single molecule

Veterinary Homeopathy

Homeopathy is huge right now and interest in it is growing. Many people take homeopathic remedies and a large portion are giving them to their pets. When I discuss this with owners it becomes clear that most people don’t actually know what homeopathy is nor what they are giving themselves or their pets. I truly believe that people need to have at least a basic understanding of what they put in the bodies of themselves and their pets so that they they can take control of their healthcare to some degree. Let’s try and make that happen.

Homeopathy was invented in 1796 by a man named Samuel Hahnemann who believed all diseases were caused by miasms or impure airs. Later on he refined his theory and believed there were 3 main miasms: Itch, Gonorrheal, and Chancre. What else was happening in medicine at the turn of the 19th century? Drowning victims had tubes inserted into their anuses and were pumped full of tobacco smoke. The smallpox vaccine was invented and people thought it would turn you into a cow. Cholera was thought to be caused by eating cold fruits or from being overly passionate. Hysteria was thought of as a disease of women caused by the uterus wandering around the body, the treatment involved intercourse for married women or a medical “massage” by a doctor for those unwed. 

The basis for homeopathy is that like cures like. If you are bitten by a venomous snake, the same venom is used to cure you. Vomiting is cured by giving something that causes vomiting, commonly strychnine. Strychnine is poison though, right? Strychnine causes vomiting, diarrhea, heart arrythmias, and death. So how can it be used to cure diseases? TL;DR version: it can’t. Long version is that Hahnemann believed that the more dilute a substance, the more powerful it was. He diluted substances in water believing that the water would “remember” the energy of the substance and impart the cure even without any of the substance. So the very dilute remedies do not even have a single molecule of the substance in them. They are just water.

There are 3 main dilutions used in homeopathy: the centesimal scale, the decimal scale, and The Quinguagintimillesimal Scale. In the centesimal scale 1 part of a substance is mixed with 99 parts water and the container is hit or “succussed” 10 times to impart the energy into the water. This is called a 1C dilution. 1 part of the 1C dilution is added to 99 parts water and the mixing done again resulting in 2C. This can go on forever, usually though it ends somewhere around 24C.

Decimal scale is the same only it is 1:10. The Quinguagintimillesimal scale is the most dilute so is the most powerful. The dilution here is 1:50,000.

A very popular homeopathic remedy is Oscillococcinum which supposedly cures the flu. So it must contain flu virus right? Wrong. It is made boiling duck hearts and liver and then diluting out to 200C. At this point there is nothing in the medication except water and sucrose. The manufacturer has lost at least 2 lawsuits for false medical claims because they cannot prove it works.

So the basis of homeopathy is that water can remember whatever substance is placed in it and will cure diseases. If that’s the case are we all drinking dinosaur urine energy? Or what about all the chemicals we mix with our water, does it remember those?

Homeopathy is a psuedoscience. It is not real. There are no studies that can find any proof it works other than placebo. Basic science contraindicates the tenets of homeopathy. People take the remedies and report that they “feel” better, but no testing is ever done. And yet people spend millions on homeopathic cures. What really bothers me is that people will refuse vaccines, medication, etc. and say vets are ripping them off and are unscrupulous. Then they go to the store and pay $15.00 for sugar pills and believe it will cure disease.

The sad thing is that you do a quick Google search and find psuedoscientific studies, papers, journal articles, even homeopathic doctors. They claim modern medicine doesn’t want people to be cured or that nobody can explain how it works but it does. Homeopathy is a crock and it doesn’t work. People die all of the time because they take homeopathic remedies over real medicine but these are reported as death by cancer, heart disease, etc. because it was disease that did them in not the homeopathy. Samuel Hahnemann, the inventor of homeopathy, died of bronchitis.

What Science is Launching to Space?

The tenth SpaceX cargo resupply mission launched to the International Space Station on Feb. 18, and is carrying science ranging from protein crystal growth studies to Earth science payloads. Here’s a rundown of some of the highlights heading to the orbiting laboratory.

