siyaam

Ramadhaan Checklist

[1] Suhoor:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Eat suhoor for in suhoor there is blessing.”

[Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim]

[2] Salawaat at the Masjid:

Fajr, Dhuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, Ishaa’.

In Saheeh Muslim (654) it is narrated that Ibn Mas’ood said: “At the time of the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) we used to think that no one failed to attend the prayer in congregation but a hypocrite or one who was sick.”

Shaykh Ibn Baaz said: ❝With regard to not praying in congregation, this is a reprehensible action and is not permitted. It is also one of the attributes of the hypocrites.❞

[3] Qur’aan al-Fajr:

﴿إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا﴾

❝Verily, the recitation of the Quran in the early dawn is ever witnessed (attended by the angels in charge of mankind of the day and the night).❞ [17:78]

[4] Salaat al-Duhaa:

“Whoever prays Fajr in congregation, then sits remembering Allah until the sun rises, then prays two rak‘ahs, will have a reward like that of Hajj and ‘Umrah, complete, complete, complete.”

[Narrated by at-Tirmidhi (586)] - Shaykh Ibn Baaz (رحمه الله) was asked about it and said: This hadeeth has isnaads that are fine, thus it is regarded as coming under the heading of hasan because of corroborating evidence.

[5] Qur’aan:

❝The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Quran, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong).❞ [Quran al-Baqarah 2:185]

Jibreel used to come to the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) every night in Ramadaan, and study the Quran with him. (al-Bukhaari, 5; Muslim, 4268)

[6] Sadaqah:

“O you who believe! Spend of that with which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the Zaalimoon (wrongdoers)”
[al-Baqarah 2:254]

“Sadaqah extinguishes sin as water extinguishes fire.” (Ahmad, Tirmidhi)

[7] Study:

- Read a book;
- Attend study circles;
- Watch lectures on YouTube;

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Allah makes the way to Jannah easy for him who treads the path in search of knowledge.”

[Muslim]

[8] Help around the house:

‘A’isha (رضّى الله عنها) was asked about what the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to do in his house, and she said, “He used to serve his family, then when the time for prayer came, he would go out to pray.” (Reported by al-Bukhari, al-Fath, 2/162).

[9] Iftaar:

“Whatever is prayed for at the time of breaking the fast is granted and never refused.” [Tirmidhi]

[10] Taraweeh/Qiyaam al-Layl:

The Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) said: “Whoever prays qiyaam – i.e., Taraweeh – with the imam until he finishes, it will be recorded as if he spent the whole night in prayer.”

[Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi]

“Whoever spends the nights of Ramadaan in prayer out of faith and in the hope of reward, his previous sins will be forgiven.”

[Bukhaari (2008) and Muslim (174)]

[12] Siyaam:

“The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’aan, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasts) that month…”

[al-Baqarah 2:185]

❝Whoever fasts Ramadaan out of faith and in the hope of reward, his previous sins will be forgiven.❞

[al-Bukhaari, 2014; Muslim, 760]

[13] Morning/Evening Adhkaar:

“… and glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun, and before its setting.” [Ta-Ha 20:130]

[14] Sunan Rawaatib:

“Allaah will build a house in Heaven for whoever is diligent in observing 12 Sunnah Rak'aat (as follows): 4 Rak'aat before and 2 after the Dhuhr (Midday) Prayer, 2 after the Maghrib (Sunset Prayer), 2 after the ‘Ishaa’ (Evening) Prayer and 2 before the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer.” [Hadith sahih narrated by at-Tirmidhi No. 379 and by others. Hadith No. 6183 in Sahih al-Jaami’]

This is Islaam - THE PILLARS OF ISLAM

All praise is due to Allaah alone; may Allaah send salutations and exalt the mention of Prophet Muhammad, after whom there are no other Prophets.

The following are brief words explaining the pillars of Islaam concentrating on the most important points, and avoiding detailed elaboration.

What is the definition of Islaam?

Islaam is complete submission and obedience to Allaah by having pure Islamic monotheism and being free from any type of polytheism.

How does a person become a Muslim?

One becomes a Muslim by:

  • Believing in Allaah.
  • Testifying that Allaah is the only One worthy of being worshiped, and that Muhammad is His Messenger.
  • Worshiping Allaah alone without ascribing partners to Him.
  • Disbelieving in Taaghoot (false gods).

