single celled organism

Tough as a Tardigrade

Without water, a human can only survive for about 100 hours. But there’s a creature so resilient that it can go without it for decades. This one millimeter animal can survive both the hottest and coldest environments on Earth, and can even withstand high levels of radiation. This is the tardigrade, and it’s one of the toughest creatures on Earth, even if it does look more like a chubby, eight-legged gummy bear. 

Most organisms need water to survive. Water allows metabolism to occur, which is the process that drives all the biochemical reactions that take place in cells. But creatures like the tardigrade, also known as the water bear, get around this restriction with a process called anhydrobiosis, from the Greek meaning life without water. And however extraordinary, tardigrades aren’t alone. Bacteria, single-celled organisms called archaea, plants, and even other animals can all survive drying up.

For many tardigrades, this requires that they go through something called a tun state. They curl up into a ball, pulling their head and eight legs inside their body and wait until water returns. It’s thought that as water becomes scarce and tardigrades enter their tun state, they start synthesize special molecules, which fill the tardigrade’s cells to replace lost water by forming a matrix. 

Components of the cells that are sensitive to dryness, like DNA, proteins, and membranes, get trapped in this matrix. It’s thought that this keeps these molecules locked in position to stop them from unfolding, breaking apart, or fusing together. Once the organism is rehydrated, the matrix dissolves, leaving behind undamaged, functional cells.

Beyond dryness, tardigrades can also tolerate other extreme stresses: being frozen, heated up past the boiling point of water, high levels of radiation, and even the vacuum of outer space. This has led to some erroneous speculation that tardigrades are extraterrestrial beings.

While that’s fun to think about, scientific evidence places their origin firmly on Earth where they’ve evolved over time. In fact, this earthly evolution has given rise to over 1100 known species of tardigrades and there are probably many others yet to be discovered. And because tardigrades are so hardy, they exist just about everywhere. They live on every continent, including Antarctica. And they’re in diverse biomes including deserts, ice sheets, the sea fresh water, rainforests, and the highest mountain peaks. But you can find tardigrades in the most ordinary places, too, like moss or lichen found in yards, parks, and forests. All you need to find them is a little patience and a microscope.

Scientists are now to trying to find out whether tardigrades use the tun state, their anti-drying technique, to survive other stresses. If we can understand how they, and other creatures, stabilize their sensitive biological molecules, perhaps we could apply this knowledge to help us stabilize vaccines, or to develop stress-tolerant crops that can cope with Earth’s changing climate. 

And by studying how tardigrades survive prolonged exposure to the vacuum of outer space, scientists can generate clues about the environmental limits of life and how to safeguard astronauts. In the process, tardigrades could even help us answer a critical question: could life survive on planets much less hospitable than our own?

From the TED-Ed Lesson Meet the tardigrade, the toughest animal on Earth - Thomas Boothby

Animation by Boniato Studio

Rings Of The Cosmos

That title is just the coolest way I could think of to sum up this idea

So basically I just read through a literal Shit ton of the humans are space orcs stuff and I got to thinking all the aliens already are in contact with eachother before they find us right so here is my theory as to why this is

The closer to the Center you get the more inhabitable planets you find all these dudes found eachother really quickly and were like “let’s become homies” (friendly reminder that these guys are from REALLY mineraly rich plants so war to them is a foreign policy) they keep on doing this eventually have to fight some wars and gather a military

Eventually they start to notice that the further out they go the more dangerous planets get and consequently the tougher the inhabitants get. so they do some math and are like “Kay so intelligent cannot be found this distance away from the Center” this place becomes known as the Dead Zone

They get proven wrong a bunch of times the first time they find a creature in the Dead Zone it’s a zaxxo (I just made that name up give me a break) which are essentially a really fucking big single cell organism they survive on sunlight and can adapt to anything except temperature which is fine for them as they live in THE FUCKING VACUUM OF SPACE.

