slave trade

Sinbad no Bouken Chp. 68 RAW

*The rest of this chapter is under the cut.

So… In this chapter, it switched back to Sinbad’s side of things. You know things are bad when you start to dread seeing a chapter all about Sinbad. Just seeing how much torture he is going through and that dead look in his eyes… It is too much to take… :’( I wonder how long he has been there now. At the end of the chapter, he was getting to see slave trade first hand. I know Ja’far said he has been through a lot, and it’s sad to think that this is only the beginning… Seriously Ja’far, hurry up! ;O;

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NAS discovers his great grandma's bill of sale when she was sold into slavery (VIDEO)

In this emotional clip NAS finds out his great grandmother was sold for just over $800. A bill of sale for a human being. This is the dark past of America that many want to forget. We are proud to see NAS shining the light on this important issue.

The majority of the Africans that were kidnapped from the continent of Africa were kidnapped by force and by violence through warfare, they were brought out of their villages, brought down to the coast, then put on those slave ships. In fact, no African country, no African nation in West Africa ever was a slave economy. No society in Africa, had its principle mode of production as slavery, it did not exist, that was only something that the Europeans invented and created.
—  “But Africans sold slaves too” - 500 Years Later - Dr. Molefi Kete Asante explains how slavery among Africans and slavery among Europeans were completely different systems and should not be used as a point to derail discussions of slavery in an attempt to revert the blame on slavery’s proliferation to Africans.


If you think “planking” is cool. Think again! Slaves captured in Africa were stowed away on ships during the “Middle Passage” journey during the late 16th century and forced to sleep on wooden planks. “Planking” was the term used when slave owners transported the slaves on these ships. Unclothed, underfed, and forced to lie on hard planking in unhygienic conditions, many slaves failed to survive the transatlantic voyage. Cultural sensitivity is real. Educate yourself.

The use of the word “Slavery" is often widely and falsely generalized. The TYPE of slavery is the most ESSENTIAL factor. This generalization of “Slavery" is both misleading and fuel for propaganda used to justify the horrors of the African Holocaust also known as The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.

Let me give you an analogy to explain why YOU CANNOT group certain terms in the same category. People who commit crime are labeled “Criminals" but all “Criminals" do not commit the same level of crime. A convicted child molester and a petty shoplifter are technically both criminals. But are their crimes on the same level? Should they be sentenced the same? I’d like to hope that you don’t think so. “Slavery" should not be generalized. Furthermore, we must expose the propaganda of “American Chattel Slavery".

There has been forms of domestic servitude found since the beginning of history. Africans, Europeans, and Asians all share this history. Understand that the Trans-Atlantic slave trade was NOTHING like that, especially AMERICAN CHATTEL SLAVERY.

“American Chattel Slavery” was 500 years of dehumanizing and total degradation of African people. It’s estimated that over 250 million Africans died during this horror. They murdered, raped, tortured, and enslaved Africans for more than 500 years (and counting). Generations of stolen Africans lived and died enslaved. Living a real life HORROR movie. THERE HAS BEEN NOTHING LIKE THIS TRAGEDY EVER IN HISTORY, EVER! The worst part of this horror was the psychological attack on the African mind through colonization and years of oppression. There was a CONSCIOUS effort to ensure dehumanization, CONSCIOUS effort!

Why? Because dehumanization justifies animalistic treatment and rids moral responsibility. They made the Africans change their name, cut their hair, change their religion , and change their language. All this was done to rid them of their true identities. Knowing who you are and what you are owed is the biggest threat to an oppressor. This is why they would not allow the slaves to read. KNOWLEDGE MAKES A MAN UNFIT TO BE A SLAVE…

The Trans-Atlantic Slave trade was the birth of worldwide racism. It was the first time a “slave" could be readily identified because of the phenotypical differences between the Africans and Europeans. African servitude was similar to feudalism, American chattel slavery was a 500 year holocaust. YOU CANNOT COMPARE THE TWO.

