A reminder of lists every Catholic Should be Familiar With

The 7 Sacraments (The Holy Mysteries)
2.Confirmation (Chrismation)
4.Penance (Confession, Reconciliation)
6.Holy Orders
7.Extreme Unction (Annointing of the Sick

The 7 Corporal Works of Mercy
1.To feed the hungry
2.To give drink to the thirsty
3.To clothe the naked
4.To shelter the homeless
5.To visit the sick
6.To visit the imprisoned
7.To bury the dead

The 7 Spiritual Works of Mercy
1.To counsel the doubtful
2.To instruct the ignorant
3.To admonish the sinner
4.To comfort the sorrowful
5.To forgive all injuries
6.To bear wrongs patiently
7.To pray for the living and the dead

The 3 Eminent Good Works

The 7 Gifts of the Holy Ghost
7.Fear of the Lord

Class of Gifts of the Holy Ghost known as Charismata
1.Gift of speaking with wisdom
2.Gift of speaking with knowledge
4.Grace of healing
5.Gift of miracles
6.Gift of prophecy
7.Gift of discerning spirits
8.Gift of tongues
9.Gift of interpreting speeches

The 12 Fruits of the Holy Ghost

The 3 Theological Virtues

The 4 Cardinal Virtues

The 7 Capital Sins

The 6 Sins against the Holy Ghost
3.Resisting the known truth
4.Envy of another’s spiritual good
5.Obstinacy in sin
6.Final impenitence

The 4 Sins that Cry Out to Heaven
1.Willful murder
2.The sin of Sodom
3.Oppression of the poor
4.Defrauding laborers of their wages

Conditions for Mortal Sin
1.Grave matter
2.Full knowledge
3.Deliberate consent

The 9 Ways We Participate in Others’ Sins
1.By counsel
2.By command
3.By consent
4.By provocation
5.By praise or flattery
6.By concealment
7.By partaking
8.By silence
9.By defense of the ill done

The 10 Commandments
1.Thou shalt not have other gods besides Me
2.Thou shalt not take the Name of the Lord thy God in vain
3.Remember to keep holy the Lord’s day
4.Honor thy father and thy mother
5.Thou shalt not murder
6.Thou shalt not commit adultery
7.Thou shalt not steal
8.Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor
9.Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife
10.Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s goods

The 2 Greatest Commandments
1.To love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, soul, mind and strength.
2.To love thy neighbor as thyself.

The 3 Evangelical Counsels
1.Voluntary poverty
2.Perpetual chastity
3.Entire obedience.

The 6 Precepts of the Church (The Duties of a Catholic)
1.To go to Mass and refrain from servile work on Sundays and holy days
2.To go to Confession at least once a year (traditionally done during Lent)
3.To receive the Eucharist at least once a year, during the Easter Season (known as the “Easter duty”)
4.To observe the days of fasting and abstinence
5.To help to provide for the needs of the Church according to one’s abilities and station in life
6.To obey the marriage laws of the Church

The 3 Powers of the Soul

The 4 Pillars of the Catholic Faith
1.The Apostles Creed
2.The Seven Sacraments
3.The Ten Commandments
4.The Lord’s Prayer

The 3 Pillars of the Church’s Authority
1.Sacred Scripture
2.Sacred Tradition
3.Living Magisterium

The 3 Munera (Duties of the Ordained)
1.Munus docendi (duty to teach, based on Christ’s role as Prophet)
2.Munus sanctificandi (duty to sanctify, based on Chris’s role as Priest)
3.Munus regendi (duty to shepherd, based on Christ’s role as King)

The 3 Parts of the Church
1.The Church Militant (Christians on Earth)
2.The Church Suffering (Christians in Purgatory)
3.The Church Triumphant (Christians in Heaven)

The 4 Marks of the Church

The 12 Tribes of Israel
In order of their birth:
11.Joseph (Menasseh and Ephraim)

The 8 Beatitudes
1.Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven.
2.Blessed are the meek: for they shall posses the land.
3.Blessed are they who mourn: for they shall be comforted
4.Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice: for they shall have their fill
5.Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy
6.Blessed are the clean of heart: for they shall see God
7.Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called children of God
8.Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice’ sake, for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven

