size particles

hey everyone thanks! first of all, i’m flattered you’re asking me of all people questions about process and stuff. second of all, i hope this stuff will be helpful to you. but i get the impression that everyone’s process is different because people are different in terms of how we visualize the world around us or the images in our heads. for example, i sincerely hate doing linework and i will avoid it to my death because i visualize images in color blocks, not lines. other people love linework and emphasize that part of the process the most.

thirdly, thanks for the nice things you say.

so this is kind of my process (for this spring weather thing here). details under the read more cut.


Keep reading

Solar System: Things to Know This Week

Has Cassini inspired you? Learn more about dwarf planet Ceres, get the latest images from the Keck Observatory and more!

1. Has Cassini Inspired You?

During nearly two decades in space, Cassini has been a source of inspiration to many. Has Cassini inspired you? Upload your artwork, photos, poems or songs to the social media platform of your choice, such as Instagram, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter or others. Tag it #CassiniInspires. Or, send it directly to: cassinimission@jpl.nasa.gov. We’ll highlight some of the creations on this page. See examples and details at: saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/cassiniinspires/

2. Dawn’s Shines a Light on Ceres

Our Dawn mission has found evidence for organic material on Ceres, a dwarf planet and the largest body in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Learn more: solarsystem.nasa.gov/news/2017/02/17/dawn-discovers-evidence-for-organic-material-on-ceres

3. Into the Vortex

A new device called the vortex coronagraph was recently installed inside NIRC2 (Near Infrared Camera 2) at the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii and has delivered its first images, showing a ring of planet-forming dust around a star, and separately, a cool, star-like body, called a brown dwarf, lying near its companion star.

4. Enceladus: Cassini Cracks the Code of the Icy Moon

A puzzling sensor reading transformed our Cassini Saturn mission and created a new target in the search for habitable worlds beyond Earth, when on Feb. 17, 2005, Cassini made the first-ever close pass over Saturn’s moon. Since our two Voyager spacecraft made their distant flybys of Enceladus about 20 years prior, scientists had anticipated the little moon would be an interesting place to visit. Enceladus is bright white – the most reflective object in the solar system, in fact – and it orbits in the middle of a faint ring of dust-sized ice particles known as Saturn’s E ring. Scientists speculated ice dust was being kicked off its surface somehow. But they presumed it would be, essentially, a dead, airless ball of ice.

What Cassini saw didn’t look like a frozen, airless body. Instead, it looked something like a comet that was actively emitting gas. The magnetometer detected that Saturn’s magnetic field, which envelops Enceladus, was perturbed above the moon’s south pole in a way that didn’t make sense for an inactive world. Could it be that the moon was actively replenishing gases it was breathing into space? Watch the video.

5. Descent Into a Frozen Underworld

Our planet’s southernmost active volcano reaches 12,448 feet (3,794 meters) above Ross Island in Antarctica. It’s a good stand-in for a frozen alien world, the kind we want to send robots to someday. Learn more: solarsystem.nasa.gov/news/2017/02/13/descent-into-a-frozen-underworld

Discover the full list of 10 things to know about our solar system this week HERE.

Follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

10

Ask Ethan: If Matter Is Made Of Point Particles, Why Does Everything Have A Size?

“Many sources state that quarks are point particles… so one would think that objects composed of them — in this instance, neutrons — would also be points. Is my logic flawed? Or would they be bound to each other in such a way that they would cause the resulting neutron to have angular size?”

When we consider things like molecules, atoms, or even protons and neutrons, they all have finite, measurable sizes. Yet the fundamental particles that they’re made out of, like quarks, electrons, and gluons, are all inherently points, with no physical size to them at all. Why, then, does every composite particle not only have a size, but some of them, like atoms, grow to be relatively huge almost immediately, even with only a few fundamental particles involved? It’s due to three factors that all work together: forces, the quantum properties of the particles themselves, and energy. Since the strong and electromagnetic forces work against each other, quarks and gluons can form finite-sized protons; protons and neutrons assemble into nuclei larger than the protons and neutrons combined would make; electrons, with their low mass and high zero-point energy, orbit around nuclei only at great (relative) distances.

Matter doesn’t need to be made of finite-sized particles to wind up creating the macroscopic Universe we know and love. Find out how on this week’s Ask Ethan!