The five pillars of Islaam are:

  1. Ash-Shahaadataan: Testifying that Allaah is the only One worthy of being worshiped, and that Muhammad is His Messenger.
  2. Establishing Salaah (prayer).
  3. Paying Zakaah (obligatory charity).
  4. Fasting Ramadhaan.
  5. Performing Hajj (pilgrimage) when capable.

What is the meaning of Ashad in Ash-Shahaadataan?

It means that one testifies, firmly believes and submits to.

What are the implications of testifying that Allaah is the only One worthy of being worshiped?

It implies that one must worship Him alone without ascribing partners to Him.

What are the implications of testifying that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah?

It implies,

  • Full obedience to him in all that he commands, and refraining from that which he prohibits.
  • Loving him, his religion and his righteous followers, and hating his enemies.
  • Supporting him, his Sunnah (way) and his religion in all fields of life.
  • Believing him in all that he informed about, because one who belies him in anything becomes a disbeliever.
  • Adhering to the legislation he came with in all affairs, and accepting them for judgement in disputes.

What are the conditions of Ash-Shahaadataan?

  • Knowledge which opposes ignorance.
  • Certainty which opposes doubt.
  • Acceptance with opposes rejection.
  • Complete submission.
  • Belief which opposes belying.
  • Sincerity which opposes association.
  • Love which opposes hatred.
  • Disbelief (Rejection of) in all that is worshipped besides Allaah.

The Second pillar: Salaah

What is Salaah?

It is a set of words and actions which start with reciting Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar) and conclude with Tasleem (As-Salaamu Alaykum wa Rahmatullaah).

What is the ruling regarding Salaah?

Salaah is an obligation upon each Muslim (male and female) and must be performed at its prescribed time.

What is the number of obligatory prayers during every twenty-four hours?

There are five obligatory prayers during every twenty-four hours,

Fajr (dawn) Two Rak'ahs.

Dhuhr (after noon) Four Rak'ahs.

Asr (late noon) Four Rak'ahs.

Maghrib (sunset) Three Rak'ahs.

Ishaa (night) Four Rak'ahs.

What is the virtue of Salaah in Islaam?

Salaah is considered a great virtue in Islaam; it purifies a person from sins, broadens the chest, illuminates the heart and makes the person tranquil, calm and attains peace of mind. Establishing Salaah causes the love of Allaah and winning His Paradise.

What is Wudhoo (ablution)?

Wudhoo is washing four limbs of the body; the face, the palms, the head and the feet with the intention of performing ablution as an act of worship (and not solely for cleanliness). This is mandatory before Salaah, Tawaaf (circumambulation around the Ka'bah) and touching the Qur'aan.

How is Wudhoo performed for Salaah?

  • Utter Bismillaah (in the name of Allaah).
  • Wash the hands up to the wrists three times.
  • Rinse your mouth and nose (by sniffing water then expelling it) three times.
  • Wash the face three times.
  • Wash the arms up to the elbows three times starting with the right side.
  • Wipe the head including the ears.
  • Wash the feet up to the ankles three times starting with the right side.

What are the preconditions for Salaah?

There are nine preconditions for Salaah,

  • Islaam; it will not be accepted from a disbeliever.
  • Sanity; it is not obligated upon a mentally ill person.
  • Discretion; it is not obligatory upon a child until he reaches the age of discretion.
  • Major and minor purity; minor impurity obligates Wudhoo, and major impurity obligates bathing.
  • Purity of clothes.
  • Covering the Awrah (parts of the body which must be covered); Salaah is not accepted from a naked person.
  • Performing it at the prescribed time; it is not accepted before its time.
  • Facing the direction of the Qiblah (the Ka'bah).
  • Intention, which is in the heart; it is the determination (resolution) to perform Salaah.

What is the ruling of leaving out one of these preconditions?

Leaving out any of these nine preconditions, whether intentionally or forgetfully, nullifies the Salaah and it is not accepted.

What are the pillars of Salaah?

There are fourteen conditions of Salaah,

  • Standing when capable (in obligatory Salaah only).
  • Uttering the initiating Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar).
  • Reciting chapter Al-Faatihah in every Rak'ah.
  • Rukoo (bowing).
  • Rising up from Rukoo.
  • Standing up straight after Rukoo.
  • Sujood (prostrating).
  • Rising from Sujood.
  • Sitting between the two Sujoods.
  • Tranquility during all pillars of Salaah.
  • The final Tashahhud.
  • Tasleem (concluding Salaah by saying as-Salaamu Alaykum wa Rahmatullaah).
  • Sitting during Tashahhud and Tasleem.
  • Performing the pillars of Salaah in the correct sequence.