The CASIS PCG 5 investigation will crystallize a human monoclonal antibody, developed by Merck Research Labs, that is currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of immunological disease. Results from this investigation have the potential to improve the way monoclonal antibody treatments are administered on Earth.

Without proteins, the human body would be unable to repair, regulate or protect itself. Crystallizing proteins provides better views of their structure, which helps scientists to better understand how they function. Often times, proteins crystallized in microgravity are of higher quality than those crystallized on Earth. LMM Biophysics 1 explores that phenomena by examining the movement of single protein molecules in microgravity. Once scientists understand how these proteins function, they can be used to design new drugs that interact with the protein in specific ways and fight disease.

Much like LMM Biophysics 1, LMM Biophysics 3 aims to use crystallography to examine molecules that are too small to be seen under a microscope, in order to best predict what types of drugs will interact best with certain kinds of proteins. LMM Biophysics 3 will look specifically into which types of crystals thrive and benefit from growth in microgravity, where Earth’s gravity won’t interfere with their formation. Currently, the success rate is poor for crystals grown even in the best of laboratories. High quality, space-grown crystals could improve research for a wide range of diseases, as well as microgravity-related problems such as radiation damage, bone loss and muscle atrophy.

Nanobiosym Predictive Pathogen Mutation Study (Nanobiosym Genes) will analyze two strains of bacterial mutations aboard the station, providing data that may be helpful in refining models of drug resistance and support the development of better medicines to counteract the resistant strains.

During the Microgravity Expanded Stem Cells investigation, crew members will observe cell growth and morphological characteristics in microgravity and analyze gene expression profiles of cells grown on the station. This information will provide insight into how human cancers start and spread, which aids in the development of prevention and treatment plans. Results from this investigation could lead to the treatment of disease and injury in space, as well as provide a way to improve stem cell production for human therapy on Earth.

The Lightning Imaging Sensor will measure the amount, rate and energy of lightning as it strikes around the world. Understanding the processes that cause lightning and the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events is a key to improving weather predictions and saving life and property. 

From the vantage of the station, the LIS instrument will sample lightning over a wider geographical area than any previous sensor.

Future robotic spacecraft will need advanced autopilot systems to help them safely navigate and rendezvous with other objects, as they will be operating thousands of miles from Earth. 

The Raven (STP-H5 Raven) studies a real-time spacecraft navigation system that provides the eyes and intelligence to see a target and steer toward it safely. Research from Raven can be applied toward unmanned vehicles both on Earth and in space, including potential use for systems in NASA’s future human deep space exploration.

SAGE III will measure stratospheric ozone, aerosols, and other trace gases by locking onto the sun or moon and scanning a thin profile of Earth’s atmosphere.

These measurements will allow national and international leaders to make informed policy decisions regarding the protection and preservation of Earth’s ozone layer. Ozone in the atmosphere protects Earth’s inhabitants, including humans, plants and animals, from harmful radiation from the sun, which can cause long-term problems such as cataracts, cancer and reduced crop yield.

Tissue Regeneration-Bone Defect (Rodent Research-4) a U.S. National Laboratory investigation sponsored by the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, studies what prevents other vertebrates such as rodents and humans from re-growing lost bone and tissue, and how microgravity conditions impact the process. 

Results will provide a new understanding of the biological reasons behind a human’s inability to grow a lost limb at the wound site, and could lead to new treatment options for the more than 30% of the patient.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space:

Coloured Bricks, Pick Up Sticks

Or: Anything can be a superpower if you get it hot enough. 

Wordcount: 1,900+

Genre: Weirdly and unnecessarily specific diagetic meta/comedy/drama

Characters: Midoriya Izuku, Bakugou Katsuki, Midoriya Inko

Perks: Quirk!Izuku, Quirk Experimentation, Quirk Lore, Izuku’s Extremely Tenuous Grip On The Basic Concept Of What Toys Are

Midoriya Izuku is a very warm person.

