Shahadat of Imam Ali Reza

Imam Ali Reza (a.s) was martyred on 17th Safar, 819 AH.  Mamun (la) asked the Imam to come to leave the city of Marw and asked him to come to Mashad. Once he had arrived there, Mamum offered him first the caliphate and then the succession to the caliphate. Imam Reza (a.s) turned down the proposal, but he was forced into accepting the offer, with the condition that he would not interfere in governmental affairs. 

Mamun decided to do this because he wanted to be accepted by the Shias and rule over the country. Imam (a.s) had to leave his family behind in Medina in order to fulfill this role. Even though Imam did not want to take this position, he made full use of it to preach Islam openly. Imam often acted as Mamun’s advisor. Mamun had even changed the colour of his court from black to green and also had new coins made with Imam Ali Reza (a.s) name on it upon his request. Mamun’s sister Umm Habiba was married to the Imam, this did not change the Imam’s or the Shia’s view of Mamun.

Soon, Mamun realized that he had made a mistake because there was a rapid spread of Shiaism and more attachment towards Imam Reza (a.s). Mamun wanted to find a solution for this problem and decided put poison into pomegranates (some books say grapes) and presented it to Imam Reza (a.s) and after only a few hours the poison polluted Imam’s body and he became ill.  The next day, Imam Reza (a.s) was martyred in the city of Mashhad, Iran far away from his family.

Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi rajioon.


A’isha, the prophet's wife

Aisha Siddiqa is the third wife of the Prophet Muhmmad (peace be upon him).She is the daughter of Abu Bakr Al Siddiq the closest friend of the Prophet and his first successor or caliph. She is given the title “Siddiqa” due to an incident of which God Almighty testified to her honesty, trustworthiness and purity.A’isha was known for her vastness of knowledge whilst she is young.

Known also for her striking beauty and her formidable memory, she was under the care and attention of Prophet Muhammad pbuh. Aishah became the Prophet’s wife in Makkah when she was in the 10th year of her life but the marriage took place the 2nd year after the Hijrah when she was 14 or 15 years of age.
A’isha left her family’s home and joined Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). ‘A'isha reported that the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told her that the angel Jibril came to him and showed him a picture of her on a piece of green silk and said, “She is your wife in this world and in the next world.” She was to leave her parents’ house then slipped out into the courtyard to play with a friend before the wedding. She said, “on the seesaw I was playing with my long streaming hair disheveled as they came and took me for the occasion.“ The dressed her with fine red striped cloth from Bahrain. Her mother then accompany her to a newly built house where women of Ansar waited outside the door. They greet, "For good and for happiness, may all be well.” In the presence of the smiling Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) a bowl of milk was brought which the Prophet drank from it and he then offered it to 'A'isha. Shyly she declined, but when insisted she drink and offered the bowl to her sister Asma’ who was sitting beside her. Guests who were present drank from it. This is a simple and solemn occasion of their wedding.

Many viewed the marriage between Muhammad and 'A'isha as an exceptional marriage as they were exceptionally extraordinary people. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) the last of the Prophets and the best of creation and miracle of Allah; whilst 'A'isha is intelligent and observant young girl with a very good memory.

Though Aisha was still young but marriage at this early age was normal at that time , this marriage was for a high wisdom , she was to learn at that very early age in the school of Mohummed , she would impart a lot of prophet’s sayings and deeds that occurred in the house ; thesecouldn’t be known by any one as it occurred in the prophet’s house . Every minute of the prophet’s life was to be recorded so that people could learn . So many were learned especially matters regarding family life by A'isha .

As the Quran continued to be revealed, A’sha and the people’s hearts were transformed.She was a witness to all the many beautiful happenings surrounding the Prophet. Muslims honour and respect `A'ishah, as a transmitter of hadith (sayings of the Prophet). She is also regarded to be an authority for the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an. The life of `A'ishah is a proof that a woman can be far more learned than men as she is considered the teacher of scholars and experts. Having a good accurate memory and a pure, clear heart and a quick mind she is not afraid to ask and whenever she wins an argument with the people, the Prophet would smile and said, “She is the daughter of Abu Bakr!” A'ishah’s father, Abu Bakar became the first khalifa in Islamic history. During her youthful years, A'ishah, known for her extraordinary power of memory acquired from him knowledge and insight no other woman ever acquired.