“Slavery is in the past, let it go” Why is it important to recognize Trans -Atlantic Slavery? It virtually made EUROPEANS wealthy, it is the reason for their worldwide success, and it gave Americans a 400 year headstart of advancement on the rest of the world. It is also responsible for the starving Africans kids that you see on television always being portrayed by the media. African resources were directly controlled by Europeans and used to benefit Europe and America. The enslaved got nothing to show for it but the destruction of their families. NOT EVEN AN APOLOGY. The Wealthy ELITE in America is still spending OLD money from slavery.

I could go on and on about this but if you take nothing from this post understand that SLAVERY should not be generalized and NEVER forget it. Allowing a person who benefited from slavery to tell you, the VICTIM to forget about it is FOOLISH. That’s like a woman who has been RAPED to be told by her rapist to forget what he did to her, NEVER FORGET.

Post Written By @Solar_InnerG
5 Things about Latin America You Should Know

by Dash Harris

1. Not everyone speaks Spanish

There are many languages and dialects spoken even within countries where the official language is Spanish. We have English, Portuguese, Haitian Kreyol, and other creole languages and dialects as well as indigenous languages such as  Quechua. 

There were about a two thousand other languages spoken throughout what is now Latin America before the sixteenth century…the number of languages spoken by non-Conquest peoples (i.e., indigenous, “native” Americans) in the region of Latin America (excluding Anglo North American regions) now stands at about 500, many spoken by so few people that those languages will cease to be native languages during this course of this century.


2. Spanish, as it is spoken in the Americas, is not the same Spanish as spoken in Spain

“There are different dialects of the same language, and Spanish in Latin America is referred to as Latinoamerica, and Spanish in Spain is referred to as castellano.”**

There are many influences in the various Spanish dialects. Ie- The African influence in Dominican Spanish can be heard in its sounds, syntax, grammar, vocabulary, idioms, and the hundreds if not thousands of words used in every day locally.

3. Latin America hosts the largest Arab diaspora in the world

According to Al-Ahram, over 17 million people in Latin America are thought to be of Arab origin. Other estimations calculate that Latin Americans of Arab descent could represent up to 5% of the region, or 25-30 million people. Most of them are descendants of immigrants who came fromSyria, Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan, during the first decades of the 20th century.

Latin Americans of Arab descent have been disproportionately successful. Nowhere in the world more than in Latin America have the Arab migrants been able to thrive and be so successful. Over the last 60 years, eight Latin American presidents had Arab origin.


4. Latin America is part of the African Diaspora, The Arab Diaspora, The Jewish Diaspora, The Asian Diaspora among others

95% of Africans brought enslaved to the Americas went to Latin America and the Caribbean. There are over 150 million (accounted for) Afrodescendants in the region. Argentina has the seventh largest Jewish community in the world, Brazil also has a notable Jewish community (130,000). Latin America welcomed many Jewish people during the Spanish Inquisition and also later on (1930s/40s) in hopes of ‘whitening’ their country, Dominican Republic is notable:

“Only the Dominican Republic, led by dictator Rafael Trujillo, expressed a willingness to accept a significant number - between 50,000 and 100,000 Jews - an offer to which the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee jumped. Trujillo’s generosity probably stemmed mainly from his eagerness to have the Western nations overlook his brutal massacre of 25,000 Haitians in 1937 and his desire to "whiten” the people of his country, believing that the young European men would marry Dominican women and produce light-skinned offspring.“

5. Latin America is home to the largest Japanese population outside of Japan

Asians constitute the fourth largest ethnic group of Brazil, 2.1 million. The largest Asian ethnic group in the country is Japanese. Brazil has the largest population of Japanese outside of Japan. Others are Chinese, Taiwanese and South Korean.

Japanese-descended, Alberto Fujimori, served as President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 17 November 2000. Japanese Peruvians comprise the second largest ethnic Japanese population in Latin America after Brazil (1.5 million). This ethnic group composes today approximately 0.3% of the total population of Peru.

 Asian Latin Americans have a centuries-long history in the region, starting with Filipinos in the 16th century. The peak of Asian immigration occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries, however. There are currently more than four million Asian Latin Americans, nearly 1% of Latin America’s population. 