Not his personality (though that’s also true). It’s his quirk. His quirk is that he’s warm.

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Law of Large Numbers

Diffusion is an example of the law of large numbers, applied to chemistry. Initially, there are solute molecules on the left side of a barrier (purple line) and none on the right. The barrier is removed, and the solute diffuses to fill the whole container.

Top: With a single molecule, the motion appears to be quite random.

Middle: With more molecules, there is clearly a trend where the solute fills the container more and more uniformly, but there are also random fluctuations.

Bottom: With an enormous number of solute molecules (too many to see), the randomness is essentially gone: The solute appears to move smoothly and systematically from high-concentration areas to low-concentration areas. In realistic situations, chemists can describe diffusion as a deterministic macroscopic phenomenon, despite its underlying random nature.



Dean will be so angry when he sees Cas again. He will yell at him, asking why did he do that. Why he had to go back there, why he didn’t listen to him calling and shouting his name.
Dean will be mad.
He will approche Cas with a serious look, jaw all clenched still screaming with a mad expression he will walk towards Cas.
Once he is close enough, he will grab Cas’s face and kiss him frantically for a long time trying to taste every single molecule of his lips.
Then, he will only separate their mouths to catch a breath, and keep shouting at Cas. While tears will come out pouring down his face. He will be angry because he abandoned him that cold night. He was left alone, with a void inside, thinking he will never be able to see him again, or feel how his lips taste like till that bittersweet moment.
Dean will kiss Cas one more time while holding him thigh, and again with a serious look, but with sparkling eyes for the tears and the joy that he can’t hide for seen him again. Dean will ask him to never do that again, and they will melt in a long embrace, and kisses will be the next language they will speak for the following hours
Dean will be really cross at first tho.

A Scientific Perspective on Energy Tethers

So I recently read a post about what @magic-for-the-masses  (aka Richtor) terms energy tethers in witchcraft (this post) and I mentioned to them that to me, the way energy tethers work sounds a lot like how energy works in the world of science. So this is my elaboration on that.

Energy as a Source of Power:

Richtor states that an energy tether acts like a source of energy that powers a battery (an object or person) and that the power is an unlimited source and can constantly power the “battery” with some maintenance and if you choose to keep the link connected.

But what is this energy really? At least, if you’re going to analyze it from a scientific perspective. I know, I know, science and magic don’t mix…or do they?

Potential Energy vs Kinetic Energy:

Now if you’ve had high school science, you’ve probably had to learn all about potential and kinetic energy, how the sun powers life on the earth, how chemical reactions happen, etc., etc. And I’m guessing if it’s been a few years and you’re not into science, you’ve probably forgotten all about it.

Here’s a brief refresher: Potential energy is all of the possible energy that a body (living or inanimate) has relative to its position to other bodies. Now usually we think of this as gravitational energies, but there are other energies too. I’ll get to that in a minute. Kinetic energy is the energy a body has when it’s in motion.

The most basic example of this is a ball on top of a hill. That ball has tons of potential energy sitting on that hill. Now if you kick that ball and it rolls down the hill, it loses all of its potential energy because it’s converted into kinetic energy. Until it stops at the bottom of the hill and has potential energy again.

Now imagine a waterfall. I swear this all relates, so just humor me. Anyway, we’re imagining a waterfall. At the top of a waterfall is usually a river or other body of flowing water of some kind. That is the water’s potential energy. The waterfall itself, is the water’s kinetic energy.

Molecular Bonds & Potential Energy:

I swear this isn’t just a science lesson.

Still thinking about that waterfall, what is water made of? Well, liquid water of course, duh. But what is water actually? What is everything? Molecules. A bunch of tiny bits of elements moving about through space. But how do they move? And how are they stuck together? ENERGY. See, I told you it would relate.

Now let’s really narrow our focus. Without getting too much into how molecular biology/chemistry/physics works, I’m just gonna talk about a single water molecule. Since we like waterfalls so much. If you don’t remember what a water molecule looks like, just imagine a large sphere stuck to two smaller spheres in a roughly triangular shape.