The 14 Stations of the Cross
1.Jesus is Condemned to Die
2.Jesus is Made to Bear His Cross
3.Jesus Falls the First Time
4.Jesus Meets His Mother
5.Simon Helps Jesus Carry His Cross
6.Veronica Wipes Jesus’ Face
7.Jesus Falls the Second Time
8.Jesus Meets the Women of Jerusalem
9.Jesus Falls the Third Time
10.Jesus is Stripped
11.Jesus is Nailed to the Cross
12.Jesus Dies on the Cross
13.Jesus is Taken Down from the Cross
14.Jesus is Laid in the Tomb

The 15 Mysteries of the Holy Rosary & When They are Prayed

5.Finding Jesus in the Temple

1.Agony in the Garden
2.The Scourging
3.Crowning with thorns
4.Carrying of the Cross
Luminous. 1. Baptism of Jesus. 2. Manifestation of Jesus at the wedding feast of Cana. 3. Proclamation of the kingdom of God. 4. The Transfiguration. 5. The institution of the Holy Eucharist
5.Crowning of Mary

Mondays: Joyful
Tuesdays: Sorrowful
Thursdays: Joyful
Fridays: Sorrowful
Saturdays: Glorious
Sundays in Advent, Christmastide & Epiphany: Joyful
Sundays in Eastertide & Time After Pentecost:Glorious
All of Septuagesima & Lent: Sorrowful

The 9 Choirs of Angels
In ascending order:

The 3 Levels of Reverence
1.Dulia:the reverence we give to Saints
2.Hyperdulia:the reverence we give to Mary as the greatest of Saints and Mother of God
3.Latria:the reverence and worship we give to God alone

The 14 Holy Helpers
1.St. George, Martyr, April 23
2.St. Blaise, Bishop and Martyr, February 3
3.St. Pantaleon, Martyr, July 27
4.St. Vitus, Martyr, June 15
5.St. Erasmus (Elmo), Bishop and Martyr, June 2
6.St. Christopher, Martyr, July 25
7.St. Giles, Abbot, September 1
8.St. Cyriacus (Cyriac), Martyr, August 8
9.St. Achatius, Martyr, May 8
10.St. Dionysius (Denis), Bishop and Martyr, October 9
11.St. Eustachius (Eustace), Martyr, September 20
12.St. Catherine of Alexandria, Virgin and Martyr, November 25
13.St. Margaret of Antioch, Virgin and Martyr, July 20
14.St. Barbara, Virgin and Martyr, December 4

The 7 Last Words of Christ
1.Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. (Luke 23:34)
2.Amen I say to thee: This day thou shalt be with me in paradise. (Luke 23:43)
3.Woman, behold thy son… .Behold thy mother. (John 19:26-27)
4.Eli, Eli, lamma sabacthani? (My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken me?) (Matthew 27:46, ref. Psalm 21)
5.I thirst. (John 19:28)
6.It is consummated.(John 19:30)
7.Father, into Thy hands I commend my spirit. (Luke 23:46, ref. Psalm 30:6)

The 4 Last Things (The Novissima)

anonymous asked:

Do you know any good ways to learn to speak Cantonese tones? There aren't any teachers even remotely close to me and I am worried that I'm not going to be able to get anywhere close to understandable. Also I am still a bit confused on written Chinese. Are written Mandarin and Cantonese grammatically the same? I know simplified vs traditional, and Cantonese has some unique characters, but I'm not sure if there are other differences (I haven't started learning anything, still gathering resources)


I mighttt upload a video/audio file of me going over Cantonese tones later on, we’ll see! Here are a couple of Youtube videos going over Cantonese tones: (1) (2) (3) (4). The second and third video are actually in Japanese LOL but there are visuals, so it’s not too difficult to follow. The guy in the fourth video has the correct tones but his pronunciation is a bit off ahaha. For more visuals, you should refer to these images: (1) (2

This whole Written Chinese/Written Cantonese thing is very confusing, but lemme try and break it down:

Let’s start with Standard Written Chinese. This is what you will find in the majority of books, newspapers, and websites. Essays and assignments are always written in Standard Written Chinese, which is based off of Mandarin Chinese. Ignoring slang/dialect-specific words from other Mandarin dialects/other colloquialisms, the grammar you see in writing is essentially the grammar people use to speak to each other in Mandarin. Standard Written Chinese can be split into two scripts: Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese (used in HK, Taiwan, and in some overseas communities). 

What confuses some people is that despite Written Chinese being BASED off of Mandarin, I am able to read Standard Written Chinese in Cantonese, using the Cantonese pronunciations of these words, regardless of whether or not we actually use these words in spoken Cantonese. 