Lake Pukaki - New Zealand

Lake Pukaki is the largest of three alpine lakes, that sit parallel along the northern edge of the Mackenzie Basin. The bright blue colour of the lake is the result of the fine, silt sized particles of of rock, that feed into the lake from nearby glaciers. The surface area of the lake covers 178.7 km², and the elevation varies from 518.2 to 532 meters above sea level.

Lake Pukaki was chosen by film director Peter Jackson, as the location for Lake Town in The Hobbit films. The set for Lake Town was built at the Tasman Downs station, on Lake Pukaki’s shore. Other scenes from The Hobbit franchise were also filmed around, and overlooking the lake. 

I was asked about the way I make the scrunchy fabric effect on my bloomers so I decided to make a little tutorial. This tutorial assumes that you have basic knowledge of the tools in MD. So here goes! I hope you guys find this helpful and can’t wait to see you guys release some scrunchy cc!

So in order to make this gathered effect, first you need to make a rectangular shaped fabric in marvelous designer. The size of the fabric is completely up to you and what you’re making.

After making your fabric you’ll want to right click on the piece and make a copy of it.

I have placed the copy of the piece on top of my initial piece as you can see here but you can place it anywhere you’d like. Just try and make sure that the pieces are close to each other just because we have to sew them later on and it just makes it easier to sew if they are close.

After you decide where to place your copied piece on the 2D window, go over to the 3D window and right click on the first piece you created and click “freeze”. We want to freeze this piece in place because it is basically going to be the anchor for our other piece.

Here you can see that the first piece we made is now frozen in place because it has turned a bluish color. This piece will no longer move when simulating. Our copied piece is still white and therefore will be the only piece that moves when we click the simulate button.

Now what we want to do is sew the pieces together. In the 3D window you can see that I have pulled the copied piece in front of the piece we froze in the last step. You don’t necessarily have to do this but it makes simulating much quicker if you do and for me it’s just easier to see that I have sewed things correctly.

Anyway, like I said before we have to sew the pieces together. We want to sew all the sides of both pieces together. So we will be sewing the left side of the top piece to the left side of the bottom piece. The top side of the top piece to the top side of the bottom piece. The right side of the top piece to the right side of the bottom piece. And lastly, the bottom side of the top piece to the bottom side of the bottom piece.

If sewed correctly your 3D window should look like the image above. All sewing lines are straight which means the sewing lines are in the right direction. It basically looks like a 3D rectangle. (This is what I meant by being easier to see when you pull the piece forward).

Now  we want to click on the piece of fabric that isn’t frozen and change the layer from “0″ to “1″. This will ensure that this piece will overlap the frozen piece.

Now back in the 2D window we will change the width of the unfrozen piece and make it reallly long! The longer you make it the more folds will appear. Now we can click the simulate button! The fabric may explode while simulating but just let it finish and it should fix itself right up!

Look at all those bomb ass ruffles! A++!

Now for some reason Marvelous doesn’t produce the same effect if your piece is very thin. As you can see in this picture my pieces are a lot thinner than before and even though I took the same steps to make the ruffles, they don’t actually appear at all on this piece! Well don’t worry ladies and gents there is an easy fix for this!

Click on your unfrozen piece and in the property editor window look for “particle distance”. Your default particle distance will be set to 20. We want to make this number smaller.

Here you can see I have set the particle distance to 5 and pressed simulate again. We are beginning to see the ruffles slightly but they aren’t all that great right now because my fabric is so thin. The thinner the fabric the smaller your particle distance will have to be in order for your ruffles to show up properly. So lets make the number lower again. Note: that the smaller your particle distance, the higher poly your mesh becomes!!

So here you can see I lowered my particle distance to 2 and yayyy there go those darn ruffles! You did it! Note: since making the particle distance smaller increases your poly size, I would recommend messing around with the particle distance size as well as the width of the fabric in order to get it to look how you like.

You are officially a scrunchy guru! Go you!

apinchofkatie  asked:

Hey! I'm really interested in the WSLF lifestyle you guys promote! Can you attach links to videos or studies? Please and thank you!

There is a good intro on our Mr Mrs Vegan Channel, but the WSLF Life Changing Cookbook on http://www.mrmrsvegan.com will hold your hand through it.  We have a free wslf guide there, as well.

