Spanish-Speaking Countries & the Origin of their Names
Argentina comes from the latin word for silver, argentum. The first use of the word appears around the time of when the Spanish conquistadors arrived at the Río de la Plata (River of Silver, Silver River) between Argentina and Uruguay.
Bolivia comes from the name of a leader during the period of the Spanish American wars for independence, Simón Bolívar.
The valley of the Aconcagua was called “Chili” by the Incas (according to Diego de Rosales) due to a corruption of the name Tili (a tribal chief).
Another theory is that there was a town or valley called Chili in the Casma Valley in Peru, which has a resemblance to the valley of Aconcagua.
Chile could come from an indigenous word meaning “ends of the earth” or “sea gulls."
From Mapuche, "chilli” meaning “where the land ends."
From Quechua, "chiri” meaning “cold” or “tchili” meaning “snow” or “the deepest point of the Earth."
There is a bird that shouts "chile” when flying; they are in all the valleys from the center of the country to the Southern regions. These birds are called Queltehues or Treiles.
Colombia is derived from the name Christopher Columbus.
Costa Rica means “rich coast” in Spanish. Christopher Columbus was given credit for discovering this country and called it Costa Rica because he believed there to be precious metals.
Cuba is Taíno for “where fertile land is abundant” (cubao) or “great place” (coabana).
The Dominican Republic shares an island with Haiti.
Before the whole island was called Haiti, the Taíno word for mountainous land. Christopher Columbus comes to the island and renames it Hispaniola, meaning “little Spain” because its beauty was comparable to that of Spain’s.
The French arrive on the island, naming the current-day Haiti St. Domingue and the Spanish refered to the Dominican Republic and Santo Domingo.
After its independence, they renamed it to the Dominican Republic
Ecuador means “equator” in Spanish, and Ecuador lies on the equator.
El Salvador means “The Savior” in Spanish.
Guatemala comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, which means “place of many trees."
Another theory is that the country’s name is a alteration of the Nahoa word which means "land of the snake-eating bird.”
Honduras means “depths” in Spanish. It is said that Columbus said, "Gracias a Dios que hemos salido de estas Honduras"(Thank God we have left these depths).
The Nahuatl word Mexica means “place of the Mexica” (the Aztecs).
In Nahuatl, a combination of three words creates the meaning similar to “in the navel of the moon” because the position of lakes resembles a rabbit; therefore alluding to the navel of a rabbit.
At the time of the Spanish arrival in Nicaragua, Nicarao was the current chief of the indigenous tribe. Nicarao, combined with the Spanish word for water (agua) due to it’s geography, makes Nicaragua.
Another theory is that it means “surrounded by water” in an indigenous language.
Panama comes from a word of the indigenous language meaning something similar to an “abundance of fish” (due to the country’s geography).
Coming from Guaraní, Paraguay is believed to refer to a river despite many versions of its origin. It means something similar to “river that flows through the sea” (French-Argentine historian Paul Groussac), “river crowned” (Antonio Ruiz de Montoya), or refers either to an indigenous tribe that lived along the river or a chief named Paraguaio (Félix de Azara).
The original name of Peru was Birú, Birú being the name of a ruler who lived close to the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. He was visited by Spanish explores where, at the time, was the southernmost region of the New World.
When Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru, he asked locals the name of the place. Their answer was “Viru” because of the Viru River in northern Peru (where the Spanish arrived). Instead, they heard “Peru” and since that moment, Pizarro called the land Cusco Peru.
Puerto Rico was originally called San Juan Bautista by Christopher Columbus, after the Catholic saint, Saint John the Baptist, while the capital was called the Ciudad de Puerto Rico. As time went on, gold was found in the river and the country began to be referred to as Puerto Rico.
España (Spain) comes from the Roman name Hispania, though the origins of this word are unknown.
Hispania could have stemmed from the Greek word Hesperia, which poetically means “western land” or “land of the setting sun” (in reference to Italy), which would then make Spain (further west) Hesperia ultima.
Antonio de Nebrija (Renaissance) thought that Hispania is derived from the word Hispalis, which means “city of the western world.”
Another theory is that it comes from I-Shpania (Punic), meaning something similar to “land of rabbits” because the Roman coins were adorned with a female figure with a rabbit.
Uruguay is a Guaraní word, which means “river of shellfish” or “river the uru birds come from."
The indigenous people living in Venezuela during the 1500s built their living quarters on stilts over places like Lake Maracaibo; this reminded a Spanish explorer of Venice (Italy), in which the name Venezuela means "little Venice.”
From the same place in the Maracaibo Lake, the indigenous community that lived there already had a name for the land, Veneçiuela, which meant agua grande (big waters). The Spanish spread that around and assumed that it was the name.
Please correct me if any of these are incorrect! Some of these have multiple histories and I have no way of knowing which one is correct.
The origins for some of the countries are difficult to find or too fuzzy in my opinion to write it down, but I tried to provide an explanation for the meaning (e.g. El Salvador, Honduras, etc.)
MH:World Coral Highlands new area: It consists of a vast landscape
like that of the ocean floor, the most notorious feature is the many
species of coral, as its name implies.
A rich and mysterious ecosystem similar to land and sea spreads with organisms that ride on the upwind wind to unexplored areas.