Then we have Written Cantonese which, like you said, has its own unique characters, but also has words from the original Written Chinese vocabulary set, because Mandarin and Cantonese share vocabulary. You can read more about it here. Written Cantonese is based off of how we speak in Cantonese, which can be quite different from Written Standard Chinese.

There are a bunch of special Cantonese characters that are completely meaningless to non-Cantonese speakers, like 啱, 咁, 冇, 乜, 佢, 攰, 哋, 哂, etc. They can also often look quite complex (ie: 嚟, 嘅, 噉, etc). These special characters have no simplified variants (or not that I know of), but all other words that can be found in simplified Chinese (since Cantonese and Mandarin share vocabulary) can have a simplified variant. 

Written Cantonese that you find in HK will more often than not be written in Traditional Chinese (I, for example, write in Traditional), but written Cantonese from Guangzhou for example will probably be in Simplified + these special Cantonese characters. 

Grammatically, I think it’s easier to understand if we split it into two sections: 

1) the grammatical particles themselves and how Cantonese might use different particles

2) the positioning/syntax of Cantonese/Mandarin sentences

There are a significant number of differences when we address #1, especially in grammatical particles and prepositions. Most grammatical particles are different in Cantonese, but only a select few are placed slightly differently (#2). 

Example 1: 在 (zài) and 緊 (gan2) are both grammatical particles (in Mandarin and Cantonese respectively) that show the present progressive tense. However, the difference is, 在 is placed before the verb in Mandarin, whereas 緊 is placed after the verb in Cantonese. Same function, different placement. (refer to #2)

Example 2: 先 (xiān / sin1) “before sth else, first” is used in both Cantonese and Mandarin, and function the same way, but their placement is also quite different. (refer to #2)

M: 我先走出去后院。[Trad: 我先走出去後院] (wŏ xiān zŏu chū qù hòu yuàn)

C: 我行出去後院先。(ngo5 haang4 ceot1 heoi3 hau6 jyun2 sin1)

“I’m gonna walk out to the backyard first [before I do sth else]”

Example 3: Here are some examples of grammatical particles/prepositions placed and used in the exact same way (words that differ from Mandarin are marked with an asterisk):  咗*, 喺*, 完, 會 (refer to both #1 and #2)

咗 (zo2) / 了 (M) (le) mark a perfected/completed action in the past

喺 (hai2) / 在 (M) (zài) are prepositions meaning at/in

完 (wán / jyun4) comes after a verb, and means “to finish doing sth” 

會 (huì / wui5) comes before a verb, and marks the future tense

So to re-address the two grammatical sections we created: 

1) Cantonese will often have different particles/prepositions/basic verbs than Mandarin.  

2) Cantonese and Mandarin will often have very similar word orders (except for the occasional exception), and can usually be compared one-to-one

TL;DR - Basic vocabulary and the majority of grammatical particles are often drastically different from Mandarin. HOWEVER, many of these differences are one-to-one comparisons. As long as you know how to convert between the two, you will most likely to know how to flip from Cantonese to Mandarin and vice versa. There are always exceptions, but these are often very specific examples, and I’m not going to cover them here~ The only other major hurdle when switching between Cantonese and Mandarin is pronunciation but that’s a whole other story x_x

This topic is hard to cover through a single post, and hard to wrap your head around, but I hope I managed to clear things up a little!

Ten Rules For Writing Fiction from Elmore Leonard*

Elmore Leonard: Using adverbs is a mortal sin

1 Never open a book with weather. If it’s only to create atmosphere, and not a charac­ter’s reaction to the weather, you don’t want to go on too long. The reader is apt to leaf ahead look­ing for people. There are exceptions. If you happen to be Barry Lopez, who has more ways than an Eskimo to describe ice and snow in his book Arctic Dreams, you can do all the weather reporting you want.

2 Avoid prologues: they can be ­annoying, especially a prologue ­following an introduction that comes after a foreword. But these are ordinarily found in non-fiction. A prologue in a novel is backstory, and you can drop it in anywhere you want. There is a prologue in John Steinbeck’s Sweet Thursday, but it’s OK because a character in the book makes the point of what my rules are all about. He says: “I like a lot of talk in a book and I don’t like to have nobody tell me what the guy that’s talking looks like. I want to figure out what he looks like from the way he talks.”