Our intro to WSLF https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_2K872TXGv4

Sample What I Eat in A Day https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Ref-o8gePw&t=2s

Here is the citation page from the WSLF Life Changing Cookbook

These are in the order they appear in the book. These are a fraction of the citations available, but are easily verifiable and at the time of this writing are freely accessible. If you require additional citations for any points made in this book please post your questions to http://www.tumblr.com/mrmrsvegan

De novo lipogenesis during controlled overfeeding

Starvation;
Food Intake and Starvation Induce Metabolic Changes Biochemistry 5th edition Sec 30.3 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22414/

Starch’s Role in Human Evolution;
The Importance of Dietary Carbohydrate In Human Evolution http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/682587

Human Fuel Sources;
Each Organ Has a Unique Metabolic Profile Biochemistry 5th edition Section 30.2 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22436/

Starch Effects on Fat Loss;
Replacement of dietary fat by sucrose or starch…
International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997 Oct;21(10):846-59. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9347402

Carbohydrate Fuel vs Fatty Acids;
Muscle glycogen utilization during prolonged strenuous exercise Journal of Applied Physiology Vol 61 No. 1 165-172 http://jap.physiology.org/content/61/1/165.full.pdf+html

Starches, Sugars & Obesity
Slowly Digesting Starch is the only viable balanced energy medium Nutrients. 2011 Mar; 3(3): 341–369. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257742/

Simple vs Complex Carbohydrates
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Oct;24(10):1310-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11093293

Amenorrhea from raw food diet https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10436305?dopt=Abstract

1980s Low-Fat Era Mistakes;

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/diet/themes/lowfat.html

FatYou Eat is the FatYouWear;
Adipose tissue fatty acids and dietary fat sources Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1993 Aug;72(6):481-7 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8394629

Site-specific differences in the fatty acid composition Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Nov;74(5):585-91. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11684525

Adipose tissue biomarkers of fatty acid intake Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Oct;76(4):750-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12324287

Glycogen Storage Capacity;
Am J Clin Nutr August 1988 vol. 48 no. 2 240-247 http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/48/2/240.abstract

Fat Synthesis from Sugars (De Novo Lipogenesis)
No Common Energy Currency; de novo lipogenesis as the road less traveled Am J Clin Nutr December 2001 vol. 74 no. 6 707-708 http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/74/6/707.full

Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Dec;74(6):737-46.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11722954

Glycogen synthesis vs lipogenesis
Metabolism. 1982 Dec;31(12):1234-40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6755166?dopt=Abstract

Oral sensitivity to fatty acids, food consumption and BMI in human subjects British Journal of Nutrition,Volume 104, Issue 1July 2010, pp. 145-152 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510000267

Particle size is wheat, maize, and oat test meals: effects on plasma glucose and insulin responses and on the rate of starch digestion in vitro. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988 Apr;47(4):675-82. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2451416?dopt=AbstractPlus

The effects of a low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on body weight The American Journal of Medicine (2005) 118, 991–997 http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(05)00279-2/abstract

Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet

https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-13-99

Protein sufficiency of vegetarian diets;
Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Jul;109(7):1266-82. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19562864

Excess Dietary Protein Can Adversely Affect Bone J. Nutr. June 1, 1998 vol. 128 no. 6 1051-1053 http://jn.nutrition.org/content/128/6/1051.full

Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: BMJ 2014; 349
http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6015

Cross-Cultural Associations Between Dietary Animal Protein and Hip Fr Calcif Tissue Int (1992) 50:14-18 http://www.vivalis.si/uploads/datoteke/4a95.pdf

The Comparative Anatomy Of Eating
Milton R Mills MD http://www.vegsource.com/articles2/anatomy_mills.htm

Why you shouldn’t exercise to lose weight, explains with 60+ studies
Julia Belluz and Javier Zarracina on April 28, 2016 http://www.vox.com/2016/4/28/11518804/weight-loss-exercise-myth-burn-calories

7 Things That Happen When You Stop Eating Meat
Michelle McMacken, MD http://www.forksoverknives.com/7-things-that-happen-when-you-stop-eating-meat/

Analysis of Health Problems Associated with High-Protein, High-Fat,

http://www.pcrm.org/health/reports/analysis-of-health-problems-associated-with-high

Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1992 May-Aug;17(2):139-70. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1356551

Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors. Appetite. 2016 Jun 1;101:171-7 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26972351

These are in the order they appear in the cookbook & its really best examined in the context of the text, but hope this peeks your curiosity!  

