skeletal fractures

anonymous asked:

How do you differentiate between antemortem and postmodern injuries? For the added twist value 👀

Hey Nonnie,

Before we start, lets have some basic definitions. Antemortem injuries occurs before death, it is usually indicated by signs of healing. Perimortem injuries are those that occur at or near the time of death, with no evidence of healing. Postmortem injuries occur after death, also with no evidence of healing.

Differentiating between the types/timeline of injuries is mainly studied in the field of forensic anthropology, dealing with skeletal trauma.

The healing process of injuries happens almost immediately after it occurs. Evidence of the healing process on skeletal fractures can show as early as after 1 week after the injury. Between week 1 and 3, the fracture edges will remold and rounded, and by week 6 a bony callus will form. Healing rates will of course depends on facts such as overall health and nutritional status of the person injured. Anthropologist can use bones to basically figure out history trauma on the body: history of abuse or accidental trauma, history of nutrition, indication of poverty etc. Fun fact, antemortem injuries/fractures can help with confirming identity of an unknown person through presence of plates/pins (which might have serial numbers recorded in medial charts).

Perimortem trauma is important for reconstructing the events that occurs near the time of death, while postmortem trauma is important to determine if the injuries are caused to conceal some information about the crime (or from opportunistic local wildlife feasting on free food). With perimortem fractures, the person died before healing take place, but the fracture should still show signs of the biomechanics of healing starting similar to antemortem fractures. Peri- and post-mortem trauma is different from antemortem trauma since there is no sign of healing. Bones are elastic while alive, and gets dry and brittle after death in a process called plastic deformation. This means that perimortem bone fractures tends to splinter, while postertem breaks shatter in a more regular shape.

Moving away from bones and onto bruising. Bruises is a discolouration of the skin when blood vessels/capillaries are damaged by trauma, letting seeps/hemorrhage. Since bruises accompanies different types of wounds, usually associated with blunt trauma, so they can provide information on their causation and help with the reconstruction of events leading up to death. Bruises are dated/aged differently depending on where it is on the body. A deep bruise in the thigh muscle might not appear for a day or two, while a bruise over a bony prominence and where tissue is loose (ie near the eyes) will appear and swell very quickly. Postmortem injuries tend to have a yellowish brown, kind of bloodless appearance, lacking vital reaction due to the absence of blood flow after death.

Looking at postmortem injuries can be difficult, and trauma on the body might still appear due to resuscitation efforts or from the way the body is handled after death. This is what Watson can pull up online, hopefully there is some useful info here. Happy writing!

anonymous asked:

Your the reason that I just can't concentrate - BB

The sweet scent of lilacs stung at his nostrils, making him dizzy. It curled around him, choking out everything else. Beast Boy unconsciously rubbed at his nose, his gaze darting to the scent’s source. 

Raven. 

She sat on the couch in the common room, her legs tucked up under her as she read the book clutched delicately in her hands. She appeared oblivious to everything around her as she browsed the novel’s pages, only moving to tuck a strand of unruly hair behind her ear. 

Somehow, he found the small movement incredibly fascinating. Then again, everything about Raven was fascinating as of late. He wasn’t quite sure why he liked to stare at her. 

He just did. 

She just…possessed a level of grace Beast Boy hadn’t noticed until now. Every little detail had him entranced; like how when she read, her expressions were fleeting and ever changing. Now her lips were puckered and her brows drawn; a bad part, perhaps? Sometimes, though, he caught her smiling, a sight so radiant Beast Boy felt as though the air was sucked right out of his chest. 

His trance was interrupted by the irritatingly loud shriek of the alarm, and Beast Boy blinked with a scowl. Great. An alert. He risked another glance at the empath, but she was already on her feet and pulling her hood up over her face. 

Dammit. 

“Come on, Titans, let’s go!” Robin’s voice echoed about the ops, ringing in Beast Boy’s ears as he followed the flare of Raven’s cloak out of the room and to the T-car, the scent of lilacs still tickling his nose.


Beast Boy rolled, grunting. He steeled himself, letting his muscles tear and readjust into a new shape. His hands became paws and his skeletal structure fractured and reshaped, turning him into the form of a lion. A plethora of new scents flooded his nostrils, old ones becoming even stronger. 

