The genus Spinus, containing mostly New World siskins and the American Goldfinch. These species were once included in Carduelisalong with Old World goldfinches.
The Black Headed Siskin (Spinus notata) is thought to be a “patriarch” species from which similar South American siskins radiated after the founder population crossed the Panama isthmus in the late Pliocene.
Siskin, Waxwing, Redpoll and Crossbill taken from ‘The Illustrated Book of Canaries and Cage Birds’ by W.A. Blakston, W. Swaysland, and August F. Wiener.
In the nineteenth century wild birds were caught and caged for their songs hence their images in this book of cage-birds. It is illegal today (in U.K.) to catch and cage wild birds or steal their eggs.