What is the ruling of leaving out one of these pillars?

Leaving out any of these fourteen preconditions, whether intentionally or forgetfully, nullifies the Salaah and it is not accepted.

What are the compulsory acts of Salaah?

There are eight compulsory acts of Salaah,

  • Uttering all Takbeer other than the initiating one.
  • Uttering subhana rabbiyal atheem at least once while in Rukoo.
  • Uttering subhana rabbiyal alaa at least once whilst in Sujood.
  • Uttering Sami allaahu liman hamidah after rising from Rukoo (in the case of one leading the Salaah or prayer alone).
  • Uttering Rabbanaa wa lakalhamd after rising from Rukoo (in the case of one leading the Salaah, praying alone or praying with the congregation).
  • Supplicating between the two Sujood, saying rabbighfir li, rabbighfir li (O my Lord forgive me).
  • The first Tashahhud.
  • Sitting during the first Tashahhud.

What is the ruling of leaving out one of these compulsory acts?

If any of these eight compulsory acts is forgetfully left out one should perform two Sujood of forgetfulness to compensate.

Which acts nullify the Salaah?

Performing any of the following nullifies the Salaah:

  • Eating or drinking intentionally.
  • Talking intentionally.
  • Leaving out one of the pillars while being able to perform it.
  • Laughing audibly.
  • Neglecting the sequence of Salaah like praying Asr before Dhuhr.
  • Not facing in the direction of the Qiblah.
  • Passing wind or other nullifiers of Wudhoo. (or other actions which invalidate Wudhoo)
  • Excessive movement.
  • Preceding the Imaam (one leading the Salaah).

The Third pillar: Zakaah

What is Zakaah?

It is an obligatory portion from a person’s wealth and property to be spent on the poor, needy and those who are eligible.

What is the ruling of Zakaah?

Zakaah is an obligation upon each Muslim (male and female) who possess the Nisaab (the minimum amount of property), and has possessed it for a full lunar year.

What is the wisdom behind legislating Zakaah?

  • Purification of the believer’s soul and cleansing it from miserliness and stinginess.
  • Fulfills the requirements of the poor and needy Muslims.
  • Joins disparate hearts in belief and Islam.
  • Purification and increase of wealth.
  • Spreads the spirit of solidarity and love between community members.

What are the preconditions of Zakaah?

There are four preconditions of Zakaah,

  • Islaam; it will not be accepted from a disbeliever or an apostate.
  • Possessing Nisaab; the minimum amount of property.
  • Possessing it for a Hawl (full lunar year).
  • Having full control over the property and freedom in its usage.

What is the type of wealth on which Zakaah is required?

Zakaah is required on four things:

First: Produce of the earth, grain, fruits, minerals, and buried treasures.

Second: Gold, silver and money.

Third: Goods of any type which are owned in order to be sold, like real estate, animals or shops.

Fourth: Livestock, which are camels, cattle, sheep or goats (those free grazing only).

What is the Zakaah amount on wealth once it reaches the Nisaab?

Zakaah is 2.5%

The Fourth pillar: Siyaam

What is Siyaam?

It is abstaining from good, drink, sexual intercourse and everything that nullifies the fast from dawn until sunset with the intention of drawing closer to Allah.

What is the ruling of Siyaam?

Siyaam is an obligation upon each Muslim (male and female) who reaches the age of puberty, is sane and capable of observing the fast.

What is the wisdom behind legislating Siyaam, and what are its benefits?

  • Siyaam is one of the greatest ways of pleasing Allaah and gaining reward.
  • It weakens the sexual desire, and trains people to be patient and determined.
  • It organizes and trains a person to give up for the sake of others and to be compassionate towards the poor.
  • It has many medical benefits, like cleansing the intestines, improving the conditions of the stomach, and clearing the system from accumulated waste.
  • Empties the heart and enables it to ponder upon the greatness of Allaah.

What nullifies Siyaam?

There are eight things which nullify Siyaam:

  • Sexual intercourse during the day in Ramadhaan.
  • Ejaculation caused by kissing, hugging or any other method short of intercourse.
  • Intentional eating or drinking.
  • Anything which replaces food and drinks, like I.V.
  • Cupping (blood-letting).
  • To induce vomiting intentionally.
  • Menstruation and post-partum bleeding.
  • Apostasy.

What conditions allow a person to break his fast during Ramadhaan?

It is allowed for a sick person and a traveler but they have to make up for these days later.