Musa ibn Talha once said, “I have not seen anyone more eloquent than 'A'isha.” 'A'isha (may Allah be pleased with her) so full of wisdom and knowledge that one of her contemporaries said that if the knowledge of 'A'isha were placed on one side of a scale with that of all other women on the other side, 'A'isha’s would outweigh the other. She used to sit with other women and teach the knowledge she had gained from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

Once the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to her, “O 'A'isha, here is Jibril giving you greetings of peace.” “And on him be peace.” She said, 'and the mercy of Allah.“ When she was telling Abu Salama about this, she added, "He (meaning the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) ) sees what I do not see.” A’isha not only is extremely intelligent she is also a very graceful young woman. When she first came to live with the Prophet, she builds up a strong friendship with Sawda. Sawda took care of not only her but along with the rest of the household.As 'A'isha grew up, Sawda being old gave up her share of the Prophet’s time in favour of 'A'isha and manage his household and be Umm al Mumineen - 'The Mother of the Believers’ – the most respectable title given to the wives of the Prophet.

A'ishah used to say: “I am not jealous of the other Prophet’s wives as I am jealous of Khadijah. This is due to the Prophet’s constant mentioning of her and as God had commanded him to give her glad tidings of a mansion in Paradise of precious stones. And when he sacrificed a sheep he would send a fair portion of it to her intimate friends. Occasionally, I would say to him: It is as if there had never been any other woman in the world except Khadijah!”

A'ishah is known for her Generosity .She bore poverty and hunger with the Prophet, along with the rest of his household for long periods of time. Poverty never caused her distress nor did sufficiency corrupt her soul.

Once, A'ishah was given a gift of one hundred thousand dirhams(a unit of currency). She was then fasting and decided to distribute the entire amount to the poor and the needy though she had no provisions in her house. Shortly after, a maidservant asked her: “Could you buy meat for a dirham with which to break your fast?” She said: “If I had remembered, I would have done so.”

During her times, A’isha witnessed many great events that shaped the destiny of the first Muslim community of Madina. One of the great events was the change of direction of the Qibla from Jerusalem to Mecca.She also helped to preserve and protect the sunna of Prophet Muhammad by teaching it to others. 'A'isha was once asked to describe the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and she replied that he was ‘the walking Quran’, as he was the Quran translated into action.It was during the course of their marriage that, amongst others, the battles of Badr, and Uhud, and Al-Khandaq (the Ditch) were fought. These were the three major battles against the Quraish, that shifted the power out of the hands of the kafirun and into the hands of the Muslims. Though very young, 'A'isha participated by helping bring water for the Muslim warriors and helped the wounded. She give life to the people around her. Indeed one of the meanings of her name, 'A'isha’, is 'life’.

During the course of their marriage, the Jews plotted and tried to kill the Prophet on many occasion but without success and the Jews were being punished for the plot. Often when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went to the holy war, he took one of his wives with him. He did not choose but simply drew lots and whose name is called will accompany the Prophet. During the fight with Banu al-Mustaliq, the lot fell to 'A'isha, and she traveled with him.

A’isha then 13 years old, was small, slim, and graceful.And it was rather difficult for the men who carried her litter to know if she is in the litter bag or not.On their journey back to Medina, after the Banu al Mustaliq subdued, the Muslim army stopped to rest but the Prophet ordered that the army should march back. Unknown to everyone, 'A'isha had stepped out of her litter for a few minutes and had left the camp. On her way back to the liiter, she noticed that her onyx necklace went missing and traced the path she had took and found it.Upon her return to the camp, she found everyone already left.The men who carried the litter thinking that A’isha was still in it strapped it to the camel and marched on. 'A'isha who have faith only in God sat down, and waited, hoping that someone would notice her absence and would come back for her. By God’s mercy, she did not waited long, for a young Muslim man named Safwan ibn al-Mu'attal, who had fallen behind the army after taking a rest, reached the camp during the night and found her fast asleep.

“Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'un!” - “Surely we come from Allah and surely to Him we return!” Safwan exclaimed and his voice awaken 'A'isha.Without uttering more, Safwan made his camel kneel down close so that A’isha could climb. Leading the camel with his hand, he set off on foot and began his journey after the army. Both Safwan and A’isha met with the army the next morning as they stopped to rest as it was a hot day. Some hypocrites upon seeing Safwan and 'A'isha arrived alone began spreading slanderous lies about them. The story however reached the Prophet himself (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

As a result of all this gossip, the Prophet’s household was under a lot of strain.Someone informed A’isha about the rumours and this made her ill.With the Prophet’s permission, she stayed at the house of her parents. Upon her arrival, she said to her mother, Umm Ruman, “Mother! What are the people saying?” She replied “O my daughter! Do not make too much of the business. By Allah, seldom has there been a woman of beauty with a husband who loves her and who has co-wives but that people say a lot against her.” A'isha said, “Glory be to Allah! The people have really been saying this?” 'A'isha said, “I have spent the entire night until morning unable to stop weeping and could not sleep at all. Morning found me still weeping.”

