single celled

Let me introduce you to three of my friends: hallucigenia, opabinia, and wiwaxia. They’re all from the Cambrian explosion, the period of time around 500 million years ago when life was just starting and was still trying to figure out questions like “how should a mouth work?” and “legs?”

Hallucigenia was about an inch long (most life back then was tiny, they were only a few eras removed from being single celled after all) and it had sixteen clawed legs, hard spines coming out of its back, and a wicked tentacle neckbeard. 

Opabinia was between two to three inches long and it had thirty fins along the side of its body, along with five mushroom shaped eyes on top of its head. By far though, its most interesting feature was its strange proboscis. Like a Dr. Moreau style mashup of an elephant and a lobster, the long nose terminated in a large claw that it used to grab prey and bring it to its backward facing mouth.

Finally, this is wiwaxia. This danger-artichoke was a two inch long armored slug-like creature with no head. In fact, its actual body was largely just its one massive foot. 

I find these animals interesting for three main reasons. First, it’s incredibly fascinating to see all of the potential paths that life on earth could have taken. Imagine an ocean filled with elephant lobsters! Second, whenever I feel like my life is going nowhere and all my choices are the wrong ones, I like to think that I’m in in my phase where I’m still developing hallucigenias and wiwaxias, and not yet making awesome things like butterflies or velociraptors. Finally - it serves as a stark reminder that if we ever find alien life, there is a fantastic chance it will look like nothing we’ve ever seen before - it might look more like one of these creatures than a human being. 

/hops on the bandwagon 2 weeks after everyone

i’ve been having random Lazytown episodes playing as background sound while i’m drawing! What a ridiculously cute and colorful show, i love it.

We were playing a mod called Deadlands which is a kind of steampunk western setting. All of us except for the DM and one other guy were incredibly new to the RPG format so it was a bit of a slog at first. One member of the party was a U.S. Marshal and wanted to track down some leads at the sheriff’s office. This would be the first character dialogue of the game.

DM: Alright, you enter the sheriff’s office. It’s dimly lit, smaller than you would have imagined too. They have a single cell at the back and a telegraph machine behind the sheriff’s desk which is to the right of the doorway. The sheriff is sitting behind his desk and looks up as you enter.

NPC: Haven’t seen you boys before. What can I do for ya?


DM: Well what do you want to ask him? And remember, you’re in character.


Marshal: Uh…so mister sheriff sir…?

*Our entire party lost it*

Loving The Scammers AU

They had quite enough of this. For the past few weeks, Character A’s voicemail inbox has been filled with scammers and spam calls from the IRS, Microsoft, and several other companies who all claim to be real. Knowing they were all fake, Character A simply ignored them until one called at 3:00 in the morning. They were far beyond groggy and upset until they realize that they’ve actually been connected to a conference call with each scamming organization, each planning what to do next and how they should go about working with one another.


film of a tornado emerging from the wall cloud of a supercell in south dakota. a supercell is a severe thunderstorm with a deep rotating updraft. most tornados are associated with supercell thunderstorms, the largest, most severe class of single cell thunderstorms. 

a tornado is created when the cooler downdraft of rear midlevel winds combine with the updraft of warm, moist and horizontally spinning surface level winds, which condense into a funnel as they’re drawn upward into what is called the mesocyclone. (video)


Somatic embryogenesis is the process of converting a somatic, non-reproductive cell into a meristematic embryonic state. This process is based on the fact that plant cells are totipotent, meaning that they have the ability to convert from their present tissue type to an undifferentiated form, allowing the plant cell to begin regenerating shoots, roots, leaves, and other organs. Totipency means that a plant could theoretically regenerate itself from a single cell and this amazing ability is utilized by the horticultural and agricultural industry to massively propagate different plants from small amounts of starting material. By taking a piece of the plant and exposing it to growing conditions that cause the cells to revert to the embryonic state, scientists and growers can then induce these undifferentiated cells to begin forming new plantlets. Above are GIFs of leaf cuttings induced to undergo somatic embryogenesis. After a sufficient amount of these undifferentiated cells is produced, the cuttings can be moved to different media that causes them to start forming roots, shoots, and leaves. 

OFFICIALLY Back in the Bowl

3 weeks ago, my boyfriend of a year broke up with me. This was the man I had given up sugaring for. This was the man I moved 3,000 miles for. This was the man who I was going to marry. I was heartbroken and jaded, pining over him and wanting him back with every single cell in my body. But then I realized…I will NOT beg for someone to be in my life if they don’t want to be a part of it. I should always prioritize myself and my own success. So…after a year long hiatus, I jumped back in the bowl.