3 Never use a verb other than “said” to carry dialogue. The line of dialogue belongs to the character; the verb is the writer sticking his nose in. But “said” is far less intrusive than “grumbled”, “gasped”, “cautioned”, “lied”. I once noticed Mary McCarthy ending a line of dialogue with “she asseverated” and had to stop reading and go to the dictionary.

4 Never use an adverb to modify the verb “said” … he admonished gravely. To use an adverb this way (or almost any way) is a mortal sin. The writer is now exposing himself in earnest, using a word that distracts and can interrupt the rhythm of the exchange. I have a character in one of my books tell how she used to write historical romances “full of rape and adverbs”.

5 Keep your exclamation points ­under control. You are allowed no more than two or three per 100,000 words of prose. If you have the knack of playing with exclaimers the way Tom Wolfe does, you can throw them in by the handful.

6 Never use the words “suddenly” or “all hell broke loose”. This rule doesn’t require an explanation. I have noticed that writers who use “suddenly” tend to exercise less control in the application of exclamation points.

7 Use regional dialect, patois, sparingly. Once you start spelling words in dialogue phonetically and loading the page with apos­trophes, you won’t be able to stop. Notice the way Annie Proulx captures the flavour of Wyoming voices in her book of short stories Close Range.

8 Avoid detailed descriptions of characters, which Steinbeck covered. In Ernest Hemingway’s “Hills Like White Elephants”, what do the “Ameri­can and the girl with him” look like? “She had taken off her hat and put it on the table.” That’s the only reference to a physical description in the story.

9 Don’t go into great detail describing places and things, unless you’re ­Margaret Atwood and can paint scenes with language. You don’t want descriptions that bring the action, the flow of the story, to a standstill.

10 Try to leave out the part that readers tend to skip. Think of what you skip reading a novel: thick paragraphs of prose you can see have too many words in them.

My most important rule is one that sums up the 10: if it sounds like writing, I rewrite it.

*Note from thewordriven: This is advice - not hard and fast rules

despicable meme coming soon to a theater near you!

please send help the astro group chat has dragged me into a world of memery and sin

1/  memes of astro

Cantonese - Verbal Aspect

For those of you that already know some Mandarin, or languages like Vietnamese, Thai, etc., you most likely already know about the concept of verbal aspect. These languages, unlike most Indo-European languages, do not “conjugate” their verbs based on tense, mood, number, person, etc., but use the concept of “aspect” or “time references” to express verbal actions. 

Technically, as long as the context is clear from adverbs of time such as “yesterday”, “today”, “tomorrow”, then the “tense” can be determined (whether it occurred in the past, present, or future), without having to add anything around the verb. 

我今日去香港 [ngo5 gam1 jat6 heoi3 hoeng1 gong2]
I go/am going to Hong Kong today. 

我尋日去香港 [ngo5 cam4 jat6 heoi3 hoeng1 gong2]
I went to Hong Kong yesterday. 

我聽日去香港 [ngo5 ting1 jat6 heoi3 hoeng1 gong2]
I will go to Hong Kong tomorrow. 

However, that being said, oftentimes, these neutral-sounding sentences can sound very stunted and awkward. To make speech more natural, we use aspect markers, which make things clearer and more specific as to when an action occurred.

Past Aspect Markers

zo2 - Perfective Marker

  • a common variant of this is 左
  • directly equivalent to the perfective function of 了 in Mandarin
  • goes after the verb
  • shows that an action has been completed in the past, but may be applicable to the present 

ex: 我尋晚睇兩集。[ngo5 cam4 maan5 tai2 zo2 loeng5 zaap6]

Mandarin: 我昨晚看了兩集。
Literal: I yesterday night watch-perf. two episode. 
Translation: I watched two episodes last night. 

ex: 佢已經喺香港住兩年。[keoi5 ji5 ging1 hai2 hoeng1 gong2 zyu6 zo2 loeng5 nin4]

Mandarin: 他/她已經在香港住了兩年。
Literal: He/she already in/at Hong Kong live-perf. two year(s).
Translation: He/she has already lived in Hong Kong for two years. (and is still living there now) 

gwo3 - Experiential Past Marker

  • used exactly the same as in Mandarin 
  • goes after the verb
  • shows that something has occurred sometime in the past, and is no longer applicable to the present

ex: 小明曾經去呢間學校。[siu2 ming4 cang4 ging1 heoi3 gwo3 ni1 gaan1 hok6 haau6]

Mandarin: 小明曾經去過這間學校。
Literal: Siu Ming at one point go-exp.past this school. 
Translation: Siu Ming had gone to this school at one point. (he no longer goes to this school)

ex: 你食菠蘿包未呀? [nei5 sik6 gwo3 bo1 lo4 baau1 mei6 aa3] 

Mandarin: 你吃過菠蘿包了沒有?
Literal: You eat-exp.past pineapple bun (not) yet + statement particle
Translation: Have you ever eaten pineapple buns? 