Anyways language barriers were a Bitch with these guys but eventually a solution was reached

So then people start going “hey if one thing can live in the Dead Zone why can’t another”
Which is pretty sound logic you know

So then they find the drakeks (look I’m bad with names okay) which are these super tall armor plated motherfuckers with poisonous spikes emitting from every orifice I mean sure they’re not the smartest but they don’t need to when they can survive the gravity of their planet which is only THE SIZE OF OUR SUN yeah they’re fucking op. eventually peaceful contact is established and most of them are enrolled into the military (tho there is one REALLY popular drakek musician)

They keep on exploring for maybe a thousand more years and then everyone goes “okay that’s it we already going
Found two species capable of jumping from one planet to another (turns out that if you put a drakek on a normal planet they’re even more terrifying, what gives?)”

it’s a bit after the Dead Zone exploration program is shut down that humans show up and there’s the normal “OH MY DEROG THESE FUCKERS CAN’T BE KILLED” then after ages and ages humans are kinda normalised and integrated like they’re still REALLY fucking handy to have around and really cute and all the other goodness that is associated with the humans are space orcs stuff.

This is the setting for an idea of mine that I may or may not end up posting I honestly don’t know if you read to the end of this I love you. Bye

pianoplayersara  asked:

Do you have any non religious arguments against abortion?


Current biology research shows us that, once fertilization takes place in humans, the resulting zygote is an individual organism and a member of the human species. This organism is self-directed, which means it develops from within using its own unique DNA (as opposed to, for instance, how a car is put together one piece at a time).

In fact, for the first week (prior to implantation), the human embryo is not directly connected to the mother, but continues to grow and develop from a single-celled organism to a blastocyst with hundreds of cells that at this point begin to differentiate (different cells are going to develop into different body systems).

The development is gradual and continuous, which means there is no definite point after fertilization where we can say that the human embryo/fetus has become something different that it wasn’t before. All of our descriptions of stages of development and the terms we use are arbitrary and only for our own benefit in understanding what happens.

Birth itself is simply a change in location for the fetus. We change our terminology, but the fetus/newborn doesn’t change in any significant way.

If this is the case, we can easily say that the fetus is a member of the human species.

However, this means nothing if we don’t know how to treat members of the human species. Science cannot answer that question - it can only tell us what the fetus is and what it does. At this point, we have to turn to philosophy and ethics.

Most people can agree that all human adults and human children have human rights and deserve equal treatment.

Most people also agree that while animals should not be abused or neglected, they don’t deserve equal treatment with humans. If they did, the punishment for a hit-and-run would be the same whether the victim was a squirrel or a human toddler.

But why?

We have to have a consistent explanation for equal treatment that tells us, without ambiguity, who does and doesn’t have rights.

Our explanation must include human adults and human infants, but exclude animals.

If we base our explanation on ability, such as self-awareness, sentience, verbal ability, etc. we run the risk of either excluding some human adults or infants or including squirrels.

However, if we base our explanation on the common humanity shared by human adults and human infants, we satisfy all three requirements with an explanation that should make sense to us.

This explanation, that all humans deserve equal treatment regardless of race, gender, age, sexual orientation, or ability, means that a human fetus (or even a zygote) deserves equal treatment because it is human.

This means that if it is wrong to intentionally kill a 2-year-old, it is wrong to intentionally kill a fetus, regardless of the fetus’s stage of development. Therefore, if we agree that it should be illegal to kill 2-year-olds, it should also be illegal to kill fetuses.

A law based on this fact would simply be the existing murder statute applied to all human beings equally, as the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution already requires.

This would mean that it would be illegal for abortionists to kill preborn children. The mother of the preborn child would be considered a second victim of a medical professional who chose to violate the law and medical ethics.

tl;dr: Fetuses are biologically human. All human beings have equal rights. Fetuses have the same rights as everybody else.

  • what she says: i'm fine
  • what she means: in the first episode of season two of rick and morty summer says there's mildew growing on jerry and beth but if time has been frozen for the last six months not only would mildew be unable to grow because growth requires the passage of time but there would be no point in vacuuming jerry and beth in the first place because dirt can't accumulate without time passing so either they were wasting their time with cleaning them and summer was lying about the mildew or the device rick used to freeze time only worked on things that had above some minimum number of atoms and if that's the case that means that single-cell organisms and other basic structures exist on a slightly separate plane from the rest of the universe

anonymous asked:

The sex scene is an insult to the comics and you keep giffing it. thanks for being anti ace

Are asexuals disgusted by the idea of sex?