Omg do u have any more big three kids headcanons ?
i LOVE the big three kids and like they’re honestly one of the things i miss most about the pjo days and like. i want more greek big three kids i want. i WANT.
the sword of hades is FAR from the last time the thalia, nico, and percy are rounded up and forced asked to do a special quest
they’re all punk rock hos like unironically punk rock hos. percy is mortified of how thalia and nico have no subtlety but he’s green day fuckin trash to the max just like they are.
people think they’re siblings, because they’re all built for agility and durability so their bone structure is like, very similar.
all demigods have heightened metabolism and faster healing rates than normal humans, but big three kids have an edge even over other demigods
they all have Something about them that even sets them apart from other demigods, like a sort of aura. it gets stronger as they get older.
like they’re all a little otherwordly looking, not in a blatant way but enough that regular people kinda just get vibes that there’s something different about them.
they train together to control their emotion-based powers so as to stop accidentally blowing things up, killing things, or electrocuting them when they lose their temper
they have to eat more food than the average person because their metabolism works faster (this is sort of canon, like they’re always joking about how percy’s hungry all the time which doesn’t necessarily confirm this but. still)
they also have an unusually high alcohol tolerance for their height/weight (metabolism again)
eating is a MUST after extensively using their powers
and then sleep
they literally suck the life out of themselves when they use their powers. like, they tap into their own life force. it replenishes itself with food and rest, but they have to watch themselves (again, this is sort of canon, percy describes something similar after landing on ogygia)
poseidon’s kids actually have an edge in that regard, because they can actually immerse themselves in their father’s elements, while as like, air and lightning doesn’t help zeus’ kids get reenergized and dirt doesn’t help hades’ kids.
there’s like, two types of powers, though. there’s the type where you actually summon the element yourself, and then there’s the type when you just channel your powers through a medium that’s already there.
like, percy controlling water is just using a medium, and thus it’s not as draining. summoning water is much harder and like actually comes out of their literal life force. like, their father’s elements are literally inside of them and they can summon them if they need to.
that’s like really hard to do though and they have to train for it.
(that’s why jason can fly and thalia can’t! he’s much better at channeling his powers through the air currents, while as thalia just summons her element from her own body)
channeling is much better all around because it’s less exhausting. it’s easier for poseidon’s kids to channel their powers, but it’s trickier to learn if you’re a zeus or hades kid.
although granted, unless you’re near water that’s actually disadvantage for poseidon kids, because they don’t have as much practice summoning their powers without killing themselves.
so their powers kind of negate each other
(although like in my TOTALLY unbiased opinion poseidon kids are the most powerful because like have you SEEN what like the raw force of water can do like it’s…mindblowing. also like you could argue that there’s no cons to being a poseidon kid, there’s just a lack of pros. bc like, if you’re near water, you’re golden, huge pro. if you’re not near the water, then you’re on equal footing with zeus and hades kids, no biggie, because their elements don’t reenergize them)
*a zeus kid who has mastered channeling their element is sincerely deadly though bc like, they’re never separated from air. and if they were than that means their opponent can’t breathe either so nobody can threaten them really. they’re always on their home turf.
***that’s like really hard to do though so it’s not something you really have to worry about because most zeus kids never bother to learn how.
zeus kids have frames built for aerodynamics and can breathe with little to no trouble in very high altitudes.
poseidon kids obviously have frames built for gliding easily though water, and can also sustain very high pressures bc of deep water (that’s canon!)
and hades kids can take a lot of pressure because like, being underground doesn’t bug them at all.
they can all handle both extremes of temperatures much better than the average human
their skin is all very durable too bc like it doesn’t blister when exposed to heat and doesn’t freeze when exposed to the cold (and like um human skin can’t be underwater for much length of time so like i imagine poseidon kids have some kind of extra elastic quality to their skin. unless they do turn into prunes and just have to stay dry if they’re underwater for a long time, but that’s not as fun as them having weird dolphin-ish skin)
they have heat sensitive vision (THAT’S CANON!!! percy just randomly throws out this line while he’s in poseidon’s palace in tlo. like perce, dude, do you realize what you just SAID why are you being so nonchalant about it)
HTTYD 3 drabble: Berk: The Forever Home of Dragons
“This… is Berk. Once the home of the largest species of
dragons, as well as the Alpha and only known living Night Fury. But that was
ten years ago. Now… the dragons have left, and Berk is once again the village
it was fifteen years ago. Home to only Vikings and livestock. Why? Because a
chief and alpha had to make the hardest choice of their lives, for the better
of their people. A chief, protects his own. And protecting… sometimes has
While Hiccup narrates this, the camera travels through Berk,
where only people and animals can be seen. No dragons, only traces of them. all
of the dragons building are still there- the hanger and everything. Hiccup
refused to get rid of them- they were the only things that reminded him of the
dragons- and more specifically Toothless. Even though it caused pain to see
them as a reminder, it also brought comfort.
Then the camera goes towards the landscape around Berk,
towards a cliff that overhangs the ocean. There, Hiccup sits alone. Staring off
into the distance where the dragons had disappeared all those years ago, and
hadn’t been seen since. In his hands, he held Toothless’s saddle, the manual
one that Hiccup had needed to help control. He fingers the worn leather sadly,
a small sigh of longing escaping him.
Astrid steps up behind him, setting a hand on his shoulder
reassuringly. Hiccup lifts a hand and places it on top of hers, his gaze still
on the horizon. She steps forward and sits down beside him, her eyes also
falling towards the horizon. She looks back at her thirty-year-old husband and
chief, noting the bit of scruff on his chin, indicating that he’d forgotten to
shave that morning.