3

Ferrofluid travelling around soap bubbles towards a magnet

Ferrofluid is a fluid made of colloidal nano-sized magnetic particles suspended in a hydrophobic solution. Some home-made ferrofluid can be made from an oil base (like vegetable oil) mixed with tiny particles of ferrite (pure iron) which can be found in printer toners/developers. The ferrofluid moves around the bubbles first due to capillary action- but is then drawn through by a magnet.

The original source really needs to be viewed as it’s fantastic!

See it here.

I made a flower crown brush if y’all want it

for when you’re too lazy to draw one yourself !!

play around with the particle size and scatter strength to change how big your flowers are

and keep it <70% opacity. if the colors look too washed out bc of that, just duplicate the layer so that the flowers are less transparent

if your character’s hair or smth is making the flowers look weird, add a solid background to the crown using the magic wand tool

use different size, color, and opacity flowers for a better effect :o

NOW GO, FRIENDS! GO MAKE YOUR FLOWER CROWNS

shiro (voltron)’s shirt flower pattern brush is under the cut

Healing with Aventurine 

Color: Green, blue, red, brown, peach

Appearance: Opaque, speckled with shiny particles, all sizes, often tumbled

Rarity: Readily available

Source: Italy, Brazil, China, India, Russia, Tibet, Nepal

Healing: Aventurine benefits the thymus gland, connective tissue, and nervous system; it balances blood pressure and stimulates the metabolism, lowering cholesterol and preventing arteriosclerosis and heart attacks. It has an anti-inflammatory effect and helps ease skin eruptions and allergies, relieves migraine headaches, and soothes the eyes. Aventurine heals the adrenals, lungs, sinuses, heart and muscular and urogenital systems. As an elixir, it relieves skin problems. 

Position: Hold or place on appropriate point. 

(Source: The Crystal Bible by Judy Hall)

Children With a Propensity for Petty Fights

Day 2: Going Gray - “Everyone Knows Parenting Causes Premature Aging”. 

“It’s been a while since we last saw the boys. I wonder how they’re coping with their new bodies,” Riza said as they approached the Rockbell property.

Roy responded with a non-committal hum, followed by a sigh.

“I wonder how Winry and Pinako are doing,” she glanced at Roy who was shrugging lazily.

The last time she heard from Pinako, Edward was just getting started with therapy and rehabilitation to help him get used to his automail. She wondered what type of specialised combat training she and Roy would have to propose to help get him into fighting shape. Surely, a boy his age wouldn’t know how to fight and trump an adversary.

When she entered the Rockbell property, she realised that she couldn’t be more wrong. Edward and Alphonse were rough-housing, no, sparring. Alphonse’s movements were slightly clunky and Edward could afford to improve his reflexes, but they were definitely skilled. She turned to assess Roy’s reaction and sure enough, he too was surprised by this development.

The front door of the house burst open and out came Winry, equipped with her wrench, ready to fling it at anyone she saw fit to. Edward immediately notices her and pulls Alphonse away from the house with him. He was too late. The wrench landed squarely on his head.

“Winry, what did you do that for?”

“I told you not to go anywhere before I was done greasing your automail. I leave the room for FIVE MINUTES and here you are sparring,” she was talking so quickly that Riza almost didn’t catch what she was saying.

“You took too long!”

“I did not!”

“DID TOO!”

“DID NOT!”

“DID TOO!”

“Children, please, tell papa what’s wrong,” Roy’s voice was loud but it sounded more like teasing than scolding.

“Roy, I really don’t think you should-”

“Come, shake hands with each other!” he was starting to sound patronising.

“Roy, I’m warning you…”

“Once you’ve kissed and made up, we can all go out for ice-cream.”

Riza clapped her palm over her face.

“WHY WOULD I WANT TO KISS A SHORTY LIKE HIM?”

“WHO ARE YOU CALLING A SHORTY THE SIZE OF A SUBATOMIC PARTICLE?!”

Before Riza could protest, Edward and Winry started fighting with each other. Roy tried to pull them apart and got caught up in the fight too. Riza was sure that Roy was the one getting hit the most out of all of them. She tried to internalise a scream but it came out as a stream of garbled noises. She wasn’t paid nearly enough for this. She heard the clinking of Alphonse’s armour and turned to see him enter the house. Soon after, he came out with Pinako. Instead of trying to stop the fight, she sauntered up to Riza and stood next to her.