(Real quick: molecule=multiple spheres stuck together, atom=single sphere)

Energy is what’s keeping these three atoms stuck together to form a molecule. The energy keeping the atoms together are commonly called bonds. But they’re not just stuck together, it’s more like a tug-o-war. With an energetic rope…or tether. See where I’m going with this?

But, these atoms can also break apart, can’t they? You see, the energy keeping the atoms together is their potential energy. If they were to break apart, energy would be released, their kinetic energy.

Energy is Everywhere:

 If you’re reading this, I’m guessing that you’re using the energy of your brain and associated organs to view and comprehend this post. And your hand to scroll through tumblr, right? How are you doing that? ENERGY. (Is it annoying yet?)

So yes, you are composed of energy. Everything is. Even your coffee/tea cup and your pet rock (favorite quartz crystal). Remember, the four stages of matter? No? Well remember your favorite thing in the world? Waterfalls? Which are made of water? Well guess what? Water can be a solid, liquid, or gas! I know, it’s impressive. Water can’t be a plasma though, in case you forgot that stage of matter as well.

ANYWAY, each stage of water has energy stored in it. I bet you can guess which type of energy that is. That’s right, potential energy. And how does water change from one stage to another? Yep, kinetic energy.

What Does This Have to do With Magic?!

I’m glad you asked.

Basically, magic is all about the exchange of potential and kinetic energies. I know you’re sick of those words by now but at least you know what I’m talking about.

When you perform a spell, you are taking potential energy (or rather, your potential to generate a spell) and converting it into kinetic energy. Or spell casting.

Now technically speaking there’s no such thing as limitless energy. But I really don’t think you’re gonna stop your favorite waterfall by drawing some energy from it.

However, unless I’m very much mistaken, this is technically limitless potential energy.

Energy Tethers & Potential Energy:

So this is where we finally relate science to energy tethers. Yay~!

Remember, an energy tether is composed of two things: A source and a battery.

Now, I don’t think you’re going to notice much of a change if you were to draw energy from a single atom or molecule. You’re composed of trillions (probably more) of atoms and molecules. Do you notice if a single speck of dust lands on your skin? Probably not. 

So you’ve got to think bigger.

If say, you were to create a tether from the sun, or moon, or a power plant, or your favorite waterfall, to say, yourself, you would be taking potential energy from that source and storing it (like a battery) in yourself. Until you used it, in which case you would convert that energy into kinetic energy.

But unlike regular spell casting where you usually end up tired from using energy (magical energy in this case), you are constantly having new potential energy drawn into you via the tether you created with whatever source you’ve tethered yourself to.

And that’s all I have to say about that.

(Disclaimer: I do not consider myself an expert of magic or science. My background is in biology so I apologize to any chemists and physicists reading this if I butchered anything.)

anonymous asked:

What do you think of ~~natural~~ homeopathic medicine? I get that it can be great complementary treatment, but you really can't argue with science. I once had a friend try to cure her dog's UTI with cranberry juice and essential oils - no antibiotics. It didn't work, and he ended up needing emergency treatment.

Homeopathy is a system of “medical” practice that treats a disease especially by the administration of minute doses of a remedy that would in larger amounts produce in healthy persons symptoms similar to those of the disease .

Homeopathic remedies are diluted so much that it is unlikely even a single molecule of the thing being ‘diluted’ remains in the administered water. It’s water and wishful thinking. It’s a placebo at best, it’s not medicine and it’s not science.

Using cranberry juice and essential oils might fall under naturopathy, or generic home remedies, but they’re only useful in very specific situations. It’s not always appropriate to use a ‘natural remedy’ intended for humans in an animal patient, because the pathophysiology might not be the same.

Essential Oil use in animals makes me very angry. There is no benefit to using them - any benefits listed are vague, non-specific, or outright wrong.

