were initially exempt and others continued to secretly sell slaves throughout the nineteenth century.

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Santería: Religion, Food & Community

The people of Yoruba (originally from Nigeria) brought their mythology and traditions to New World during the slave trade. As slaves, they were forced to believe in Christianity, however rather than dismissing their own beliefs, they merged the two. With this combination, Santería was born.

This video is a very fascinating look into the religion of Santería. The religion is often met with shock due to its animal sacrifices. As a result, Santeras choose to stay quiet about their beliefs and practices. From what I’ve gathered, it seems that the secretive lifestyle has led to stronger relationships with the Orishas. Rather than telling everyone else about their religion, more time is spent on the actual spiritual growth, making it very personal journey.

[via Munchies]


Be a light. mx

slate.com
This Haunting Animation Maps the Journeys of 15,790 Slave Ships in Two Minutes
Usually, when we say “American slavery” or the “American slave trade,” we mean the American colonies or, later, the United States. But as we discussed ...

When talking about the American slave trade (or the Atlantic slave trade) it’s important to remember that it was a global trade. This Slate interactive map shows the spread of the slave trade as well as major destinations for the inbound slave ships.