Some asexuals may be “repulsed” by sex, meaning they are personally averse to the idea of having sex themselves. Some are “indifferent”, meaning they do not mind having sex, despite experiencing no sexual attraction. The same variation exists in the non-asexual population: some sexual people are quite happy to have sex with someone they are not sexually attracted to, but for others this idea is unthinkable.

What if I want to do it?

Then go for it.  You’re allowed to have sex, even if you’re asexual.

If you decide to have sex, make sure you’re doing it for the right reason.  Basically, the right reason is “I want to do this”, regardless of why, specifically.  There are countless reasons why you might want to.  You might want to see what it’s like.  You might want to give someone pleasure.  You might want pleasure yourself.  You might want to conceive a child.  You might be doing research.  You might just be thinking “It’s Tuesday, I’m bored, why not?”  And so on.  There’s no universal list of acceptable and unacceptable reasons for an asexual to have sex.  It’s about whatever is right for you.

How do I get aroused if I’m not attracted to my partner?

Some people think that sexual attraction is required for sexual arousal, but that’s not the case.  Many times, the thought of having sex or the actions involved in preparing for sex will get you physically aroused.  If that doesn’t work, then physical stimulation of the genitals will often lead to arousal.  This is one of the primary intents of foreplay, even for non-asexual people.  If you are able to become aroused for masturbation, then the same techniques will likely work in a partnered scenario, as well.

Am I still asexual if I’ve had sex?


Asexuality is a sexual orientation.  Sexual behavior does not change that.  Remember, it’s about attraction, not action.

Is it okay to like sex or want it, even if I’m asexual?

Asexuality is not “I hate sex”.

Asexuality is not “I don’t want sex”.

Asexuality is not “I can’t have sex”.

You’re allowed to like sex and want to have sex, even if you’re asexual.  Your orientation is about attraction, not action.  What you do doesn’t matter.

Is it okay to have an orgasm during sex, even if I’m asexual?

There’s a strange misconception that if an asexual person is having sex, that they can’t get anything out of it themselves.  Like if they have an orgasm, it means they’re not asexual.  As a result, an asexual having sex is supposed to simply lie there and do whatever their partner wants and not feel any pleasure from it.


If you want to have an orgasm while having sex, then it’s okay to have an orgasm during sex.  Have two or three or fourteen if that’s what you want.  Orgasm is an experience of physical pleasure that has nothing to do with your orientation.

A Misunderstood Orientation

Many people hear the word “asexual” and make assumptions about what it means.  They think of single-celled organisms in a petri dish.  They think of a celibate monk on far off mountaintop.  They think of a genderless robot from outer space.  Asexuality isn’t any of those things.

In particular:

Asexuality is not an abstinence pledge. (Although there may be abstinent aces.)
Asexuality is not a synonym for celibacy.  (There are celibate aces and promiscuous aces and aces everywhere in between.)
Asexuality is not a gender identity. (Although there may be trans, non-binary, or genderqueer aces.)
Asexuality is not a disorder. (Although there may be aces with physical or mental conditions.)
Asexuality is not a choice. (Although not every ace is “born that way”.)
Asexuality is not a hormone imbalance.  (Although there may be aces with hormone issues.)
Asexuality is not a fear of sex or relationships.  (Although there may be aces who are afraid of or otherwise dislike sex or relationships.)

Attraction, Not Action

Asexuality is a sexual orientation, like homosexuality or heterosexuality.  And like being straight or being gay, it’s about what someone feels, not what someone does.  Dating, having sex, masturbating, falling in love, getting married, or having children do not conflict with asexuality in any way.  There are many reasons why an asexual person might do these things that do not require sexual attraction to be present.

Experiencing arousal or orgasm also do not conflict with asexuality.