“I’m going to go gray at this rate,” Riza said dryly.

“Already there, sweetheart,” she patted Riza’s hand before raising her voice, “Alright, anyone who doesn’t stop fighting right now is not getting any dinner.”

Edward’s fist froze merely milimetres away from Roy’s face.


~~~


“Thank you for the food,” Edward and Winry said glumly

Roy was lying on the couch, groaning with every breath he took. He had a black eye and a swollen jaw, not to mention the variety of bruises he had all over him caused by Edward stepping on him at one point. Riza smiled sardonically at him, then picked up a bowl of stew and joined him in the living room. She helped him up so he was propped up against her and started feeding him.

“I told you not to get involved,” she teased.

“What? Both of them punched me in the ears I BELIEVE I CAN’T HEAR YOU.”

“How childish,” Edward muttered.

“I’m sorry, boy, what was that?” Roy demanded.

“WHO ARE YOU CALLING BOY?”

“Oh, because you are such an adult,” Winry rolled her eyes at him.

“Why you-”

“Okay, enough. If you don’t stop fighting, we’re both going to stop feeding you!” Pinako bellowed, “Now, what must you say?”

“Sorry,” Edward mumbled, getting him a spoonful of stew from Alphonse as a reward.

“Sorry,” Winry mumbled back at him.

titanic-shoe  asked:

Well, you're in luck, Bad Robot is supposedly working on two more films in the Cloverfield "shared universe" that's not directly tied, but are like Outer Limits stories or Heavy Metal/Creepshow stories connected by the Clover name. Next film is called God Particle, has Chris O'Dowd and others as scientists on a space station sized particle Collider that causes a test run to make the Earth mysteriously vanish and other worldly happening to appear. (1/2)

(2/2) the second film is still in works, called Overlord. It’s set in WWII, all that’s known is that it may involve something that links the Tagruato company (like 10 Cloverfield Lane connected into Cloverfield, with John Goodman playing a former employee of Tagruato,) and something about monsters. So, they may not be direct sequels, but share parallels because of some Universal company called Tagruato.           

That actually sounds pretty rad.  I like the idea of different stories sharing a universe, even if the stories wildly vary from each other.

I would have still really liked to see Clover’s mama, though.  Like, imagine how big she had to have been if Clover was just a BABY…

4

Cassini Prepares to Say Goodbye to a True Titan

Mere weeks away from its dramatic, mission-ending plunge into Saturn, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has a hectic schedule, orbiting the planet every week in its Grand Finale. On a few orbits, Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, has been near enough to tweak Cassini’s orbit, causing the spacecraft to approach Saturn a bit closer or a bit farther away. A couple of those distant passes even pushed Cassini into the inner fringes of Saturn’s rings.


Titan will be waiting once again when the road runs out in September. A last, distant encounter with the moon on Sept. 11 will usher Cassini to its fate, with the spacecraft sending back precious science data until it loses contact with Earth.

But this gravitational pushing and shoving isn’t a new behavior for Titan. It’s been doing that all along, by design.


› DOWNLOAD VIDEO A World Unveiled: Cassini at Titan

The True Engine of the Mission


Repeated flybys of Titan were envisioned, from the mission’s beginning, as a way to explore the mysterious planet-size moon and to fling Cassini toward its adventures in the Saturn system. Scientists had been eager for a return to Titan since NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft flew past in 1980 and was unable to see through the dense, golden haze that shrouds its surface.


Titan is just a bit larger than the planet Mercury. Given its size, the moon has significant gravity, which is used for bending Cassini’s course as it orbits Saturn. A single close flyby of Titan could provide more of a change in velocity than the entire 90-minute engine burn the spacecraft needed to slow down and be captured by Saturn’s gravity upon its arrival in 2004.


The mission’s tour designers – engineers tasked with plotting the spacecraft’s course, years in advance – used Titan as their linchpin. Frequent passes by the moon provided the equivalent of huge amounts of rocket propellant. Using Titan, Cassini’s orbit could be stretched out, farther from Saturn – for example, to send the spacecraft toward the distant moon Iapetus. With this technique, engineers used Titan flybys to change the orientation of Cassini’s orbit many times during the mission; for example, lifting the spacecraft out of the plane of the rings to view them from high above, along with high northern and southern latitudes on Saturn and its moons.


What We’ve Learned


Over the course of its 13-year mission at Saturn, Cassini has made 127 close flybys of Titan, with many more-distant observations. Cassini also dropped off the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe, which descended through Titan’s atmosphere to land on the surface in January 2005.