Do NOT apply essential oils to your pets. I don’t care if a certain ‘natural’ magazine published something saying you could put lavender oil on burns, do NOT do it. It does nothing to help, actively harms, and delays proper treatment.

Using essential oils on species with an excellent sense of smell borders on cruelty. That stuff is hard for us to get off, and I’ve seen half a dozen pets that have become so distressed that they’ve presented to the emergency clinic after hours because some well-meaning individual believed an article that basically claimed essential oils would work like magic and fix their pet’s problem.

Do not use essential oils on pets.

There are a handful of complementary treatments that do actually have some use, especially with chronic pain conditions. Without listing every single one that might have some benefit, the most common one I use is glucosamine and chondroitin. Used together these supplements can reduce symptoms of arthritic pain by up to 40% after 6 weeks. That’s not great on its own, but still useful as anything that reduced chronic pain is a good thing.

As a confession, I’ve done courses on ‘Healing with Herbs’. I wanted to believe in this stuff, but the science for most of it is weak, mostly human based, and so much of it is wishful thinking. I use it when and only when there is evidence to do so, and only use products that I have a high degree of trust will actually only contain what it says on the box.

A few clues that the ‘natural’ cure/treatment isn’t all it’s cracked up to be:

  • If a source is telling you that vets and animal health professionals either don’t know what they’re talking about, or are lying to you.
  • If it claims multiple, very different benefits that are difficult or impossible to quantify or measure
  • If there are untrackable, unverifiable testimonials saying how great the product is
  • If it promised rapid results
  • If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is
Discovery of nano ‘footballs’

Research from the University of York has unearthed a ‘simply breathtaking’ discovery.

The work states that genes are controlled by ‘nano footballs’ – structures that look like footballs but are in fact 10 million times smaller than the average ball.

Professor Mark Leake, Chair of Biological Physics at the University of York, and who led the project said, ‘Our ability to see inside living cells, one molecule at a time, is simply breathtaking.

‘We had no idea that we would discover that transcription factors operated in this clustered way. The textbooks all suggested that single molecules were used to switch genes on and off, not these crazy nano footballs that we observed.’

Leake and his colleagues – supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden – placed glowing probes on transcription factors, which are chemicals inside cells that control whether a gene is switched on or off. From this, it was determined that the transcription factors operate as a cluster of approximately seven to ten molecules.

The discovery could improve understanding about how genes operate and potentially provide more information on health problems associated with genetic disorders.

‘We found out that the size of these nano footballs is a remarkably close match to the gaps between DNA when it is scrunched up inside a cell,’ Leake added. ‘As the DNA inside a nucleus is really squeezed in, you get little gaps between separate strands of DNA which are like the mesh in a fishing net. The size of this mesh is really close to the size of the nano footballs we see.’

This, continued Leake, means that a nano football ‘can roll along segments of DNA but then hop to another nearby segment’, so it can find the specific gene it controls more quickly.

~ ~ ~ ~
“there’s as many atoms in a single molecule of your dna as there are stars in the typical galaxy. we are, each of us, a little universe.”
-neil degrasse tyson, cosmos
~ ~ ~ ~
(please do not remove caption. reblog, do not repost.) ~ ~ ~ ~
i take requests!!