Some Do, Some Don’t

Many questions people have about asexuality can be answered with the same phrase: “Some Do, Some Don’t.”  Do asexuals date?  Some do, some don’t.  Do asexuals fall in love?  Some do, some don’t.  Do asexuals have sex?  Some do, some don’t.  Do asexuals masturbate?  Some do, some don’t.  Do asexuals like pepperoni pizza?  Some do, some don’t.  We are all individuals, with our own individual preferences and personalities, and it is generally impossible to make blanket statements about us.

The Gray Areas

Some people feel that they are “almost asexual” or “asexual with an exception”.  That is, they strongly identify with being asexual, except for a few limited or infrequent experiences of sexual attraction.  Gray-asexual people fall in between asexuality and non-asexuality.  In some cases, they experience sexual attraction only rarely.  In others, they’re unsure if they’ve experienced it or don’t feel that they quite fit the definition of asexual in some way.  Demisexual people are only capable of feeling sexual attraction after developing a strong emotional bond with someone.  Demisexuality and gray-asexuality fall within what’s called the “asexual spectrum”.

we learn something new everyday! i’m happy to have expanded that mind of your’s a little bit. i know that sex ed classes are lacking globally  <3 

Minions are small, yellow creatures who have existed since the beginning of time, evolving from single-celled organisms into beings who exist only to serve history’s most villainous masters

anonymous asked:

Whats the great oxygenation event??

Oh boy! So, this all takes place around 2.3 billion years ago. Up until then, life had been pretty much chilling for a billion or so years. Pretty much everything was a single-celled organism back then. Also, the planet was a whole lot different. There was no ozone layer, so UV radiation was constantly reaching the surface. That kills stuff, by the way, in high concentrations. Methane gas was also being spewed into the air by various volcanic eruptions. So, not a very nice place. Most importantly, oxygen wasn’t much of a thing. The little there was existed in the ocean and bonded with the iron molecules that were floating around to make rust.

(Home sweet home.)

The organisms that were alive got along just fine without oxygen, for the time being. These are called anaerobic organisms, and some of them still exist today. A lot are in your stomach right now. Anyways, along comes this little thing called a cyanobacteria. It’s unclear how they evolved, but the point is, they can do this neat trick we like to call photosynthesis. As you probably know, a byproduct of photosynthesis is oxygen.

Cyanobacteria were incredibly successful - they could make up to 16 times as much energy as anything else. So, they started multiplying. Pretty soon, there was a bunch of extra oxygen floating around, and not enough iron to bond with it. Then things started dying. See, to a lot of anaerobic organisms, oxygen is incredibly deadly. And now there were billions of cyanobacteria constantly spewing it out. 

(The killers themselves. Look at them. Not an ounce of remorse.)

Long story short, almost everything besides cyanobacteria died. The survivors either adapted to be able to live with oxygen, or went and lived in places without it, like underground or in sulfur vents (those guys are still around today!). The cyanobacteria were literally so successful that they changed the chemical makeup of the atmosphere. This also led to a decrease in greenhouse gases and started the longest ice age the world has ever seen. Go cyanobacteria!

Sources: (x) (x)

Requested Anonymously

Swalot swallows a lot. According to the pokédex, Swalot has no teeth but can open its mouth wide enough to swallow a tire, where it can be dissolved in its acidic stomach. There’s lots of interesting science going on in this purple blob of a pokémon, so let’s talk about it!

There are a lot of animals in our world who don’t have teeth for chewing, so they swallow things whole: frogs, ducks, and most remarkably, snakes. A snake’s lower jaw actually has two parts, connected by tendons. This makes the snake’s jaw extremely flexible, and able to open extremely wide to swallow things that are practically bigger than it. (Check out this video to see it in action)

While that’s really cool, it doesn’t really help us understand Swalot. We have no reason to believe Swalot is a vertebrate at all, or even has a jaw bone. In fact, Swalot’s whole body seems incredibly flexible, and it is able to distort itself to swallow prey.

This is a lot less like an animal eating a meal, and more like a process called phagocytosis used by single-celled protozoans and a few other cells, including in your own body. In your immune system, white blood cells will often devour harmful bacteria using phagocytosis. Phagocytosis comes from the greek work “to devour”, and that’s a fairly accurate description of what it does. 