Safwan was then confronted with allegations and he replied, “Glory be to Allah! By Allah, I have never removed the veil of any woman!” Since there had been no revelation to clarify the matter, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked Barira, who was 'A'isha ’s maid servant, if she had seen anything in 'A'isha’ s behavior that was at all doubtful. “By Him who sent you with the truth,” she replied, “I have not seen nothing wrong with her, other than that she is a young girl and sometimes she falls asleep while she is kneading the dough and a lamb comes along and eats it!”.When the companions are not satisfied with the answer, she said “Glory be to Allah!” she replied. “I know as much about her as a jeweller knows about a piece of pure gold!”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked Zaynab’s opinion. Though she and A'isha were frequently at odds and Zaynab’s sister Hamna,one of those who were actively gossiping and spreading the rumor, she replied without hesitation, “O Messenger of Allah,” she said, “I will not repeat anything that I have not heard with my own ears and seen with my own eyes. By Allah, I find nothing in her but goodness.”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) defended A'isha’s honor by calling the community to the mosque but the hypocrites makes matters worst and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) calmed and silenced them.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went to Abu Bakr’s house, A’isha cried her heart out, and in the presence of her parents said the shahada, and then continued, “If you are innocent, then Allah Himself will protect your honor, and if by accident there has been a lapse on your part, then seek the forgiveness of Allah and He will pardon you, for when a slave admits a fault and turns to Him in repentance, then Allah also turns and accepts that repentance.”

A'isha said, “When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) finished what he was saying, my tears stopped so that I was not aware of a single tear. I said to my father, 'Answer the Messenger of Allah for me regarding what he has said.’ He said, 'By Allah, I do not know what to say to the Messenger of Allah,’ I said to my mother, 'Answer the Messenger of Allah for me regarding what he has said.’ She said, 'By Allah, I do not know what to say to the Messenger of Allah.’”

A'isha said, “I am a young girl who does not yet recite much of the Qur'an. By Allah, I know that you have heard this story that people are saying and it has become fixed in yourself and you have believed it. If I were to say to you that I am innocent, you would not believe me. If I were to confess to something to you and Allah knows that I am innocent you would believe me. By Allah, I can only say what the father of Yusuf said, Patience is beautiful, and Allah is my protection against what you describe. (Quran 12:18)” Then I turned over on my bed, Allah knowing that I was innocent and hoping that Allah would proclaim me innocent. However, by Allah, I did not think that any relation would be sent down regarding me. I thought too little of myself that something would be said in the Qur'an regarding me, however I hoped that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would have a dream in which Allah would exonerate me. Before finishing her speech, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) received a direct revelation of some more ayahs of the Qur'an, and when it was over, he smiled and said, “Do not worry, 'A'isha, for Allah has revealed proof of your innocence."A'isha’s mother, who had been standing next to her, said, "Get up and thank him.”

“By Allah,” exclaimed A'isha, whose title, 'Siddiqa’, means 'the truthful one’, “I will not thank him and praise him but rather Allah ,Who has given the revelation that has protected my honor!” Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went to the mosque and recited what had just been sent down: “Surely those who fabricate the lie are a group from among you. Do not think it is bad thing for you; no it is good for you. Every man will receive what he has earned for this sin, and whoever had the greater part in it will have a great punishment. Why did the men and women believers, when they heard it, not think good in their selves and say: 'This is clearly a lie?’ Why did they not produce four witnesses? Since they did not produce witnesses, they are certainly liars in the sight of Allah. If it were not for the grace of Allah, and His mercy on you in this world and in the next world, an awful doom would have overtaken you for what you repeated. Since you received it with your tongues, and repeated what you did not know anything about with your mouths, you thought it was a trifle, but in the sight of Allah it is serious. Why, when you heard it, did you not say: 'It is not for us to repeat this, Glory be to You (O Allah), this is a serious rumor.’ Allah warns you to never repeat anything like this again, if you are indeed believers and Allah makes the signs clear to you; and Allah is Knowing, Wise. Surely those who love to spread around slander about those who believe will have a painful punishment in this world and in the next world; and Allah knows and you do not know. (Quran 24:11-19).

These are among the many great stories of A’isha. According to the available records, A’isha was born in 614 C. E. and died in 678 C. E. A'ishah lived almost 50 years long after the demise of the holy Prophet and as long as A’isha’s lives, she was the source of knowledge and wisdom for both women and men. Abu Musa once said, “Whenever a report appeared doubtful to us, the Companions of the Prophet, and we asked 'A'isha about it, we always learned something from her about it.”

Scholars regard her as one of the earliest legal scholars of Islam along with great people like Umar ibn al-Khattab, Ali and Abdullah ibn Abbas. The Prophet said about A'isha : “Learn a portion of your religion from this red colored lady”, a description given to `A'ishah by the Prophet.