Successes for Cassini during its mission include the revelation that, as researchers had theorized, there were indeed bodies of open liquid hydrocarbons on Titan’s surface. Surprisingly, it turned out Titan’s lakes and seas are confined to the poles, with almost all of the liquid being at northern latitudes in the present epoch. Cassini found that most of Titan has no lakes, with vast stretches of linear dunes closer to the equator similar to those in places like Namibia on Earth. The spacecraft observed giant hydrocarbon clouds hovering over Titan’s poles and bright, feathery ones that drifted across the landscape, dropping methane rain that darkened the surface. There were also indications of an ocean of water beneath the moon’s icy surface.


Early on, Cassini’s picture of Titan was spotty, but every encounter built upon the previous one. Over the course of the entire mission, Cassini’s radar investigation imaged approximately 67 percent of Titan’s surface, using the spacecraft’s large, saucer-shaped antenna to bounce signals off the moon’s surface. Views from Cassini’s imaging cameras, infrared spectrometer, and radar slowly and methodically added details, building up a more complete, high-resolution picture of Titan.


“Now that we’ve completed Cassini’s investigation of Titan, we have enough detail to really see what Titan is like as a world, globally,” said Steve Wall, deputy lead of Cassini’s radar team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.


Scientists now have enough data to understand the distribution of Titan’s surface features (like mountains, dunes and seas) and the behavior of its atmosphere over time, and they have been able to begin piecing together how surface liquids might migrate from pole to pole.


Among the things that remain uncertain is exactly how the methane in Titan’s atmosphere is being replenished, since it’s broken down over time by sunlight. Scientists see some evidence of volcanism, with methane-laden water as the “lava,” but a definitive detection remains elusive.


Cassini’s long-term observations could still provide clues. Researchers have been watching for summer rain clouds to appear at the north pole, as their models predicted. Cassini observed rain clouds at the south pole in southern summer in 2004. But so far, clouds at high northern latitudes have been sparse.


“The atmosphere seems to have more inertia than most models have assumed. Basically, it takes longer than we thought for the weather to change with the seasons,” said Elizabeth Turtle, a Cassini imaging team associate at Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland.


The sluggish arrival of northern summer clouds may match better with models that predict a global reservoir of methane, Turtle said. “There isn’t a global reservoir at the surface, so if one exists in the subsurface that would be a major revelation about Titan.” This points to the value of Cassini’s long-term monitoring of Titan’s atmosphere, she said, as the monitoring provides data that can be used to test models and ideas.


Results from the Last Close Pass


Cassini made its last close flyby of Titan on April 22. That flyby gave the spacecraft the push it needed to leap over Saturn’s rings and begin its final series of orbits, which pass between the rings and the planet.


During that flyby, Cassini’s radar was in the driver’s seat – its observation requirements determining how the spacecraft would be oriented as it passed low over the surface one last time at an altitude of 608 miles (979 kilometers). One of the priorities was to have one last look for the mysterious features the team dubbed “magic islands,” which had appeared and then vanished in separate observations taken years apart. On the final pass there were no magic islands to be seen. The radar team is still working to understand what the features might have been, with leading candidates being bubbles or waves.


Most interesting to the radar team was a set of observations that was both the first and last of its kind, in which the instrument was used to sound the depths of several of the small lakes that dot Titan’s north polar region. Going forward, the researchers will be working to tease out information from these data about the lakes’ composition, in terms of methane versus ethane.


As Cassini zoomed past on its last close brush with Titan, headed toward its Grand Finale, the radar imaged a long swath of the surface that included terrain seen on the very first Titan flyby in 2004. “It’s pretty remarkable that we ended up close to where we started,” said Wall. “The difference is how richly our understanding has grown, and how the questions we’re asking about Titan have evolved.”

TOP IMAGE….These two views of Saturn’s moon Titan exemplify how NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has revealed the surface of this fascinating world.

Cassini carried several instruments to pierce the veil of hydrocarbon haze that enshrouds Titan. These include the spacecraft’s radar and visual and infrared mapping spectrometer, or VIMS. The mission’s imaging cameras also have several spectral filters sensitive to specific wavelengths of infrared light that are able to make it through the haze to the surface and back into space. These “spectral windows” have enable the imaging cameras to map nearly the entire surface of Titan.