After a while the two stand up and head back towards the
village, where Hiccup is met by his two children, Stoick the second and Lili.
The two children wish to go on a walk to the cove, which Hiccup visited often
these days. So Hiccup and Astrid took their children to the worn path and began
he trek to Raven’s Point. Stoick asks his father for a story: a story about the
dragons and how they left. Hiccup sighed and nodded, picking up Stoick in his
arms before beginning…
…Hiccup and his family have reached the cove by the time
he finishes the story, and they’re all sitting on the ground by the small lake.
Hiccup lifts his head and smiles sadly at his family, but Astrid’s eyes are
wide and the kids are looking slightly afraid. Hiccup stares at them in
confusion f or several seconds before he turns and looks at what they’re gaping
at. He gasps in shock, feeling light-headed. There, standing on that rock where
Hiccup had met Toothless for the second time, was a black Night Fury. The
dragon stared at them before grinning gummily and jumping down, rushing over to
Hiccup before colliding with him, pushing him to the ground. Hiccup stares at
the dragon in shock, before he breaks down in a mixture of tears and laughing,
hugging the dragon back tightly while burying his head into Toothless’s neck.
“You came back, bud.” Hiccup whispers, but pauses when he hears another Night
Fury shriek come from the rock formation. He looks up and sees yet another
Night Fury step forward, followed by two minnie Nigh Fury’s. Not only that, but
a Nadder that looked dizzily similar to Stormfly had landed not far from the
rock, near the pond. Silence fell for a moment before Astrid shrieked and stood
up, dumping Stoick on the ground in her mad haste to get to her dragon.
Stormfly runs forward and the two meet in a fierce hug, Astrid crying
Hiccup stood up and hugged Toothless again, only then
realizing how much bigger Toothless had grown. He was about a foot taller, and
his wing span was also longer. Hiccup opened his eyes and looked down
Toothless’s back, noticing the automatic tailfin still attached to Toothless’s
tail. It had been surgically placed in, so that it wouldn’t come off and
Toothless could wear it without fear of it falling apart.
Hiccup pulls away, his hands holding onto Toothless’s head.
He smiles through the tears, while Toothless grins back at him, the dragon’s
butt wagging back and forth in his joy, much like a dog would do. Hiccup hugs
him again- tighter this time. He never wanted to let go, for fear that his
dragon would fly off again and never return.
But finally Hiccup pulls back, as had Astrid from Stormfly.
Toothless turned around and cooed towards the other Night Fury’s, who
cautiously crawled down the rock and towards the humans. Hiccup steps forward
and holds out a hand slowly to the dragons. The large Night Fury hesitates, but
the younger ones immediately bump their heads into his palm. Toothless steps
closer to Hiccup, his tail wrapping around his human. The other Night Fury
looks from Toothless to Hiccup before stepping forward and also placing its
head into Hiccup’s palm. The chief smiles happily, then looks at Toothless for
“A family.” Astrid whispers from behind him. “He has a
Hiccup stares at them in awe, before turning to look back at
Toothless. Toothless is staring at Stoick and Lili wondrously, looking back at
Hiccup in curiosity.
Hiccup smiled and held out a hand, motioning for Stoick and
Lili to step closer. “These are my kids, Toothless. And Astrid’s my wife now.”
Toothless sniffs at Stoick, making the small boy flinch in
fear. Hiccup smiled and took Stoick’s hand, showing him how to hold it out.
Stoick did so slowly at first, but then he smiled happily when Toothless licked
it and began to coo happily. The small Night Furies came up and began nudging
at Lili and Stoick, making the children laugh and giggle before picking up the
small dragons. Astrid smiles and comes to stand beside Hiccup, Stormfly close
by her side. Astrid had one hand on Stormfly’s head, the other going to wrap
around Hiccup’s shoulders, hugging him happily.
Squawking, roaring, and the sound of flapping wings can be
heard from above. Hiccup, Astrid, and the kids stare up at the sky in wonder
and shock. There were hundreds of dragons- hundreds- flying in the direction of
Berk. Hiccup’s eye found Cloudjumper among them, as well as SkullCrusher, Grump,
Hookfang, Barch, Meatlug, and all the other dragons that had once lived on
Berk- plus others. Hiccup looked to Astrid, who looked back at him with an
overjoyed smile on her face.
Toothless had returned, the other dragons had returned. It
was like a wonderful dream come true, but Hiccup knew that the dragon standing
before him was very much real.
Hiccup then turned back to Toothless, hugging him again.
“This… is Berk.” The camera zooms in on the island, showing
the hanger where dragons were once again inhabiting. “Yes, dragons once didn’t
inhabit this island- for ten years they were absent.” The camera goes through
the village, showing dragons perched on top of buildings while others were
looking around for their owners. It shows the original “gang” each reacquainting
with their dragons, Fishleg’s with tears and laughs, while Snotlout just walks
up in shock before hugging Hoofkang fiercely. The twins start shouting words of
joy before attacking their dragon, and before long the two and dragon are
rolling about on the ground. Valka hugs Cloudjumper without any words, only
tears, while Grump just simply lands on top of an unsuspecting Gobber,
effectively smushing the large man in a bone crushing hug.
“But they returned.” Camera then shows Hiccup stepping out
from the forge, holding Toothless’s old saddle in his hands. Toothless jumps up
and down in excitement, moving closer while Hiccup begins to strap it on.