A'ishah not only acquire great knowledge but also took part in education and social reformation.Her power of speech described by al-Ahnaf who said: "I have heard speeches of Abu Bakr and Umar, Uthman and Ali and the Khulafa (rulers of them Muslims) up to this day, but I have not heard speech more persuasive and more beautiful from the mouth of any person than from the mouth of `A'ishah.”

Men and women came from far to benefit her knowledge. The number of women is said to be far greater than of men. Besides answering enquiries, she took boys and girls, some of them orphans, into her custody and trained them under her care and guidance. The great A'ishah was known to be a leader in every field in knowledge, in society, in politics and in war. She lived long enough to maintain a position as the most respected woman of her time. She died in the year 58 AH in the month of Ramadan and as she instructed, was buried in the Jannat al-Baqi in the City of Light, beside other companions of the Prophet .May God bless her for her greatness and purity

None of us know shit, we sit behind our television and computer screens and think we have the world figured out.

We won’t know anything unless we’re there. People fighting on Tumblr about what’s going on in Syria is ridiculous. As Haedar said, it’s always going to be gray, there is no black and white. In the world of technology, images can be so easily doctored that I no longer believe what I see. Also, if you’re going to choose sides based on religious belief, go hide in a cave. We’re all human, this is no longer a shi'aa/sunni battle. America/Israel has done a great job at dividing us and we are too blinded to see what is going on. Ignorance has set in due to our pathetic egos. Sad reality when you actually think about it. We used to be such a tight Ummah, on top of the world and now, we are nothing but animals killing one another. May Allah guide us and unite us. Ameen.


يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ
لَقَدْ عَظُمَتِ الرَّزِيَّةُ
وَ جَلَّتْ وَ عَظُمَتِ الْمُصِيبَةُ بِكَ (بِكُمْ) عَلَيْنَا
وَ عَلَى جَمِيعِ أَهْلِ الْإِسْلاَمِ‏
وَ جَلَّتْ وَ عَظُمَتْ مُصِيبَتُكَ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ
عَلَى جَمِيعِ أَهْلِ السَّمَاوَاتِ‏

O Abu Abdillah,
Great is the loss,
And unbearable and great is your tragedy for us,
And for all the Muslims,
And unbearable and great is your tradgedy in the heavens,
And for all the dwellers of the heavens.
An interesting testament to Shia'a-Sunni divisions according to the 12th century philosopher Ibn Khaldun.

This passage was pulled from his thesis the Muqaddimah. The views expressed in this passage are not necessarily my own, but it is interesting to see how early an Arab philosopher of his time view this religious division. The link I provided also can be navigated back to an online abridgment of his book.

The believer speaks little, but does much, while the hypocrite talks a lot, but does little. The believer’s speech is wisdom, his silence is contemplation, his gaze is pondering, his actions are righteous. So if this is your state, you shall perpetually be in worship.

“And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His Grace – of the Prophets, the truthful, the martyrs and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are” (An-Nisa, Chapter #4, Verse #69)

KHADIJA bint Khuwaylid | Islam Story - Supervised by Dr. Ragheb Elsergany

KHADIJA bint Khuwaylid

Khadijah, may Allah be pleased with her, came from a noble family. Her father Khuwaylid had been one of the most honored leaders of their tribe until he was killed in battle. Her husband had also died, leaving her a very wealthy woman. When Muhammad (peace be upon him) was still a young man, she entrusted him with some of her wealth, asking him to trade with it in Syria on her behalf. He was already well known for his honesty, truthfulness and trustworthiness. He returned from Syria after having made a large profit for Khadijah.

After hearing his account of the journey, she decided that he would make the best of the husbands, even though many of the most important nobles of the Quraish had already proposed to her and had been refused, and in due course she proposed to him. After the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Talib, had given the proposed marriage his blessing, Muhammad and Khadijah were married. At the time of the marriage, the Prophet was twenty-five years old, while Khadijah was forty years old.

For the next fifteen years they lived happily together, and Khadijah bore several children. Their first child, a son whom they named Qasim, died when he was only two years old. Two more sons, called Tayyib and Tahir, were also born, but they too died in their infancy. However, Muhammad and Khadijah also had four daughters who survived: Zaynab, Ruqayya, Umm Kulthum and Fatima.

No one except Allah of course, knows more about a man than his wife, both his good and his bad qualities, his strengths and his weaknesses. The more Khadijah came to know about her husband, the more she loved and respected him. Everyone in Makka called him ‘al-Amin’, which means ‘the trustworthy one’, and she, more than anyone else, knew how fitting this name was. It became Muhammad’s custom each year to spend the month of Ramadan in seclusion and reflection in a cave on the mountain of Hira, which is on the outskirts of Makka. Khadijah would always make sure that he was provided with food and drink during his retreat. Towards the end of one Ramadan, when he was forty and Khadijah fifty-five, Muhammad suddenly appeared at their house in the middle of the night, trembling with fear and saying, “Cover me up, cover me up!”