Besides that, Latin America was part of the coolie slave trade; 

"The word coolie, which refers to unskilled cheap labor from Asia, is believed to have its origin in India, Turkey, or Africa. Its translateration in Chinese means "bitter labor.” The term has been widely adopted to describe the Chinese who moved to foreign lands as contract laborers or indentured laborers in modern times. However, some scholars have rightly limited its use to the Chinese contract laborers who were brought to Latin America from the 1840s to the 1870s. The Chinese coolie trade was triggered by two events that occurred during the same period: the Opium War, which forced China to open several seaports to the West; and the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, which drove many western countries to seek alternative sources of labor.

The coolie trade started in the mid- 1840s in southern China. It first flourished in Xiamen (Amoy) and then spread to other cities in southern and eastern China, including Hong Kong, Macao, Shantou (Swatow), Guangzhou (Canton), and Shanghai. Foreign companies monopolized the coolie trade, working through Chinese agents–the so-called coolie crimps, who were paid for each coolie they recruited. Countries whose territories or ships were involved in the trade included Britain, the United States, Spain, Peru, Italy, France, and Portugal. Cuba and Peru were the two largest markets for Chinese coolies. It has been estimated that from 1847 to 1874, 143,000 coolies were shipped to Cuba and 120,000 to Peru. Other destinations included the British colonies in Latin America, Brazil, Panama, Chile, and Ecuador.“ 

**More on this later


I came across an interesting clip from the popular documentary, “Hidden Colors 3.” In it, legendary comedian, writer, and activist Dick Gregory, gave a brief assessment on racism in America. He also said something that was quite startling—George Washington Carver was a victim of castration.
George Washington Carver who is known as one of America’s greatest scientist was born into slavery sometime in 1864. Much of his early life was unknown; but what we do know about this great man is that he was the inventor of many food products that eventually became everyday staples in the diets of Americans.
Carver who never married, devoted much of his time to science and kept himself busy with a plethora of hobbies such as knitting, painting, sewing, and of course his research as it related to agriculture.
Gregory insisted that George Washington Carver was stripped of his dignity and manhood. When Carver was a little boy, he was castrated by the man who owned him. Allegedly, Carver became a house servant and since he was going to spend a majority of time in the house, his owner didn’t want him to rape his daughter, so he took away his ability to mature into a full functioning adult male.
What was also startling about this story is hearing the actual voice of Carver. It was quite high pitched—I can’t even describe it.
So I had to do my research.
While some research states that Carver’s voice was high pitched due to scarring on this throat as a result of developing whooping cough as a child, others state that castration was much likely the cause.
In her 1981 book George Washington Carver: Scientist and Symbol, author Linda O. McMury notes that when asked why he wasn’t married, Carver vaguely eluded to friends in 1937 that an unpleasant event from his past prevented him from every marrying or having children. He never specified what happened.
Authors Harley Flack and Edmund D. Pellegrino stated in their 1992 book African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics, that Carver had his critical body parts removed by a “Dr. Dιck.” The authors stated that the incident took place when Carver was only 11 years old and he actually approved of the procedure, as he didn’t want to be seen as a threat to society. He also wanted an education and dedicated his life to service. The authors state that Carver’s owner put the young man through the procedure because he “needed a new house servant and companion for his daughter.”
Further proof came from biographer Peter Burchard, who in 2010 did an interview with Iowa Public Radio in which he suggested that c@stration was also a factor. Burchard stated that a person close to Carver spoke with the doctors who examined him when he died and confirmed that where there should’ve been testicles, there was scar tissue.
What the hell?
In renaissance times, it was quite common that Eunuchs (men who’d had their reproductive organs removed) be used to guard the castle in many European countries. The King would put these Eunuchs in place because they knew that it would be impossible for them to carry on s-xual relationships with the Queen and Princess’s of the castle. It’s only feasible to assume that the practice was carried over into slavery.
Although I wasn’t able to gather concrete evidence, I came across many websites that suggested that Black slaves in America were often c@strated if they were assigned to work in the homes of their Masters.
Carver’s voice never fully developed because it’s possible that his male hormones never developed properly. Throughout most of his life, people thought he was a homosexual. At one point, he courted a woman by the name of Sarah L. Hunt for three years. But historians suggested that the union lasted until she took a teaching position in California.
Why am I bringing up old stuff again? Because this is another example of the atrocities committed against Black men in this country. I saw George Washington Carver one way before I learned about this atrocity. Now I see him as a victim. Yes, he created a great legacy for himself and is down in the history books as one of the greatest scientist to ever grace American soil. But his right to reproduce was traded in for such an accolade. His right to marry and have sexual relations was stripped away from him.
Nevertheless, he is again one of the greatest scientists in America’s history.