“And with an unspoken promise to never leave.” Camera then
shows Hiccup climbing onto Toothless’s back, zooming out to show Astrid on top
of Stormfly. Hiccup smiles at Toothless, who grins back before he pushes his
foot in the pedal, the now manual tailfin adjusting position.
Toothless jumps into the air, Hiccup whooping in joy.
Stormfly and Astrid join them, and soon Valka does as well, (Stoick and Lili in
her lap). The “gang” swoop up and join as they go, but before long Toothless
and Hiccup began to pick up speed.
“yes. This is the Berk as we know it, and always will. The
forever home… of dragons.”
Hiccup and Toothless fly up onto the large mountain stack
over Berk, Toothless letting out a fierce roar while Hiccup just stared at his
village, a smile of complete contentment and joy on his face.
Inspiration for Game of Thrones - Former Yugoslavia!
George RR Martin wrote the first book from 1991-1996, when the Croatian and Bosnian wars were a big deal for American foreign policy and got a lot of popular news coverage. It started out with six republics (seven if you count Kosovo) of Yugoslavia, each with differing cultures, started fighting for autonomy.
What was Yugoslavia?
Yugoslavia was a country in Southeast Europe during most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918. under the name of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) with the formerly independent Kingdom of Serbia.
The Serbian royal House of Karađorđević became the Yugoslav royal dynasty. That dynasty, or better said prince Aleksandar united the country (it was his idea). So, Yugoslavia gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The country was named after the South Slavic peoples (Serbs, Croats etc.) and constituted their first union, following centuries in which the territories had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary.
Renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929, it was invaded by the Axis powers on 6 April 1941. In 1943, a Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was proclaimed by the Partisan resistance. In 1944, the king recognised it as the legitimate government, but in November 1945 the monarchy was abolished. Instead of Aleksandar’s son Petar II, Tito, the Partisan’s leader, came to power. Yugoslavia was renamed the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946, when a communist government was established.
After Tito’s death in Slovenia, an economic and political crisis in the 1980s and the rise of nationalism, Yugoslavia broke up along its republics’ borders, at first into five countries, leading to the Yugoslav Wars.
“..they (Yugoslavs) attempted to do the American model taking these five countries to construct Yugoslavia. So long as Josip Broz Tito was alive it seemed to be working, I mean, that people would say: “I am Yugoslav”. But nobody says that anymore; there are all are Serbs, or Croats, or Bosnians, and the ethnic identity is clearly more important than jumping out of the melting pot. They don’t wanna melt into Yugoslavs like we melted to Americans, so I don’t know… It’s interesting.” - George RR Martin
first wrote about this and, really there are many similarities between people of Former Yugoslavia and people of Westeros:
Lannister - Slovenians blond, rich, people, who think that they are better than others.
The Reach-Slavonia and the Coast (North Croatia), a rich and fertile soil, never in charge, but always the crucial factor.
Greyjoys - Dalmatians (Croats from Dalmatia), only people who they respect are themselves, they believe that others are weak. They are the people of the sea, pirates.
The Vale - Montenegro, a separate mountainous land, unconquerable. Strange family relations, sons on the first place. They have hawk as a coat of arms.
Dorne - FYR Macedonia Land in the south. They have the sun as coat of arms. They have always been segregated from the rest. Dark handsome men, somewhat different than the others from ex YU.
Baratheons - people from Bosnia and Herzegovina, a large, happy people ready to drink and eat, brave and burly. Neum is Storm’s End, since it has access to the sea. Robert is like Tito, who died when collapse of unity begins.
The North - Serbia the country of wolves and ancient heroes. Proud people, freedom fighters. Some see them as wild, cruel. White Harbor is Belgrade, Kosovo is The Wall. behind The Wall wildlings (Albanians? lol) live.
Targaryen - Karadjordjevic, the royal family in exile, young Danny as throne princess.
Riverlands - Vojvodina (Northern Serbia), a neutral land, similar to Slavonia. Somehow always affected by wars.
Why are most of the titans gone now? Doesn’t that lessen the threat they pose a lot?
It makes sense that, from what Hanji tells us, most of the titans on Paradi island were inside wall Maria when it fell, since they are all attracted to the walls and human civilization. So once they eliminated those within Maria, the threat of titans actually outside the walls was greatly diminished.
I can understand that people are saying that the guillotine method and how easily they can now be killed lessens their threat. But to that I would say, I don’t think the titans are meant to be the massive threat that they once were. Before, they were massive creatures that devoured humans for seemingly no reason. But now we know that shifters are a thing, especially the coordinate, who can control titans, and that all titans are actually humans. As we learn more about them and are introduced to a new enemy, the people of Marley, it is logical that one threat must be dealt with in order for our characters to deal with the larger conflict at hand.
Another timeskip? I hate those…
You are entitled to your opinion, but keep in mind that the series began with them. First the skip of about a year when EMA were refugees, to the three when they were trainees until near graduation. This nine month skip seemed appropriate, since the walled people have a lot of re-grouping to do, truths to digest about the nature of their existence, titans in wall Maria to kill, and funerals to attend. I’m certain Armin and Eren did some titan training during that period of time as well. Many of these things are, to be honest, not especially crucial for us to see as an audience, especially when it is the last chapter of an arc and things need to seem to come to an “end”. They would only serve to drag down the story, and wouldn’t be a terribly interesting way to close up the Return to Shiganshina arc.