Khadijah was very alarmed to see him in such a state. Quickly she wrapped a blanket around his shoulders and, when he had calmed down, she asked him to describe exactly what had happened. He told her how a being whom he had never seen before - in fact it was the angel Jibril - had suddenly appeared to him while he was asleep and had said, “Read!”

“But I cannot read,” he had replied, for he was unlettered and could neither read or write. “Read!” the angel had repeated, clasping Muhammad close to his chest. “I cannot read,” he had repeated. “Read!” the angel had repeated, firmly embracing him yet again. “What shall I read?” he had asked in desperation, and the angel had replied:

Read, in the Name of your Lord who created, created man from a clot, Read, and your Lord is the Most Gracious, Who taught with the pen, taught man what he did not know. (Quran 96:1-5)

Although Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not fully realize it at the time, this was the beginning of the revelation of the Qur’an; but in that first encounter with the angel Jibril, Muhammad was very frightened, for he did not know who the angel Jibril was or what was happening. He woke up and ran out of the cave only to find Jibril still in front of him, and whenever he turned away from him, there Jibril was in front of him yet again, filling the horizon with his mighty yet beautiful form.

“Oh Muhammad,” said Jibril eventually, “you are the Messenger of Allah and I am Jibril,” and with these words he disappeared from Muhammad’s sight.

After the angel had disappeared Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had clambered down the mountain as fast as he could run, not knowing if he was going mad and imagining things, or if he had been possessed by one of the jinn.

As she listened to Muhammad’s words, Khadijah did not share any of these fears. She realized that something tremendous and awe-inspiring had happened to her husband, and she was certain, knowing him as she did, that he was neither mad nor possessed. “Do not worry,” she said, “for by Him who has dominion over Khadijah’s soul, I hope that you are the Prophet of this nation. Allah would never humiliate you, for you are good to your relatives, you are true to your word, you help those who are in need, you support the weak, you feed the guest and you answer the call of those who are in distress.”

When Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as a little more relaxed, Khadijah took him to see her cousin, Waraqa ibn Nawfal, for he was a man of knowledge, and she was sure that he would be able to explain the meaning of what had just happened to her beloved husband. Waraqa had studied the books of both the Jews and the Christians very closely and he had learned a great deal from many of their wisest people. He knew that the coming of another Prophet had been foretold by both Moses and Jesus, peace be on them, anhe knew many of the signs that would confirm the identity of this Prophet when he appeared.

After listening closely to his story, Waraqa, who was both old and blind, exclaimed, “This is the same being who brought the revelations of Allah to Moses. I wish I was young and could be alive whyour people will drive you out.”

“Will they drive me out?” asked Muhammad.

“Yes,” replied Waraqa. “No one has come with what you have been given without being treated with enmity; and if I were to live until the day when you are turned out, then I would support you with all my might. Let me just feel your back.” So, saying, Waraqa felt between the Prophet’s shoulder-blades and found what he was feeling for: a small round, slightly raised irregularity in the skin, about the size of a pigeon’s egg. This was yet another of the many signs that Waraqa already knew would indicate the identity of the next Prophet after Jesus, (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

“This is the Seal of the Prophethood!” he exclaimed. “Now I am certain that you are indeed the Prophet whose coming was foretold in the Torah that was revealed to Moses and in the Injil that was revealed to Jesus, (pbut) You are indeed the Messenger of Allah, and the being who appeared to you on the mountain was indeed the angel Jibril!”

Khadijah as both overjoyed and awed to find that her understanding of what had happened on the mountain had been confirmed. Not long after this incident, Muhammad was commanded in a subsequent revelation from Allah, through the angel Jibril, to call people to worship Allah only, and it was at this point that Khadijah did not hesitate in expressing in public what she had now known for certain in secret for some time: ” I bear witness that there is no god except Allah,” she said, “and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”

In the years that followed, difficult years in which the leaders of the Quraish did everything in their power to stop the Prophet spreading his message, Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her) was a constant source of help and comfort to Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the difficulties which he had to face. All her wealth was spent in the way of Allah, helping to spread the message of her husband, helping to free slaves who had embraced Islam, and helping to feed and shelter the community of Muslims that slowly but surely began to grow in numbers and strength.