TO anyone concerned Jet will one day conquer and Yuri Hell's Kitchen will not be funny, an email exchange
  • Me: Is it crunchy because you burned it or because you managed to both not cook and overcook it
  • I would assume you couldn't but then you boiled all the water without browning a single molecule of sugar so you have dark powers
In my head, I’m next to you…
My thumb is tracing the palm of your hand creating swivels of imaginary colors that only you and I can see. Between the cells that make up your skin combined I have planted kisses that smell as faintly as primrose and violent love.
In my head, my stomach is filled with white birds holding flower crowns in a wedding ceremony. My insides feel like the stomping grounds of military angels marching to meet God for the first time.
Your hair is tousled waves falling on your back with shoulder blades peaking through, your glasses sit on your perfectly shaped nose, and your eyes are different shades of Browns and untold confessions.
Insanity is always an issue with you. You see I’m an alcoholic fighting for sobriety standing in a bar filled with drunken strangers that smell like vodka and escape.I’m a drug addict looking for ways to inject ecstasy into my ocean blue veins. I’m a soldier in a battlefield holding flowers instead of riffles thinking that love would conquer all. Insanity makes perfect sense when your name is featured next to it.
So I grab you..
And now we’re separated by nanometers that disappear too quickly when my body becomes a single molecule attached to you. your neck feels like wedding vows written on the bottom of a tissue box. Your waist feels like the curves of an hour glass and we’re running out of time..
But you kiss me and time stands still watching us become a great river’s ice at the touch of spring.
I love you..
And I know that my heart is a broken music box that plays the saddest tune .I know that sometimes holding my hands feels like holding shards of glass.. I know that my touch is escape, my eyes are torture, my presence is utter absence and desolation .. I know that being with me feels like hugging sunlight on a rainy day..
But I love you, and those are the only words I learned how to say after a long period of silence.

The Worst-Tasting Flavor in the World Was Accidentally Discovered in a Lab

In 2007, Aqua Dots, a toy manufacturer, had a bit of a disaster on its hands when it was discovered that at least some of the beaded toys it produced were coated with a chemical so dangerous that, when it metabolized, it turned into the “date-rape” drug GHB. Beads are small, and they’re edible. So you can imagine what happened. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission quickly recalled more than 4.2 million toys in an effort to control the problem. But eventually, these toys came back on the market in a different form, under a different name. And when they did, they were covered with another kind of chemical—this one designed to prevent kids from eating the beads. 

That chemical, denatonium benzoate, goes by the brand name Bitrex, and it’s been around since the 1950s. It’s currently used in substances as diverse as antifreeze, perfumes, household cleaners, and pesticides. Only recently has the chemical come to the world of toys. But it packs a hell of a punch—a single molecule of Bitrex can make a million molecules of water taste horrible. 

Here’s a G-rated taste-test from a radio-station morning show crew that was put up to it by a nonprofit organization; here’s an R-rated test from a guy who runs a YouTube channel dedicated to eating weird things. But as we learned in the case of Aqua Dots, this material has some important uses. One of those was discovered by the U.S. Army, which filed a patent describing “compositions and method for degrading foodstuffs. Other methods for turning the enemy’s food into untouchable junk were highlighted in the patent, but none were quite as memorable as Bitrex. This compound is several magnitudes more bitter, and the bitter taste persists in the mouth for a considerable time. Rice which is contaminated with this chemical in amounts of 0.10 pound per ton is inedible. The bitter taste was so nauseating that no one who tasted the boiled rice was able to consume as much as a teaspoonful.

Magistral Part Two

Author’s Note: Here’s part two of three of the miniseries! I hope that you enjoy! XOXO

Trigger Warning: Profanity

The sound of the phones and people attempting to make sure that each customer was rightfully served was amazing. I had implemented a plan in which we would get the most out of the customers and they would get the best experience that they could afford. There were a couple of hiccups but nothing that earned me a strike.

Jared never really intervened. He stood off to the side observing my interactions with his people. Each one allowed to put in a comment card at the end of the day on what I could improve on and what I did great on. Negativity was strictly only for a face to face situation so that no one could read into anything.

The end of the day was fast approaching and while I was willing to continue to work, my feet were throbbing from the heels. Back aching lightly at the feeling of the spandex wrapped around my waist. I just couldn’t hang it appeared.

“Okay,” I exclaimed as I filled in another step into our sales goals. “Great day everyone! I really hope that you enjoyed working with me and I will see you tomorrow!”

They clapped lightly before leaving the room. Jared and I walked out behind them in silence. His hands in his pockets as he stared up at the sky. “Watching you today was something amazing,” he smiled before staring at me again. “Don’t ever doubt just how amazing you are.”

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