I hate that we didn’t see Levi grieve for Erwin! It’s so OOC!
We did see him show probably the some of the most intense emotions that we’ve ever seen from Levi, only rivaled by the time when Isabel and Farlan died. But it is and has always been Levi’s nature to compartmentalize and bury his grief deep inside. This case is no different- it’s quite literally how Levi continues to survive. That’s just who Levi is- he rarely betrays the extent of his inner feelings to others.
If it has been nine months since the first part of the chapter, why hasn’t Marley attacked? Or even continued to release titans onto Paradi island?
Firstly, now that Reiner and Zeke have returned to Marley, the higher ups there must have information that a soldier within the walls has possession of the coordinate and is willing to use it (unlike the royal family). Therefore sending more Eldians as mindless titans would probably seem like adding more ammunition to the enemy, since Eren can hypothetically control them.
Also, as a reddit user pointed out in the chapter discussion, the D-Day operation of WWII took years to plan. A similar, land and sea-based large scale invasion from the Marleyeans would similarly take a long time to prepare, both in terms of planning, manufacturing, and creating the means to transport weapons, war machines, and troops over a large body of water. It’s no easy feat, and probably why they used titan shifters to attack the first time, which is now no longer an option since the SC obtained the power of the colossal titan.
Since touhou 15.5 was announced a while ago(and by a while, I mean like 5 months), what characters do you hope appear in the game? (aside from the new one, assuming there will be one)
The wait is real c’:
This game is, from what we know, an expansion to ULiL in the same way Hisoutensoku was to SWR. 12.3 gave us five new characters - Sanae, Cirno, Meiling, Suwako, and Utsuho, and so I’m going to assume that we’ll see anywhere from 3-5 new appearances in AoCF. And this is interesting! More characters make a fighting game feel a lot more interesting and make the matches more unique - ULiL’s limited character cast means the matches often feel quite same-y.
Obviously, with the release of LoLK, they’re the prime candidates for appearing. Seiran and Ringo, no offense to them, of course, aren’t really interesting characters. They don’t have much story behind them, so I don’t think they’re likely. Doremy I’m also not sure about, since she doesn’t live in Gensokyo, but she’s a possibility!
Since Sagume was the mastermind behind the ULiL incident, I think she has a pretty good chance of appearing in AoCF as either a playable character or a mentioned character. We’ve seen her hanging out at Eientei in the new print work, so we know she must not mind visiting the Earth. Although I’m not quite sure what her fighting mechanics could be like.
Clownpiece seems like a likely candidate. She’s one of the most popular characters to appear in LoLK, and it seems like she could have fire-based (because of the torch) or comedic/circus-themed attacks, and spellcards that play on her insanity power. Also, she could have tons of adorable animations, I’d love to see her.
Hecatia would be interesting too. Her three bodies could serve as some kind of fighting game mechanic - maybe by performing certain actions, she switches between them, and there are unique bonuses to playing as each color? Also, imagine her swinging those orbs around to hit people. I can totally see her appearing. Also, she’s a really funny character, it’d be great to have some more dialogue from her. It’d be cool to learn more about Hell and her relationship to it, and possibly the outside world! And Greece? She’s based on Hecate so it could be cool. (My personal headcanon is that Greece either has its own land similar to Gensokyo, or has youkai (monsters??) in hiding, because given the rich and popular history and mythology, there’s definitely enough human faith/fear to have spawned gods and youkai.)
Besides LoLK, there’s also the DDC cast - only Shinmyoumaru made it into ULiL. Seija would be very interesting in a fighter with a reversing mechanic - it’d be hilarious to reverse the foe’s controls, or switch their HP at a crucial moment, or do location-swapping like Komachi in Soku. There’s so much potential for a wild and unique character, I’d love to see her.
Anyway, I don’t know enough about the game’s plot to guess what kind of non-new characters could be returning, but there are a few I think would work well in a fighting game! Yuugi, for example, is very strong, and would make a fantastic big buff melee-centric playstyle. Not to mention her power to manipulate unexplainable phenomena would be relevant in a game about a sudden unexplainable phenomenon.
Sanae, as a protagonist, is easy to shoehorn into a fighting game, and I really like her, so it’d be fun to see her again too. She was interesting, even if tricky, to play in 12.3, so she could be fun in ULiL’s less complex playstyle. LET THE MORIYA SHRINE BE RELEVANT
Similarly, Kanako could possibly have some relevance too, if only because the Moriya Shrine wants to get involved in incidents, and there’s nothing more fun that knocking people out with hurricanes and giant wooden pillars. I need Kanako in a fighting game, seriously.
Sakuya and Youmu, again, could possibly become relevant due to being protagonists.
Kaguya, perhaps, now that Reisen and Mokou are both in the game? The Lunarians seem to play a decent part in this game, and, given the last game, it is a possibility! Not sure how she’d play though. Perhaps a character with big, beautiful danmaku patterns like Yuyuko in Soku. (Side note: I really, really hope Reisen is ported into the PC version of AoCF. Come on, ZUN, console exclusives aren’t fun.)
Lastly, it’d be cool if the ‘perfect possession’ could be the work of a new character. I’m not 100% expecting a new girl since we didn’t get anything in Hisoutensoku, but I can always dream.