The Quraish were infuriated by the Prophet’s success and did everything in their power to discourage both him and his followers, often inflicting awful tortures on them, but without success. The situation became so bad that the Prophet told some of his followers to go to Abyssinia, where their ruler, the Negus, who was a sincere Christian gave them shelter and protection. Eventually there came a time when, as Waraqa had foretold, Muhammad and his followers -along with all the members of his tribe, the Banu Hashim were driven out of the city of Mecca and forced to camp out in a small ravine in the mountains nearby. This happened long after Waraqa had died, and about seven years after that extraordinary night of power in which Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had received the first revelation of Quran through the angel Jibril. There, while their homes lay empty in Mecca, the Muslims were exposed to the bitterly cold nights of winter and the fiery hot days of summer, with very little food and shelter. No one would buy and sell with the Muslims, or allow their sons and daughters to marry any of them. Fortunately those who secretly sympathized with the Muslims would send what food they could to them whenever the chance arose, sometimes by loading provisions onto a camel or a horse and then sending it off at a gallop in the direction of the camp, hoping that the animal would not stop or get lost before it reached its intended destination.

For three years the small Muslim community lived a life of hardship and deprivation, but although they suffered from hunger and thirst, and from exposure to heat and cold, this was a time in which the hearts of the first Muslims were both purified and also filled with the light of knowledge and wisdom. The Muslims knew that they were following the truth, and so nothing else mattered. They did not care what the Quraish did to them or said about them. Allah and His Messenger were enough for them!

It was during this period that the Muslims who had sought shelter in Abyssinia returned, only to find the situation even worse than when they had left it. Not long after, many of them returned to Abyssinia, their numbers swelled by those whom the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had told to accompany them. Finally the boycott was lifted and the Muslims were allowed to re enter the city; but the three years of hardship had taken their toll. First of all the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Talib, who was by then more than eighty years old, died; and then a few months later, during the month of Ramadan, Khadijah also died, at the age of sixty-five, may Allah be pleased with her. The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) mourned her deeply. They had shared twenty-five years of marriage together and she had given birth to five of his children. Only one of the Prophet’s future wives, Maria the Copt, would give him another child, Ibrahim, and he, like Qasim, was destined to die when he was still very young, at the age of eighteen months.

Khadijah had been the first to publicly accept Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as the Messenger of Allah, and she had never stopped doing all she could to help him. Love and mercy had grown between them, increasing in quality and depth as the years passed by, and not even death could take this love away. The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) never stopped loving Khadijah, and although he married several more wives in later years and loved them all, it is clear that Khadijah always had a special place in his heart. Indeed whenever ‘Aisha, his third wife, heard the Prophet speak of Khadijah, or saw him sending food to Khadijah’s old friends and relatives, she could not help feeling jealous of her, because of the love that the Prophet still had for her.

Once Aisha asked him if Khadijah had been the only woman worthy of his love. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) replied: “She believed in me when no one else did; she accepted Islam when people rejected me; and she helped and comforted me when there was no one else to lend me a helping hand.” It had been related by Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) that on one occasion, when Khadijah was still alive, Jibril came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, Khadijah is just coming with a bowl of soup (or food or drink) for you. When she comes to you, give her greetings of peace from her Lord and from me, and give her the good news of a palace of jewels in the Garden, where there will be neither any noise nor any tiredness.” After the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Talib, and his first wife, Khadijah, had both died in the same year, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and his small community of believers endured a time of great hardship and persecution at the hands of the Quraish. Indeed the Prophet, who was now fifty years old, name this year ‘the Year of Sorrow.’

In private his dearest wife was no longer present to share his life; and in public the insults that he received from the Quraish multiplied, now that he had no longer had the protection of his dead uncle. Even when he journeyed to Ta’if, a small city up in the mountains outside Mecca, to call its people to worship Allah, he was rejected and stoned by them. It has been related by Aisha that on his way back to Mecca, Jibril appeared to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and said, “Allah, may He be exalted and glorified, has heard what the people have said to you and how they have responded to your invitation, and he has sent the angel in charge of the mountains so that you can tell him what you want him to with them.” Then the angel in charge of the mountains called out to him and greeted him and said, “O Muhammad, Allah has listened to what your people have said to you. I am the angel in charge of the mountains, and your Lord has sent me so that you can order me to do whatever you want. If you wish, I can bring the mountain of the outskirts of Mecca together so that they are crushed between them.” But the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to him, “Rather I hope that Allah will make their descendants a people who will worship Allah alone, without ascribing any partners to him.”