During phagocytosis, the predator engulfs the prey by surrounding it with its body. The predator’s cell membrane wraps around the prey and fuses back together, sealing the prey inside its own body and creating a cavity known as a phagosome, essentially a new stomach. Other parts of the cell, called lysosomes, will then flock towards the new stomach, and release enzymes to digest the prey: stomach acid. As the prey digests, the nutrients are absorbed into the cell. Whatever is leftover, the waste, can be thrown away by simply parting the membrane again, opening the stomach out to the world, and dropping the waste out. 

Creatures that use phagocytosis don’t have just one stomach. Instead, they essentially create a new stomach every time they need to eat. This stomach can be as big or as small as they want: whatever size it needs to be to dissolve their prey.

At first glance, Swalot might look too large to be a single-celled organism and use phagocytosis. But, there are plenty of single celled organisms that aren’t microscopic. The algae Valonia ventricosa, for example, is a single cell that grows several inches in diameter.

So maybe Swalot is a single-celled organism! Perhaps Swalot’s mustache is a kind of flagellum, which acts as a sensory organ to see/smell/detect chemicals like flagellum do in single-celled organism. It is pokémon, so the interpretation is entirely up to you. One alternative theory could be that Swalot is a colonial organism, like Trubbish (read here).

Swalot is a single-celled organism that uses phagocytosis to digest its prey. It wraps its body around its prey, sealing them in and creating a new stomach. Enzymes are injected into the new stomach by lysosomes, which digest the prey and absorb its nutrients.

Imagine #10 Charles Xavier (Request)

Requested by anon: Hey hun could i get one with charles where the reader has siren powers but like a literal mythological siren and shes looking for charles for anwers? thank ilove your writing

Hey, thanks for the request. I hope you like it! xoxo

Originally posted by endingthemes

Not my gif

Words: 1660

Warnings: Swears, typos (probably)

Your gaze immediately found him the moment you entered the bar and you couldn’t help but sigh in relief. You had been looking for this man for the past few months and always seemed to have just missed him. For a professor he was surprisingly difficult to find. But then again, you thought as you took off your coat and scarf, he wasn’t just a simple professor.

And he didn’t seem to be alone either, you realized, seeing him talk to the two men seated next to him by the counter. This wasn’t exactly convenient and you would have preferred talking to him in private, but you weren’t going to let this opportunity slip through your fingers, not after having awaited this moment ever since you had found out about the professor’s… well, genetic situation.

“Hey, baby. How come a pretty thing like you is here all alone?” You felt and arm snake around your shoulders and the smell of a very alcoholised and sweaty man hit you in a way that you were already used to. Drunken men always hit on you. Well, most men hit on you most of the time. High school had been nothing but uncomfortable dates for you, as being sexually appealing to teenage boys and simultaneously not being able to say no didn’t work out very well for you. But it wasn’t just that you were attractive and it had taken you a while to realize just how far your power over other people went. Unfortunately you had had to make the experience that teenage boys wouldn’t always be the biggest of your problems. And that, in your case, trying to talk yourself out of a situation often resulted into the exact opposite reaction from what you had been hoping for. You had kicked more balls, punched more noses und used more cans of pepper spray than you could count.

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writingisproseandpotatoes-deact  asked:

Hi! I'm writing a story, and I was wondering if it were possible for birds to evolve to glow in the dark within the next hundred years? If that is impossible, could they be made to glow?

So they definitely could be made to glow! There’s lots of genes out there that code for fluorescent proteins. My favorite is a jellyfish gene called GFP (which stands for green fluorescent protein), which codes for a green protein that glows under blue-violet or UV light. (however, it doesn’t necessarily glow in the dark, I’ve looked over the other known fluorescent proteins and I’m not sure of one that specifically glows in the dark, but I believe GFP or one of its derivatives would do the job, as they’re specifically related to jellyfish bioluminescence! It’s also possible I’m getting way too into specifics here, so moving forward, feel free to read GFP as ‘generic fluorescent protein which also glows in the dark because scifi’)

This gene is easily extracted and has been sequenced already (fun fact: we do need to sequence genes before we can work with them extensively - that’s why it was such a big deal to sequence the human genome!) so it’s often used as a marker in the biotech industry (not sure if your gene is being expressed? Just add GFP! You’ll know if it glows!)