By: Yolanda Spivey for


Image 1: An Ask reads: I watched Django Unchanged two days ago and wondered: why weren’t the Asians enslaved by their colonizers the way Africans were? 

Image 2: Newly arrived Indian Asian slave or manual laborers) in Trinidad.

On a matter of semantics, I’d say they were. I do not argue the slave labor/trade or indentured manual labor was in any way on the same scale as the African Slave trade ever was. But when the Europeans ran low on slave labor within the Americas themselves, they turned to import other people, and you can be assured that both African and Asian slave labor was imported (and even kept as manual forced labor in their own countries, or otherwise kept chained to their colonizers; like maintained opium addictions forced on China). 

The term “coolie” is now a modern slur, but was originally used to refer to these laborers. The fact that it is a slur is because of the historical past of forced labor on different Asian communities. It’s not a flattering term, by any means. From wiki-foot notes:

Most current dictionaries do not record any offensive meaning (“an unskilled laborer or porter usually in or from the Far East hired for low or subsistence wages" Merriam-Webster) or make a distinction between an offensive meaning in referring to "a person from the Indian subcontinent or of Indian descent” and an at least originally inoffensive, old-fashioned meaning, for example “dated an unskilled native labourer in India, China, and some other Asian countries” (Compact Oxford English Dictionary). However, some dictionaries indicate that the word may be considered offensive in all contexts today. For example, Longman’s 1995 edition had “old-fashioned - an unskilled worker who is paid very low wages, especially in parts of Asia”, but the current version adds “taboo old-fashioned a very offensive word … Do not use this word”.

There is a book available entitled: “The Coolie Speaks: Chinese Indentured Laborers and African Slaves in Cuba” by Lisa Yun, which covers this subject in comparison to the Atlantic African Slave Trade. 

Introducing radical counter-visions of race and slavery, and probing the legal and philosophical questions raised by indenture, The Coolie Speaks offers the first critical reading of a massive testimony case from Cuba in 1874. From this case, Yun traces the emergence of a “coolie narrative” that forms a counterpart to the “slave narrative.” The written and oral testimonies of nearly 3,000 Chinese laborers in Cuba, who toiled alongside African slaves, offer a rare glimpse into the nature of bondage and the tortuous transition to freedom. Trapped in one of the last standing systems of slavery in the Americas, the Chinese described their hopes and struggles, and their unrelenting quest for freedom.

In many ways, there are a great number of parallels. People were shipped through the Pacific passage, on a dangerous, and often fatal boat passage. These people were often kidnapped, taken, and many people did not survive the passage or their service in the Americas, and in places like Cuba and Trinidad. Asian slaves were often forced to live in the same places as the African and Native slaves did, which accounts for the Afro-Asian-Latin populations in many places when people inter-married. However, variance of “slave” versus “free indentured worker” changed from country to country for Asian laborers.

 China in particular later fought to end the trade of their peoples directly, and there are significant differences to the Pacific and Atlantic trades in this respect, as well as others. (Not all were unwilling laborers, and perhaps could be termed “indentured servants”.) 

Asian slaves came from a variety of places in South, South East, and East Asia, and worked in a variety of other countries. 