Present Aspect Markers

The simple present is often expressed using just the verb, without the addition of any aspect markers. However, present aspect markers exist to mark time points more clearly. 

gan2 - Progressive Marker

  • equivalent to (正)在 + V in Mandarin, except 緊 goes after the verb
  • functions as the imperfective, or the present progressive; an action is incomplete and/or in progress.

ex: 當時佢仲寫本書,所以冇時間陪我。[dong1 si4 keoi5 zung6 se2 gan2 bun2 syu1, so2 ji3 mou5 si4 gaan3 pui4 ngo5] 

Mandarin: 當時他/她還在寫 (那本) 書,所以沒有時間陪我。
Literal: At that time he still write-prog. classifier book, so/that’s why not have time accompany me.
Translation: At that time he was still writing the book; that’s why he didn’t have time to spend with me.

ex: 我食飯嘅時候唔好同我傾偈。[ngo5 sik6 gan2 faan6 ge3 si4 hau6 m4 hou2 tung4 ngo5 king1 gai2]

Mandarin: 我在吃飯的時候不要跟我聊天。
Literal: I eat-prog. genitive (duration of) time not good* with me chat.
Translation: When I’m (busy) eating (a meal), don’t chit chat with me.  

*唔好 m4 hou2 (lit. not good) = an imperative form, equivalent to don’t in English and 不要 in Mandarin

zyu6 - Durative Marker 

  1. expresses an action that continues and remains in the same state
  2. connects two verbal phrases where actions are being done simultaneously
  • Function 1: equivalent to 着 in Mandarin; goes after the verb
  • Function 2: equivalent to 邊…邊… in Mandarin; goes after the verb

Function 1

ex: 佢孭一個好重嘅書包。[keoi5 me1 zyu6 jat1 go3 hou2 cung5 ge3 syu1 baau1]

Mandarin: 他/她背着一個很重的書包。
Literal: He/she carry (on one’s back)-dur. one classifier very heavy backpack. 
Translation: He/she is carrying a very heavy backpack. 

ex: 家姐間房對個海。[gaa1 ze1 gaan1 fong2 deoi3 zyu6 go3 hoi2]

Mandarin: 姐姐的房子對着海。
Literal: Older sister-gen. room face-dur. classifier ocean
Translation: [Older] sis’ room faces the ocean. (it is always going to be facing the ocean). 

Function 2

This function cannot stand on its own with just a verbal phrase, and requires the addition of 先 sin1 “first, before anything else”, or another verb/verbal phrase. The structure 一路…一路… can also be used, and is used in almost exactly the same way as (一)邊…(一)邊… in Mandarin. 

ex: 你食飯先。[nei5 sik6 zyu6 faan6 sin1] (simply saying 你食住飯 would be grammatically incorrect)

Mandarin: 你先吃飯。
Literal: You eat-dur. meal first. 
Translation: Eat first. (implies that the speaker might be doing an action other than eating, and asks the listener to eat first) 

ex: 我食雪條行街。[ngo5 sik6 zyu6 syut3 tiu2 haang4 gaai1] or

一路雪條(一路)行街。[ngo5 jat1 lou6 sik6 zyu6 syut3 tiu2 (jat1 lou6) haang4 gaai1]

Mandarin: 我邊吃冰棒邊逛街。
Literal: I eat-dur. popsicle stroll. or I (as) eat-dur. popsicle (as) stroll. 
Translation: I am (or I was) eating a popsicle as I stroll (or was strolling) around. 

Difference between 緊 gan2 and 住 zyu6

The words present progressive and durative sound very technical and also sound pretty similar in meaning, but here’s a good example illustrating the difference between the two markers: 

我著衫 [ngo5 zoek3 gan2 saam1] - I am putting on clothes. (lit. in the process of wearing/putting on clothes) 

我著衫 [ngo5 zoek3 zyu6 saam1] - I am wearing clothes. (I am in a state where I am wearing clothes)

著 [zoek3] - to wear sth; 衫 [saam1] - clothes

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