“I had no idea that elves were ancestor spirits. Could you elaborate on this (or provide a source that can in your place)? Also, what implications does this have for Freyr? He was at one point said to be the “ruler of the elves,” or something similar, iirc. Does this give him lordship over the afterlife or dead in some way? (Actually, scratch that first part. I just found your prior post about gods and races.)”
The Elusive Nature of the Elves
One thing about elves in norse mythology is that they are quite elusive and mysterious. They never seem to be given a great deal of direct attention, rather they linger around the peripherals. That being said, Frey’s relationship with the elves is equally lacking in details. From what I currently know, there are not many references in our surviving sources that link Freyr to elves and Alfheim. Here is one reference, from Grímnismál, stanza 5:
“Alfheim the gods gave to Freyr in ancient days as a tooth gift.”
Even Alfheim itself is not often discussed in our surviving sources. Our knowledge about elves generally comes in bits and pieces from various accounts. Due to the fact that elves are generally on the outskirts of our mythological accounts, the best we can do is piece together a theory of what role elves actually had. In order to understand Frey’s relationship with elves, this must be done first.
In the prose edda, this is all we get about elves and their home-world Alfheim:
“High said, ‘There are many magnificent places there. One is called Alfheim. The people called the light elves live there, but the dark elves lie down below the earth. They are different from the light elves in appearance, and far more so in nature. The light elves are more beautiful than the sun, while the dark elves are blacker than pitch.”
So, what is left is to make sense of this. Out of the entire book, this is all Snorri provides about the Elves and their home-world. Any other references are without detail. He never says that elves are the ancestors of the dead, but there are some accounts of beings quite similar to elves that suggest this. Also, the practice of ancestor veneration that I mentioned also suggests this. Elves seem to be beings without any physical description, taking on the characteristics of light (or the lack thereof). My suspicion is that Snorri is treating them like the dead spirits, good (light) and bad (dark). However, there is no real evidence to say so concretely.
Snorri was a Christian man who admired his tradition and his people’s history. However, even if he admired these traditions, he lived nearly three-hundred years after Iceland had already converted to christianity. That being said, it is possible that some areas had become blurred and so he described them the best that he could. Historical memory often comes with holes and blurs. Nothing is ever quite clear or they way that they should seem. So, to understand elves, perhaps we should look at beings that are similar to them.
The landvættir (land wrights) somewhat fit this spirit role. They are spirits quite connected with the earth itself, protecting the land they dwell in. Landnámabók, The Book of Settlements, states that the dragon-prows of ships must be removed when close to land for fear that they would disturb these spirits. However, these spirits take on many forms, often not even human forms. For example, in Olaf Tryggvason’s saga, the four landvættir that protect Iceland are described: a dragon, bird, bull, and giant. Although Snorri does not describe the Elves to look like humans, he does not make them seem like animals either.
To get back to the point, elves seem to be spirits rather than physical beings. They are described as light and are never given a detailed image. It is not surprising, then, that elves might be the spirits of the dead ancestors. There are actually terms that have been used to describe them, and even sacrifices specifically made to them. I believe this information comes from the Icelandic sagas. Iceland kept a longer hold on these traditions and some aspects of ancestor veneration even lasted into Christian times. Here is a term that has been used to refer to female ancestors:
dís (pl. dísir) - a female guardian angel, goddess
dísablót - a sacrifice to the dísir
Frey’s Role with the Elves
So, before I get too far off-track, let us return to Freyr. He is said to have inherited the realm of the elves, so what does that mean? He is a god of fertility and pleasure, meaning peace and prosperity. He also does have an association with light when you think about gullinbursti. I also believe he is said to be attributed with a Yule tradition of bringing the sun back after the winter solstice. the relationship between Freyr and elves is never stated outright, so we have to make our best attempt now that we have laid out some more information gathered from various places.
To finally answer your question, I would suggest that the relationship is more in that spirits, whether elves or ancestors, have a connection with this world and prosperity. Perhaps the reason Freyr rules over the elves is because the spirits still serve the earth (protecting its prosperity) as landvættir. Perhaps it is because the spirits of the dead become like light, which allows the growth of more life. It is difficult to summarize the connection in such a condensed statement, but I would say the relationship has something to do with spirits and prosperity.
I do not think this gives Freyr any control over the afterlife or the dead in general. Rather, I believe it has something to do with a “cycle” of sorts; a relationship rather than an authority. Harvest is a similar process of growth, experience, and removal. Freyr is associated with this process. If you think of elves and sprints in this way, it does not seem to odd to pair them with the natural cycle of the earth. Our ancestors grew, lived, and died. However, they laid out a foundation that allowed our prosperity to exist today. Similarly, the elven ancestor spirits would protect and provide our prosperity, along with Freyr.
I understand that this discussion got quite complicated, and I do apologize if it is way more than you intended to receive. I am honestly not quite sure what to think about it myself still. It is no simple relationship, especially since the sources we have left the matter open-ended. If you get anything out of my answer, just know that elves in norse mythology are quite mysterious. There is not much told about them, so even their connection with Freyr is left in a blur. Also, this is just my interpretation on the material, so I am sure there are other interpretation floating around out there. I also believe that this subject requires a much more detailed and in-depth study that dives into multiple sagas and other accounts. What I have provided is simply a summary of what that would be.
Anyway, thank you very much for asking! I hope my answer was helpful.
Sources (in order of appearance):
Andy Orchard trans., The Elder Edda: A Book of Viking Lore. (London: Penguin Classics, 2011), 51.