In addition to Titan’s surface, images from both the imaging cameras and VIMS have provided windows into the moon’s ever-changing atmosphere, chronicling the appearance and movement of hazes and clouds over the years. A large, bright and feathery band of summer clouds can be seen arcing across high northern latitudes in the view at right.

These views were obtained with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on March 21, 2017. Images taken using red, green and blue spectral filters were combined to create the natural-color view at left. The false-color view at right was made by substituting an infrared image (centered at 938 nanometers) for the red color channel.

The views were acquired at a distance of approximately 613,000 miles (986,000 kilometers) from Titan. Image scale is about 4 miles (6 kilometers) per pixel.

CENTRE IMAGE….NASA’s Cassini spacecraft looks toward the night side of Saturn’s moon Titan in a view that highlights the extended, hazy nature of the moon’s atmosphere. During its long mission at Saturn, Cassini has frequently observed Titan at viewing angles like this, where the atmosphere is backlit by the Sun, in order to make visible the structure of the hazes.

Titan’s high-altitude haze layer appears blue here, whereas the main atmospheric haze is orange. The difference in color could be due to particle sizes in the haze. The blue haze likely consists of smaller particles than the orange haze.

Images taken using red, green and blue spectral filters were combined to create this natural-color view. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on May 29, 2017. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.2 million miles (2 million kilometers) from Titan. Image scale is 5 miles (9 kilometers) per pixel.

LOWER IMAGE….During its final targeted flyby of Titan on April 22, 2017, Cassini’s radar mapper got the mission’s last close look at the moon’s surface.

On this 127th targeted pass by Titan (unintuitively named “T-126”), the radar was used to take two images of the surface, shown at left and right. Both images are about 200 miles (300 kilometers) in width, from top to bottom. Objects appear bright when they are tilted toward the spacecraft or have rough surfaces; smooth areas appear dark.

At left are the same bright, hilly terrains and darker plains that Cassini imaged during its first radar pass of Titan, in 2004. Scientists do not see obvious evidence of changes in this terrain over the 13 years since the original observation.

At right, the radar looked once more for Titan’s mysterious “magic island” in a portion of one of the large hydrocarbon seas, Ligeia Mare. No “island” feature was observed during this pass. Scientists continue to work on what the transient feature might have been, with waves and bubbles being two possibilities.

In between the two parts of its imaging observation, the radar instrument switched to altimetry mode, in order to make a first-ever (and last-ever) measurement of the depths of some of the lakes that dot the north polar region. For the measurements, the spacecraft pointed its antenna straight down at the surface and the radar measured the time delay between echoes from the lakes’ surface and bottom.

BOTTOM IMAGE….These images show a graph of the depths measured for eight small lakes at top, aligned with a radar image of the same area taken on a previous Cassini flyby of Titan. Although these data are still preliminary, all eight lakes are thought to be about the same depth (about 100 meters, which is about 328 feet). Scientists do not yet know if the lakes are connected by an underground system analogous to a water table or aquifer, but this is a possibility under investigation.

The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

Saturn at Equinox
How would Saturn look if its ring plane pointed right at the Sun? Before August of 2009 nobody knew. Every 15 years, as seen from Earth, Saturn’s rings point toward the Earth and appear to disappear. The disappearing rings are no longer a mystery — Saturn’s rings are known to be so thin and the Earth is so near the Sun that when the rings point toward the Sun, they also point nearly edge-on at the Earth. Fortunately, in this third millennium, humanity is advanced enough to have a spacecraft that can see the rings during equinox from the side. The Saturn-orbiting spacecraft, Cassini, was able to snap a series of unprecedented pictures of Saturn’s rings during equinox. A digital composite of 75 such images is shown above. The rings appear unusually dark, and a very thin ring shadow line can be made out on Saturn’s cloud-tops. Objects sticking out of the ring plane are brightly illuminated and cast long shadows. Inspection of these images may help humanity understand the specific sizes of Saturn’s ring particles and the general dynamics of orbital motion.

Credit: Cassini Imaging Team, ISS, JPL, ESA, NASA

anonymous asked:

Your arts really beautiful. You make the most lovely jyushi homura art I ever seen. uwu; Any chance I can get your brushes from the latest speed draw video?

AAA Thank you, anonboo!!! The brushes I used in this pic are all ones I downloaded from various sources (Idk how to make my own brushes yet ;; ):

Line art and character shading was done with the Oil Pencil brush in this set by lapinbeau

Clouds were done with these gouache brushes by koneri on Clip Studio Assets