Between 1838 and 1917, at least “238,909 Indians were introduced into British Guiana, 143,939 into Trinidad, 42,326 into Guadeloupe, 37,027 into Jamaica, 34,304 into Suriname, 25,209 into Martinique, 8,472 into French Guiana, 4,354 into Saint Lucia, 3,206 into Grenada, 2,472 into Saint Vincent, 337 into Saint Kitts, 326 into Saint Croix, and 315 into Nevis. British Honduras also received Indians, but they did not come by the indentureship scheme; some were exiled sepoy soldiers and families. Although these were incomplete statistics, Eric Williams (see references) believed they were "sufficient to show a total introduction of nearly half a million Indians into the Caribbean” Williams, Eric. 1962. History of the People of Trinidad and Tobago. Andre Deutsch, London. pg. 100 


Scholar Yan Qinghuang [Yen Ching-hwang] of HK University had authored a book entitled Chinese Coolies Overseas & Manchu Officials [i.e., Coolies and Mandarins] and pointed out that the British Opium War of 1839-1842 had coincided with the prosperity of slave-nature trafficking of Chinese coolies overseas, a trade that was first started by the Dutch in the 17th century. To understand how much miseries Chinese coolies had encountered, just read the following 19th century commentary in a Peruvian newspaper “South Pacific Times”:

Yen Ching-hwang stated that Xiamen (Amoy), a port which had replaced historical Quanzhou, would become the first port to see Chinese coolie sold overseas. British, which stationed warships near Gulangyu of Amoy for protecting its interests extracted from the 1842 Nanking Treaty, engaged in human trafficking no less notorious than the African slave trade. As much as 50,000 could have been abducted each year from the port of Amoy. Rioting in Amoy first began in 1847 against the British smugglers. By Nov 24th, British marines shot dead 10-12 Chinese. British and American merchants then turned to Shantou for trafficking coolies. In 1855, angry Chinese detained an American captain for his trafficking activity. As a result of the British authority’s desire for maintaining a good face in HK, smugglers flocked to Macau instead. Yen Ching-hwang stated that Macau would take the place of Amoy beginning from Nov 1852 when riots broke out as a result of the Chinese attacking a British smuggler for protecting a henchman. Macau, which the Portuguese first swindled from Ming China in AD 1553, already became a spot of crime syndicates with prostitution, human trafficking, opium, and etc. (Yen Ching-hwang stated that among Macau’s population of 4,049 people in AD 1810, White men counted 1,172 while White women counted 1,846. By AD 1830, Macau possessed 4,049 Portuguese, with White men 1,202 and White women 2,149, and 30,000 Chinese. Yen Ching-hwang concluded that the abnormally high number of White women in Macau exemplified the fact of prostitution in Macau.) Macau was to replace Amoy as the next launching pad for trafficking Chinese coolies. From 1847 to 1875, 99,149 out of 150,000 Chinese coolies sold to Cuba departed from Macau, and the Portuguese specialized in selling Chinese women and Chinese girls overseas as sex slaves throughout the latter half of the 19th century. Shanghai would follow the next. The word ‘shanghai’ literally means going to the seas, namely, abduction.

Imperial China & Yan Qinghuang's Chinese Coolies Overseas & Manchu Officials. 

You can read a description of Trade & Trafficking here.

Some Scholars have thus dedicated part of their studies to comparative views of the Atlantic and Pacific Slave trades, and the differences and similarities of both. But in short, I think you will find both that there were Asian slaves shipped to the Americas, and that Asians within the United States may have been considered indentured servants, but were also treated to a variety of deplorable conditions that brought about death, overwork, increased racial prejudices against them, imprisonment, disease, etc.  However, I would caution that the most major differences were volume of people enslaved abroad, and how many of those people were considered to be Free People, and at what time that happened, although obviously the after-effects still play out in communities today.

In this sense, your answer is “There were Asian Slaves, but this was marked by different politics, policies, and standards than the Atlantic Slave Trade, and thus the after effects were different.”


I Am Slave (watch in full)*

a heart-wrenching film about a woman enslaved through the Arab slave trade for 6 years. based on the autobiographical book entitled Slave:My True Story by Mende Nazer. 

this is one of the few films i can find about the experience of Africans that have gone through the Arab slave trade. even more disturbing is the fact that Mende was captured in 1993 in her Nuba village in Sudan. the film mentions that there are an estimated 5,000 women living as slaves in Britain alone. it also theorizes that Arabs are still raiding African villages for the purpose of slavery. 

*if the link doesn’t work, click on one of the links here

A Young Pakistani Sheedi

Pakistan has the largest number of people of African descent in South Asia. It has been estimated that at least a quarter of the total population living on the Makran coast are of African ancestry—that is, at least 250,000 men and women can claim East African descent on the southern coast of Pakistan and in the easternmost part of southern Iran. In Pakistan, African descendants are called Sheedi (Siddi.) Many are also called Makrani, whether or not they live in Makran.