Now, I have a generous sugar daddy and several more POTS in the works. It dawned on me tonight (after receiving an allowance WAY more than I make in my vanilla career) FUCK these “traditional” relationships. Why would I sacrifice my own success to be with someone who will eventually leave me broke and sad. No no no…from now on I am in it to win. I am in it to get my money, finish school, and live the life that I want to live. 

Etymologically, the word kundalini can be broken into the following Sanskrit roots, each of which sheds more light on what exactly this divine energy really is:

kundalin = coiled, spiraled (from the word kundalam, which means “ring” or “coil”)
kun = earth
di = can mean “little pot of earth” or “a single cell”
and its alternative root:
da = to give or “the bestower”
lini = perpetual consciousness expressing in alpha and omega, or beginning and end

The sum total of these phrases adds richness to our understanding of kundalini. We could, based on these root words, now define kundalini as “the coiled earth energy that begins in a single cell and, when blessed by the Bestower, gifts us with consciousness.”

~ Cyndi Dale; Kundalini; Divine Energy Divine Life

Passive Immunotherapy

Active immunotherapies:

  • Cytokines (TNFa IL-2, IFNs)
  • Cancer vaccines
  • tumour CTL and APC
  • DC priming

Passive immunotherapy:

  • Administration of monocolnal (clone derived asexually from a single individual or cell) antibodies which target either tumour-specific or over expressed antigens
  • Generally comprised of antibodies made outside of the body (in a lab)
  • administered to patients to provide immunity against a disease, or to help fight existing disease
  • do not stimulate a patient’s body to ‘actively’ respond to a disease the way a vaccine does
  • immunogen is given several times to induce a strong secondary response
  • blood serum contains many different antibodies to the immunogen
  • most immunogens have multiple antigenic epitopes 
  • each stimulates a different B cell clone/receptor –> polyclonal antibody (PAb) response 

Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is the most widely used form of cancer immunotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies cannot be purified from a polyclonal sample and are derived from a single clone/specific for a single epitope.

Antibodies in cancer therapy:

  • Trigger immune system to attack cancer cells 
  • Block molecules that stop the immune system working (checkpoint inhibitors)
  •  Block signals telling cancer cells to divide 
  • Carry drugs or radiation to cancer cells

Checkpoint inhibitors

  • Immune system uses particular molecules to stop it being over activated and damaging healthy cells  - these are known as checkpoints
  • some cancers make high levels of checkpoint molecules to switch of immune system T cells which would normally attack cancer cells
  • examples of targets include CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1)

Blocking cell division signals 

  • Cancer cells often express large amounts of growth factor receptors on their surface –> rapid cell division when growth factors stimulate them
  • some monoclonal antibodies stop growth factor receptors working
  • either by blocking the signal or the receptor itself 
  • cancer no longer gets signal to divide

Carrying drugs/radiation

  • drugs or radioisotopes can be attached to monoclonal antibodies
  • the mAB binds to the cancer cell, delivering directly
  • known as conjugated MABs

In the summer, the Midwest and Southern states are used to what we call “popcorn storms.” They’re single-cell thunderstorms that pop up out of the blue, and are gone within minutes. Sometimes, they develop so fast, it will rain without a single cloud in the sky.

What’s even weirder is when they develop into super cells and blot out the sun so badly, it looks like the middle of the night, even though it’s actually noon. Even weirder than that, sometimes the clouds will be juuuuust thin enough to allow some sunlight to poke through. When that happens, the clouds filter out everything except the green and yellow end of the spectrum, and what you get looks like HOLY SHIT, WE’RE ALL GONNA FUCKIN’ DIE!

The thing is, video and pictures don’t really do it justice. You really have to be standing there under a perfectly clear sky, and then see that rapidly approaching demon storm to totally understand the level of pants-shitting horror that washes over you. This photo by Kaelie Mense comes about as close as I’ve seen to capturing how ominous it looks.

7 Scenes In Nature That’d Make You Think The World Is Ending

If you’re a fan of The Neighbourhood then you’re gonna want to get into the lead singer, Jesse James Rutherford’s, new project called The Factoury. Today they dropped their new track called U R Wut U Eat and I’m fairly certain you can guess what he’s talking about eating by the album art work and if you can’t then you’re too pure and shouldn’t listen to this track. The track is incredibly smooth, sexy and is filled with these slick synth beats that are just a treat for the ears and create this sensual and hot vibe that is pretty perfect for what the song is about. The Factoury already show signs of greatness but that’s hardly surprising since the singer did sweater weather - Jakk

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