He may possess enhanced senses, but most animals were still on a level far higher than even he could accomplish. Beast Boy sprung forward then, a snarl rumbling from his chest. He struck out at Cinderblock, his claws scraping into the villian’s callous cemented skin. 

Azarath, Mentrion, Zinthos!

Raven’s velvety voice sent a shiver down his spine, and Beast Boy caught sight of her shadowy self rising from the ground nearby. He blinked, watching in fascination as she reared up at struck out with her dark energy, her face painted in a look of determination. Beast Boy’s paws felt leaden, the battle rage dissipating quickly. He watched her fight with interest, only vaguely aware of his body shifting back to his human shape. 

Dark energy fizzled in the air around them, mingling with the angry grunts and bellows of Cinderblock as Raven drove him back. Beast Boy watched her with wonder, marveling at how her violet locks whipped about in the breeze as she bobbed and weaved midair. Her eyes flashed dangerously, her lips set in a grim scowl. 

A thought flickered through his mind, and Beast Boy wondered absently what her lips would taste like. Bitter, like the tea she drank? Or sweet, like honey?

“Beast Boy! Look out!”

Starfire’s shriek tore him out of his reverie, and he jerked his gaze up to see the distinct shape of Cinderblock’s foot hovering overhead. “Wha?” he stammered stupidly, his thoughts a mush of confusion. Something slammed into him from the side, and Beast Boy went sprawling. 

There was a boom as Cinderblock made his way through the streets, walking right where Beast Boy had been sitting. He sat up, blinking and feeling dazed. 

“Are you okay?”

Raven’s voice caught his attention, and Beast Boy gulped at the sight of the empath kneeling beside him. He nodded, not trusting himself to speak. Raven watched him for a moment, before hissing a sigh. “You’re sure? Nothing’s hurt?”

Beast Boy shook his head. 

“Good,” she said. The empath crossed her arms, narrowing her eyes. “Now, what exactly were you thinking? You could have gotten yourself killed!” Her arms darted into the air as she spoke, and the rubble rattled around them. Damn. She was mad.  

Beast Boy shrugged sheepishly, offering a wobbly smile. “S-sorry, I uh, got distracted.” 

Raven glared. “Distracted. Really. By what, exactly?” 

“You.” 

It slipped out so naturally, that Beast Boy almost didn’t realize he’d even said it. Until, of course, a few street lamps busted overhead. He winced, risking a glance at Raven. Her eyes were wide and her cheeks her flushed. She gaped at him, revelation slowly dawning onto her features. 

Shit. Shit, shit. He fumbled up onto his feet, words starting to pour from his lips. “S-sorry, I-I didn’t mean…well, I uh, not like…you know it’s not…”

Raven rose slowly, a shy, guarded expression clouding her features. “Just, please pay attention on the battlefield.” She spoke softly, refusing to meet his gaze. “I…I don’t want you to get hurt.” Raven flashed him a look, a blush still staining her cheeks. The air felt charged around them, and Beast Boy gulped. 

She vanished, then, melting into a dark pool on the ground. He stared at the place where she’d stood, furrowing his brows in confusion. So…were they a thing now? He had no idea, but the thought was certainly an appealing one. 

Maybe he’d ask her tonight. 


So this took forever to get and I’m so sorry about that! But better late than never, right? ^.^ Hopefully this is sorta what you had in mind! Enjoy!

-mod vixensheart

Healing with Blue Lace Agate

Color: Pale blue with white or darker lines. 

Appearance: Banded, often small and tumbled.

Rarity: Readily available 

Source: US, India, Morocco, Czech Republic, Brazil, Africa 

Healing: Blue lace agate is a powerful throat healer. Its property of counteracting blocked self-expression releases shoulder and neck problems, thyroid deficiencies, and throat and lymph infections. It lowers fever and removes blockages of the nervous system, and treats arthritic and bone deformity, strengthening the skeletal system and healing fractures. It also aids capillaries and the pancreas. As an elixir, it treats brain fluid imbalances and hydrocephalus. Blue lace agate can also be used to enhance sound healing- it focuses and directs sound to the appropriate place. 

Position: As appropriate, particularly at the throat. 

(Source: The Crystal Bible by Judy Hall)