It was a while after this that tfollowing Surah was revealed:

In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate

By the morning hours, and by the night when it is stillest, Your Lord has not forsake you nor does He hate you, And truly what comes after will be better for you than what has come before, And truly your Lord will give to you so that you will be content. Did he not find you an orphan and protect you? Did he not find you wandering and guide you? Did he not find you destitute and enrich you? So do not oppress the orphan, And do not drive the beggar away, And speak about the blessings of Your Lord. (Quran 93:1-11)

And so it happened. After three years of constant struggle, a relative of his, called Khawla, went to him and pointed out that his house was sadly neglected and that his daughters needed a mother to look after them. “But who can take the place of Khadijah?” he asked. “Aisha, the daughter of Abu Bakr, the dearest of people to you,” she answered. Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) had been the first man to accept Islam and he was the Prophet’s closest companion. Like Khadijah, he had done all that he could do to help the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and had spent all his wealth in the way of Allah. However, while the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was now fifty-three years old, Aisha as only a little girl of seven. She was hardly in a position to look after either the Prophet’s household or children. “She is very young.” Replied the Prophet. Khawla had a solution for everything. She suggested that he marry at the same time a lady called Sawda, the widow of Al-Sakran ibn ‘Amr.

Origins of Shia | Islam Story - Supervised by Dr. Ragheb Elsergany

Scholars of Usul Al-Fiqh (Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence) stated the following rule, “One cannot pass a judgment on something unless one has a clear conception of it”. Based on this rule, it is meaningless to pass a judgment on Shia unless you have good knowledge about them. It is also meaningless to express one’s opinion on reconciling the views of Sunnis and Shiites without recognizing the nature of both sects. Likewise, it is of no real sense to accept or reject talking about Shia without knowing the reality of the issue, to what extent it is dangerous, its rank as to our priorities and its relation to the multiple variables the Ummah is facing.

In short, before we proceed to criticize opponents or proponents of Shia, we should first understand who Shia are, what their origins are, what their theological and Fiqhi (Jurisprudential) backgrounds are, what their history is about, what their reality is an what their goals and ambitions are. Only after doing this, we can express our view foresightedly, especially when we know how many people changed their long-believed views and give up their ideas after they had been provided with sound information and clear vision.

Who are Shia?

The issue is not merely that of certain people living in a certain country who have some disputes with neighboring countries. Rather, it is an issue of theological, historical and Fiqhi backgrounds that have to be referred to.

Many historians differ on the real beginning of Shia.

What is commonly believed by the masses is that Shia are those people who supported `Ali bin Abu Talib during the caliphate of Mu`awiyah bin Abu Sufyan, (may Allah be pleased with him). Accordingly, this means that those who supported `Ali bin Abu Talib are Shia while those who supported Mu`awiyah are Sunnis. Such a notion has never been accepted by anyone. Moreover, Sunnis believe with regard to the dispute that arose between the two honorable Companions that `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) was on the right, while Mu`awiyah (may Allah be pleased with him) exercised Ijtihad (independent judgment) but did not reach the truth. Thus, Sunnis thought is clearly siding with `Ali. Moreover, tenets, doctrines and ideologies held by Shia are entirely different from those held by `Ali bin Abu Talib absolutely. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that the rise of Shia was at that era.

Some historians say that the rise of Shia was after Al-Hussein (may Allah be pleased with him) was martyred. This opinion sounds to be more logical. Actually, Al-Hussein rebelled against the rule of Yazid bin Mu`aweiyah and, therefore, headed for Iraq after his followers there had promised to back him. However, they let him down at the critical time, which led to the martyrdom of Al-Hussein at Karbala. The group of people who invited him and failed to support him regretted doing so and decided to expiate their sin through rebelling against the Umayyad state. They actually did so and a large number of them were killed and thus were called Shia. This might explain why we notice that Shia are more attached to Al-Hussein bin `Ali than to `Ali bin Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) himself. They also, as we can see, mark the anniversary of Al-Hussein’s martyrdom while don not mark that of `Ali bin Abu Talib.

However, this sect only rose as a political one opposing the rule of the Umayyad dynasty and backed any attempts to rebel against it. Until that time, they did not hold theological or jurisprudential principles different from those of Sunnis. We will even come to know that earlier leaders whom Shiites claim to be their earlier Shia Imams were only Sunni men adopting doctrines and principles of Sunnis.

The situation continued to be stable for months after the martyrdom of Al-Hussein (may Allah be pleased with him). At this period lived `Ali Zainul-`Abdin bin Al- Hussein who was one of the most righteous personalities and great ascetic scholars. He has never been reported to have any beliefs or ideologies different from those held by Companions and later generations.

`Ali Zainul-`Abdin had two sons of a high level of piety and purity, namely, Mohammed Al-Baqir and Zaid, both of whom completely believed in beliefs held by Sunni scholars including Companions and Successors. However, Zaid bin `Ali (may Allah have mercy on him) differed in viewing that `Ali bin Abu Talib was worthier of assuming caliphate than Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him). Although this opinion conflicts with the Ummah’s consensus and contradicts many Hadith that explicitly held Abu Bakr Al-Siddik, `Umar and `Uthman in a higher rank than `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), this difference of opinion, however, does not relate to doctrinal issues. While he viewed that `Ali was the best, he, however, admitted the high rank of the first three caliphs. He also believed in the permissibility of one less in rank assuming imamate despite the existence of those higher in rank. Accordingly, he did not deny the imamate of Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with them). Apart from this view, he concurred with Sunnis in theology, principles and Fiqh.