To actually make an organism glow, you’d need to combine GFP with a gene that codes for a protein involved in the actual structure of the organism. For example, when I was in school, I did a project where I made yeast cells glow by combining GFP with one of the major structural genes of yeast, creating what’s called a recombinant gene. This meant that instead of just coding for the protein it originally coded for, (which was used to build the cytoskeleton) it coded for both that protein, and for GFP. When I put this gene into new yeast cells and let them colonize, their cytoskeletons also contained GFP, making them glow!

This is what GFP looks like in action! Yeast cells are pretty simple, being single-celled organisms and all, but birds are a little more complicated. It could be done (and combining some mammal DNA and even human DNA with GFP already has been done!), but it would take more time than just a semester. I would say several years at the minimum, and they might run into some problems with animal rights laws/ethics laws depending on the government where your scientists are science-ing.

You also wouldn’t have all birds glowing, just a specific species, probably manmade. It’s possible this could happen naturally, but unlikely, and you’d probably only see isolated cases unless something in their environment was making it more useful to glow than not. (It’s likely the opposite would happen - it would make them much more visible to predators, for one, and I’m not sure what might offset that to make it useful enough to be selected for. However, birds are weird, and sometimes select for things harmful to their survival because they think it looks pretty, so it’s entirely possible that happened.) You’d be unlikely to see an entire glowing species develop within 100 years from natural evolution alone unless the glowing trait was being heavily selected for.

This is such a neat idea! Good luck with your story!



a/n: I’m from the U.S., so I have no idea what exams are like anywhere else so I did this based off of my experience! also, i am only 16, so the biology that i have in here is probably very basic but I have not been to college so I don’t know what it’s like at that level. (also that’s not my picture)

Finals. The very word strikes fear in the heart of every college student across the world. It can make or break your class grade. They are single most important tests of your life, all packed into one week. Most people start studying weeks before. And here I was, cramming in every single piece of information I had learned about biology in my lifetime.

“I just don’t understand!” I groaned as I slammed my head onto the textbook. The flash cards I had been using scattered all over the desk and fell to the floor. Pictures of me that were on the desk rattled from the impact. I was studying at my boyfriend Shawn’s place because it was my only quiet place, and I never got to see him.

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If you wanted to fill this single-celled organism with human cells, you’d need more than 100 billion human cells.


→ X-Men (2000) dir. Bryan Singer. “Mutation: it is the key to our evolution. It has enabled us to evolve from a single-celled organism into the dominant species on the planet. This process is slow, and normally taking thousands and thousands of years. But every few hundred millennia, evolution leaps forward.”

leo-my-love  asked:

Hey man im a screenwriter and i have an aro/ace character but i dont want to show her in any negative light. Any tips??

Yeah! First off, if you have specific questions you aren’t sure about, don’t be afraid to ask a couple ace people about it.

Generally, just don’t compare them to robots/single celled organisms/etc. Ace People are not emotionless. We’re not broken. As long as you don’t treat being ace as something that makes you less human, you should be ok.

On the other side, don’t make ace people seem like egotistical assholes. It could be just me but I’m so sick of seeing “who needs sex when theres [insert food item]”. Ace people are not morally superior or pure or innocent. Sex doesn’t taint you. Some aces will actively enjoy sex. It’s not “dirty” or “gross”. So don’t have the ace person throw sexual or hypersexual people under the bus.


Mutation: it is the key to our evolution. It is how we have evolved from a single-celled organism into the dominant species on the planet. This process is slow, and normally taking thousands and thousands of years. But every few hundred millennia, evolution leaps forward.

anonymous asked:

I'm super mad. Just heard someone dismiss asexuality by saying "humans can't actually do this, as we are not single celled organisms." And I'm like.., that's not what it freaking means???? We're not saying that we can reproduce without sex! We are aware of how biology works. We're just saying we don't feel sexual attraction. Why is this so hard for them to understand???

“I know science!,” says the bigot as they willfully ignore science.