Grímnismál, stanza 5.
Snorri Sturluson, Prose Edda, translated by Jesse L. Byock. (London: Penguin Classics, 2005), 28.
Angus A. Somerville and R. Andrew McDonald ed., The Viking Age: A Reader (Second Edition). (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014), 68.
Geir T. Zoëga, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic. (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2004), 88.
(general source) Jennifer Dukes-Knight, “Norse Mythology,” lecture, Viking History, University of South Florida, 2015.
So me and a friend, as a past time, enjoy filling in all the empty blanks Kishimoto left in his worldbuilding. We have come a to conundrum. How does the daimyo have any power over the shinobi? How does he enforce his rule? Why doesn't the shinobi have equal footing?
It doesn’t make any sense at all–particularly since Kishimoto seems to have gotten the inspiration for his Warring States (Sengoku Jidai) from the real and actual Sengoku Jidai in which the previous shogunate collapsed, a disorganized state of constant war between daimyo emerged, and then finally a shogunate reemerged under a different clan. And the shogun, don’t forget, is first and foremost a military dictator.
Hidden Villages overthrowing their daimyos, whether de jure or just de facto, is a basically inevitable outcome of any realistic take on the Naruto universe.
In one of my fanfiction, Your Most Important Person, I took several different approaches:
Gaara had the Wind daimyo made into a puppet. Literally. (This is my head canon and I do this in all my fic.)
Kurotsuchi becomes Tsuchikage via coup rather than a peaceful transfer of power. The daimyo (who opposed her ascension) is publicly executed and the Tsuchikage now rules Earth directly.
The Land of Fire daimyo “voluntarily” cedes final authority to the Hokage, but remains in day-to-day bureaucratic control because Kakashi doesn’t want to do that shit.
The Land of Water daimyo and his heir die under mysterious circumstances. The Mizukage and her consort just can’t seem to find the legitimate heir! They’re ruling in the meantime. Temporarily. *coughs*
The Land of Lightning takes a tack similar to the Land of Fire and establishes a kind of constitutional monarchy with Kumogakure.
In this AU, the tribes and dragons all exist, however, they exist hidden from human civilization.
IceWings: IceWings generally live in the north, however a few colonies have been set up on the outer islands of Antarctica. While they mostly don’t have to worry about being seen, as most IceWings live around the main body of the kingdom, which is far closer to the poles than any human would dare to get, the ones that live farther out have to build their settlements in a way that, if any travelers come by, they can be easily hidden. One way of doing this is building igloos into the side of hills of snow, and when anyone is coming quickly triggering a small avalanche to cover the entrance, then entering before it does so. The main kingdom is in northern Greenland, though they stretch all around the Western and Eastern hemispheres. Some claim that the IceWings living in the main kingdom’s colors are brighter, as they do not have a need for camouflage as much as the others. IceWings only have one trade route, which goes down into Asia to the SandWings then to the United States and the NightWings. While this takes months to cover, they have scheduled multiple trade patrols so that there is at most a week-long gap between traders arriving at a city.
SandWings: SandWing colonies stretch all through Africa and Asia. The kingdom is vastly spread, therefore there is no ‘main’ area, though the palace is located in the Gobi Desert, relocated from West Asia (the Middle East) many years ago after the danger of it being spotted grew. SandWings are known to lead many trading routes, not only through their territories but also with an occasional expedition to other tribes’ colonies. Very few permanent settlements exist, as most SandWings are nomadic. However, the few that exist are very well hidden, as human expeditions through their land have led to many cities rapidly evacuated. SandWings have built their cities into the ground, with a hole as the entrance in the middle of a dragon-made hill of sand. This hole will provide the settlement with light, though they often fly outside if they wish to see someplace brighter. SandWings look similar throughout their land, however patterns on their scales can vary through places.
NightWings: NightWings live through west North and South America, mainly in the Rockies and Andes. There are a few towns in Central America, though these mostly exist as rest stops for travelers flying between the two parts of the kingdom. There are some settlements slowly branching east from the Rockies, partially for the sake of exploration, but mostly due to the fact that Southern NightWings consider themselves superior to the Northern ones, as the palace is located in the Andes. Mountain cities have been designed to be mainly inside the hollowed-out rock, and to look like simple caves, or if possible smooth rock, from the outside. Those towns in Central America have been built in the center of rainforests, selected to be inaccessible by humans. As these towns have a drastic temperature and climate change from other settlements, few NightWings choose to move here. Instead, this area is mostly populated by certain NightWing families who have adapted to the climate. This leads them to be smaller than normal, allowing them to more easily travel the forest. However, no other NightWings make fun of or dislike them for this, as they hold great respect for those able to live in such environments.
SkyWings: SkyWings live along the Atlas Mountains. Some cities have entered flatter lands, mostly in an attempt to get closer and better their trading relationship with SandWing settlements. Their cities have, unlike NightWing mountainous towns, been built onto the side of the mountains. They have discovered a method of quickly and easily making large spires of stone that appear to be natural formations. These spires each serve as towns, and allow the traveler to know how big or helpful one will be at a glance, as larger cities have larger spires. However, a similarity with NightWings is that they use height as a symbol of status. SkyWings live in caves farther up or lower on the spire depending on their overall importance to the community. SkyWings are a vital part to the trade routes set up by SandWings. Their kingdom touches both SeaWing and SandWing towns, giving them a position of power in trade. They are able to not only trade with both tribes, but also make a fortune selling goods from each to the other. SkyWings all have the mostly same appearance, as the kingdom is all close together. However, due to their bright scales, SkyWings have made dark cloaks that are highly valued for being lightweight and effective.