The dust shiny glitter effect is from a brush by paaramento on Clip Studio Assets

The flowers on the ground were just done with the Darker bleed brush that came with CSP (the only thing messed around with the brush was the particle sizes).

The Boke sparkles brush is also from paaramento (I really hope I’m spelling their name right)

These are all the brushes I can see immediately from the image, so I hope I got them all!


New Advanced Steel Is Stronger and Lighter Than Titanium Alloy

Many automobile owners might not have noticed one of the fundamental changes that has happened to their vehicles over the last several years. The amount of iron and steel going into new automobiles decreased by 8 percent between 1995 and 2011, with just over 60 percent of the average car being made of the two metals that final year.

The increasing use of lighter aluminum and composite materials, along with iron and steel’s relatively low strength-to-weight ratio, has been pushing engineers away from the former material workhorses of automotive manufacturing. But the desire to improve steel’s mechanical properties by lowering its density while keeping it just as strong has kept metallurgists working hard. They’ve been able to lower density by doping steel with aluminum, but the alloy suffers from brittleness wherever the two metals meet.

Now, researchers at South Korea’s Pohang University of Science and Technology say they have figured out a way to turn those brittle boundaries into elements that strengthen the steel-aluminum alloy. The image above shows the result of their work, a high-aluminum-content low-density steel. The metal alloy has a strength-to-weight ratio higher than titanium alloy, the lightest and strongest metallic material previously known to humanity.

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Scientific careers provide personal, professional rewards

As Black History Month 2016 draws to a close, some of our NSF Graduate Research Fellows share insights about what they find rewarding about their careers in science.


“What makes me proudest in my scientific career is participating in initiatives that support women and underrepresented minorities to pursue interests in science. My involvement in eco-evolutionary research allows me to be the positive change I want to see in the world because seeing other underrepresented groups in graduate studies helps create a diverse student body and future faculty that is more inclusive and representative of our community.”

– Lekeah A. Durden, Ph.D. student, Department of Biology, Indiana University 


“My research looks at connectivity of reef fish across various spatial scales with the use of genetic methods. This information will be used to inform local communities regarding the dispersal patterns for species considered subsistence fisheries. I receive great satisfaction knowing that my research has a direct impact on the strategies of both state and community-based management efforts. I intend to continue to engage younger generations and act as an example for individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds that one is able to pursue fulfilling careers in fields that are disparate from what is traditionally represented in our communities.”

– Richard Coleman, Ph.D. candidate, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa


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In addition to carbon dioxide and water, plants need 17 different nutrients to maintain growth. Although carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen are obtained from the air, most nutrients that a plant needs must be present in the soil or growing medium. These elements are divided into macro and micro elements. Macro nutrients needed in the largest amounts are nitrogen (N) for healthy foliage, phosphorus (P) for flower development, and potassium (K) for root growth. The soils in which plants grow consists of a mixture of mineral materials, organic matter, water, and air in varying proportions. The small fragments of mineral materials are derived from rock over long periods of weathering. The organic matter consists of living organisms, their excretions, and decay products. The texture of soils refers to the sizes of the particles that dominate. The texture of a soil influences the amount of air, water and nutrients held in the soil. In general, the penetration of air, water, and roots occurs much more readily through soils in which large particles (sand) dominate. On the other hand, water-holding capacity and fertility are mainly a result of small particle size (silt and clay) and organic matter. 

As comets move close to the Sun, they develop tails of dust and ionized gas. Comets have two main tails, a dust tail and a plasma tail. The dust tail appears whitish-yellow because it is made up of tiny particles — about the size of particles of smoke — that reflect sunlight. The plasma tail is often blue because it contains carbon monoxide ions. Solar ultraviolet light breaks down the gas molecules, causing them to glow. Plasma tails can stretch tens of millions of kilometers into space. 

The more you know…

For more on plasma, watch the TED-Ed Lesson Solid, liquid, gas and … plasma? - Michael Murillo

Animation by Tomás Pichardo Espaillat