What are the etiquettes and Sunnah during Siyaam?

There are many etiquettes and acts of Sunnah during Siyaam, such as:

  • Hasten to Iftaar (breaking the fast) immediately after sunset.
  • Eat Suhoor (food eaten just before dawn).
  • Shun sexual relations with spouse, deceitful speech and all prohibitions.
  • Open the fast Iftaar with dates, otherwise with water.
  • Supplicate at the time of Iftaar, because a fasting person has a supplication which Allaah will not reject.
  • Do not exaggerate in eating, drinking and sleeping.
  • Spend generously in charity and feed and comfort the poor.
  • Recite and learn the Qur'aan abundantly.
  • Guard the Taraweeh (night prayer) with the congregation.
  • Increase the acts of worship during the last ten nights of Ramadhaan.
  • Perform I'tikaaf (residing in the mosque) during the last ten days and nights.

The Fifth pillar: Hajj

What is Hajj?

It is going to the sacred house of Allaah in Makkah to perform pilgrimage in a specific fashion (manner) clarified in the Qur'aan and Sunnah.

What is the ruling of Hajj?

Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islaam, and an obligation upon each Muslim (male and female) who is capable, once in their life time.

What are the preconditions of Hajj?

There are four preconditions of Hajj.

  • Islaam; it will not be accepted from a disbeliever.
  • Sanity; it is not obligated upon a mentally ill person.
  • Puberty; it is not obligatory upon a child until he reaches the age of puberty.
  • Freedom; it is not compulsory upon a slave.
  • Having a Mahram for women (i.e. a male who is allowed Islamicaly to accompany her during travel, like the father, son, brother, uncle or father-in-law).

What are the Pillars of Hajj?

Hajj has four pillars, the omission of any one of which will nullify ones Hajj:

  • Articulating ones intention then assuming Ihraam (the state in which one is prohibited to practice certain deeds that are lawful at other times) while performing the ceremonies of Umrah or Hajj.
  • Standing within the boundaries of Arafaat on the designated day.
  • Tawaaf Al-Ifaadha (circumambulating the Ka'bah after staying in Muzdalifah).
  • Sa'i (going to and fro seven times between the mountains of Safaa and Marwah).

What are the compulsory acts of Hajj?

Hajj has seven associated compulsory acts the omission of any one of which will not nullify ones Hajj, but will necessitate expiation by sacrificing and animal and distributing it among the poor and need in the sacred area of Makkah.

  • Assuming Ihraam from the Meeqaat (places where Ihraam is assumed during specific times).
  • Standing in the area of Arafaat until sunset.
  • Spending the night in Muzdalifah the night of Eed.
  • Spending the night in Minaa during the days of Tashreeq (11th & 12th of Thul Hijjah) for those who hasten, and the night of the 13th for those delay.
  • Stoning the Jamaraat (pebbles) on the day of Eed on the days of Tashreeq.
  • Shaving or cutting ones hair for men, but only shortening the hair for women.
  • Tawaaf Al-Wadaa (farewell Tawaaf).

What are the prohibitions of Ihraam?

  • To cut any hair from any part of ones body.
  • To cut ones nails, unless done unintentionally or part of a nail breaks of by itself.
  • It is forbidden to cover the head with something that touches it, such as a hat or turban.
  • It is forbidden to wear tailored and fitted clothes over any part of the body, like shirts, vests, trousers, underpants, socks or anything else.
  • It is impermissible for women to cover the face with anything such as Niqaab or a Burqa which is tied to the face or to wear gloves.
  • It is forbidden to use any type of perfume or anything else that is scented, regardless of whether it is used on the body or on the clothes.
  • It is forbidden to have sexual relations with ones spouse, or anything leading to it.
  • It is forbidden to get married or conduct a marriage ceremony.
  • It is forbidden to hunt game, with the exception of fishing.

What are the etiquettes during Hajj?

A person intending to perform Hajj should learn how to perform it, the description of the rituals and its etiquettes; he should not perform Hajj using ill-gotten or doubtful money; he should maintain sincerity and avoid boasting; take extra provisions so as to share with the poor or needy he meets during Hajjl adhere to all obligations and refrain from all prohibitions; pray all the prayers on time; maintain noble manners and shun harshness and iniquitous morals.

We ask Allaah to enable us to learn and act upon what we learn, Aameen.

Source: The Pillars of Islaam by Dr.Ahmad Al-Mazyad and Dr. Adel Al-Shddy.