MudWings: MudWings mainly live in the heart of the Pantanal, in South America. Their homes go down instead of up: MudWings dig large, expansive burrows with proper halls and rooms. The castle is the deepest, with a water system that allows the pools from above to drain into smaller pools of mud located throughout it. Most homes have at least one of these small pools, though MudWings prefer to sit in the pools aboveground. Though most MudWings live in compact, small communities through the Pantanal, some expand into the Amazon Rainforest. These MudWings are called ‘Tropical’ by the others. They have adapted to be smaller and have darker scales. These MudWings often develop good relationships with the rainforest fauna, and there is at least one recorded case of MudWings training dolphins to fish for them. MudWings also have an excellent trade relationship with NightWings , as both live in environments where they have resources unique to them. While they do still have trade with RainWings, it is not as effective, as neither have items that would be rare or beneficial to the other. MudWings, contrary to popular belief, have a well-developed culture. The Queen acts like an equal to the others, joining them in festivals. MudWing cities are also completely underground, in a large dug-out chamber. As torches usually are unable to cover the whole area, there will be some sky-lights dug out in them. Every MudWing home or city has a system to easily cover the holes.
RainWings: RainWings largely populate the Amazon Rainforest, with some of them living in Central American NightWing settlements. Their villages are, contrary to popular belief, not on the canopy, but in between the canopy and the understory of the rainforest, as passing human flying vehicles would be able to spot such cities. RainWing villages, when made, all have multiple tree saplings planted around them as a kind of camouflage natural wall. The trees are planted in a way where it is impossible to see into the village from outside them, and difficult to cross through into the village. These trees also provide and extra layer of branches and leaves above the village. It is the duty of the entire village to ensure that these trees keep growing and are healthy, and any who is found disrespecting the tree is punished. The RainWing Queen does not have a palace, instead living on a regular village. She has very relaxed laws, which leads many RainWings to make a game out of pranking rainforest resorts. They’ll often place wild animals or fruit inside the resorts, or steal human items. This has been outlawed in certain places where it got too dangerous, but still carries on strong in others. RainWing herbs and medicine are the best through all the tribes, and even SandWings in the Gobi Desert have access to it, as it is common along the large trading route that goes from the RainWings, up through the NightWings to Canada, along the IceWings to Russia, then taken by the SandWings to the Mediterranean and China.
SeaWings: SeaWings are arguably the most widespread of the tribes. While they mainly live in the Eastern Hemisphere, populating mostly parts of the Mediterranean, Indian Sea, and through the Philippines, some colonies across the Atlantic in the Caribbean have been established. The SeaWing palace is in the heart of the Mediterranean, though due to the large amount of land their tribe is spread across they have developed a system where there is one palace along each large swath of land (One in the Mediterranean, one in the Caribbean, one in the Arabian Sea, one in the Indian Sea, one in the Philippines). Each palace is populated by high-ranking royalty, who will be in charge of their land, though each of these still have to order to the Queen. SeaWings now are the tribe that least need to worry about hiding, though they used to live closer to the surface, and even interacted with humans, inspiring many Greek myths before it was deemed too dangerous. SeaWings are large traders, and though they mostly deal with bringing things along the Indian and Mediterranean oceans, occasionally a large expedition is organized to cross the Atlantic. SeaWing goods are highly valued all across the world, as they are the only ones able to gather many of these materials.
You say that Artifact Lands and Affinity for artifacts in the same block was a mistake and that you didn't print Enchantment Lands in Journey into Nyx because of Constellation, but what then of Landfall? That seems like i'd be a similar issue.
Lands are restricted to playing one per turn and only on your own turn. That stops a lot of shenanigans.
As Imbolc starts to be celebrated all over the world, we look forward to the coming of spring as the ice begins to thaw. We honor the rebirth of the sun and celebrate the goddess Brigid, the goddess of healing, midwifery, and poetry. Candles are lit in every room and dairy related dishes are prepared.
Supplies: Symbol of the season, such as a white flower, snow in a crystal container, also needed, an orange or pink candle (can be anointed with cinnamon, frankincense or rosemary oil), red/white candle to represent the elements, and your ritual supplies.
Arrange the altar, light the candles and censer, and cast the Circle.
Invoke the Goddess and God. Say such words as the following:
“This is the time of the feast of torches, When every lamp blazes and shines To welcome the rebirth of the God. I/we celebrate the Goddess, I/we celebrate the God; All the Earth celebrates Beneath its mantle of sleep.”
Light the orange taper from the red candle on the altar. Slowly walk the circle clockwise, bearing the candle before you. Say these or similar words:
“All the land is wrapped in winter. The air is chilled and Frost envelopes the Earth. But Lord of the Sun, Horned One of animals and wild places, Unseen you have been reborn Of the gracious Mother Goddess, Lady of all fertility. Hail Great God! Hail and welcome!”
Stop before the altar, holding aloft the candle. Gaze at its flame. Visualize your life blossoming with creativity, with renewed energy and strength.
I really love your Underbright AU, its so beautiful and well done that I wanted to make a fiction of it as well. You could say that it’s a brightly idea and lighten ups our mood because it really shines and sparkle our inspirations. Heh, heh…anyways, I hope you like!