Omar Ibn Said (1770-1864, aka “Uncle Moro” or “Moreau”) was the son of a wealthy family in what is now Senegal, who received a scholar’s education. He was enslaved and brought to South Carolina in 1807, just before the importing of slaves was outlawed. He fled, was re-captured in Fayetteville, NC, and spent the rest of his life as a house slave. He left 14 manuscripts in Arabic, including a partial copy of the Quran done from memory, essays on history and theology, and an autobiography.

[SOURCE: The History Page]

Like any other merchandise, the trade of people has it’s own markets in the cities, too. The poor captives are dragged here, chained, as if they were sheep being taken to a slaughterhouse. The customers undress and examine them, the intelligent creations of God are sold here as if they were cattle, they touch men’s and women’s private parts, they are displayed in front of everyone. The people are forced to walk, run and jump around naked, so the customers can see if they are sick or healthy, male or female, old or young, virgin or deflowered. Children are sold in front of their mothers, mothers are torn from their shocked children and are sold in front of them…

- Georgius de Hungaria, about the Turkish slave markets

For everyone who thinks that white people were never enslaved by PoC.

The Ottoman Empire had whole armies of Eastern-European white slaves, they had a fucking child tax. Yes, it means what you think it means, people had to give their children to the Empire so they can be raised to be slaves and soilders.

And this isn’t just some short dark period from the Middle Ages (it started in the early New Ages actually, just like the American trade of Black slaves.)

It existed even in the 19th century.

Another fun fact: the Ottoman Empire had Black slaves, too. I’m telling this to those people who say shit like “white people never faced anything like Blacks did”. No, lots of them literally faced the exact same thing, at the same place and time.

Fuck your black and white view of the world. That’s not how it works.


Julien Sinzogan was born in 1957 in Porto-Novo, Republic of Benin. He studied architecture in Paris at the École Spéciale des Travaux Public, and lives and works in France.

Sinzogan’s work expresses the way of life informed and inspired by the Yoruba divinatory and religious system known as Ifa. The Yoruba people of Nigeria and Benin in West Africa see life as taking a cyclical trajectory through which individuals experience the tangible world (aye), depart to the spirit world (orun) and are reborn. Sinzogan’s works explore the journeys between these different but closely related worlds. The voyages between such realms lie at the heart of religious practice across much of the Atlantic world, a world forever shaped by another voyage: the middle passage of the Atlantic slave trade.


THE BIGGEST POSSIBLE BALL OF SUCK: The story of Atlantic slavery.

You probably think you know the history of slavery from, like, Roots or whatever. I know that I did. But I learned a lot while researching this episode, and the most important thing I learned is a recurring theme on Crash Course World History: No one is exempt from either the triumphs or the abominations of human history. 

I hope you enjoy today’s episode. Let me know. Thanks.
New York City Ran a Slave Market

[A]t least 750 of the city’s 5,000 residents in 1700 were slaves—and that number grew along with the city. By 1711, at least 40 percent of white households included a slave, and that year the city passed a charter establishing “a place for the more convenient hiring of slaves.” The market traded slaves who literally helped build Manhattan, constructing the wall that would give Wall Street its name, clearing land and even building the port and New York’s first City Hall.

In 1895, Donaldina Cameron began helping out at the Presbyterian Mission House in Chinatown in San Francisco.  The Mission House’s primary role was rescuing Chinese girls and women from abuse. Laws enacted at this time prevented all but a few of the privileged classes of Chinese men from bringing their wives and family into the U.S. Because of this, many young women and girls were smuggled into the country and then sold into prostitution or as household servants.

Donaldina became very adept at finding girls hidden behind false walls and under trap doors.  She was also excellent at protecting the girls.  By 1900, she became the superintendent of the home.

She is credited with the rescue and education of nearly 3,000 girls.  The Mission House, was renamed the Donaldina Cameron School in 1942 to honor her.  The school still stands at 920 Sacramento St. in San Francisco.