Repeating the attempt of his grandfather Al-Hussein bin `Ali (may Allah be pleased with them both), Zaid bin `Ali rebelled against the Umayyad caliph Hisham bin Abdul-Malik, which ended up with his being killed in 122 A.H. His followers then founded a sect based on his ideas, known in history as Zaydiyyah, named after Zaid bin `Ali. Though considered to be a Shia-based sect, Zaydiyyah agrees with Sunnis in everything except in holding `Ali in a higher position than the first three Caliphs. The followers of this sect are mainly in Yemen and they are the nearest Shia sects to Sunnis - even one can hardly distinguish them from Sunnis in most respects.

It is worth mentioning that a group of the followers of Zaid bin `Ali asked him about his opinion on Abu Bakr and `Umar. In reply, he supplicated Allah to show mercy to both of them, but those who asked him refused to do the same and seceded from his sect. Therefore, they were known in the history as Rafidah (lit. dissenters) because they rejected the caliphate of Abu Bakr and `Umar on one hand, and rejected Zaid’s opinion on the other. Subsequent generations of such a group founded a sect which was later known as Ithna `Ashriyyah (Imamiyyah) to turn into Shia’s largest sect.

Mohammed Al-Baqir, Zaid bin `Ali’s brother, died eight years before his brother (in 114 A.H.) leaving behind a son who became the reverend scholar Ja`far Al-Sadiq. The latter was a prominent scholar and a proficient Faqih (Jurisprudent), who held the same theology believed in by Companions, Successors and Muslim scholars in general.

Late at the era of the Umayyad caliphate, the Abbasid movement started activities aiming at rallying people against the Umayyad caliphate. The movement collaborated with the groups which seceded from Zeid bin `Ali and both toppled the Umayyad caliphate in 132 A.H. The Abbasid caliphate came to power headed by the founder Abul-`Abbas Al-Saffah and his successor Abu Ja`far Al-Mansur. Those who collaborated with this movement felt disappointed as they sought to establish a caliphate ruled by one of `Ali bin Abu Talib’s grandchildren. Therefore, those people formed a group called Al-Talibiyyun (lit. proponents of `Ali bin Abu Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) compared to Abbasids who are named after Al-`Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib) with the aim of staging a coup against the Abbasid caliphate.

Until this era, there were no essential theological or jurisprudential violations except that of the criticism of Abu Bakr and `Umar; actually, some of them who seceded from Zaid bin `Ali rejected them and would even curse them in public.

Ja`far Al-Sadik died in 148 A.H. leaving behind a son called Musa Al-Kazim, who was also a scholar but less in rank than his father. He died in 183 A.H. leaving behind some sons including `Ali bin Musa Al-Rida.

It happened that the Abbasid caliph al Ma'mun sought to contain the rebellion of Al-Talibiyyun who claimed the caliphate for the descendants of `Ali bin Abu Talib rather than those of Al-`Abbas. Thus, he nominated `Ali bin Musa Al-Rida as the crown prince, which fueled a fierce controversy among Abbasids. However, `Ali bin Musa Al-Rida suddenly died in 203 A.H., but Al-Talibiyyun accused Al-Ma'mun of killing him and once again staged successive revolutions against Abbasids just as they did with Umayyads.

Anyway, passage of years gave room for revolutions to relatively calm down. Until that time, Shia had not yet adopted an independent religious school of thought to be called Shia. Rather, there were only political movements aiming at assuming power and opposing rulers due to many reasons which did not include such theological reasons as those held by Shia now.

Strikingly, such dissenting calls found support on a large scale in the Persian region (currently Iran). Actually, many inhabitants of such a region felt sorry for the fall of the huge Persian empire and its fusion into the Islamic state. They, Persians, considered themselves of a higher race, a better ethnicity and a greater history than Muslims. This feeling led to the rise of Persophilia – an ideology which means giving priority to their race and ethnicity over anything even Islam. Some of them even showed deep adherence to their Persian roots, lock, stock and barrel, even the fire which they once worshiped.

As they were not powerful enough to rebel against the Islamic state, and being Muslims for decades, they found the Al-Talibiyyun’s revolutions a way through which they would seek to topple the Islamic caliphate which toppled their Persian state before. In the same time, they did not want to forsake Islam which they embraced for many years. They, however, decided to interpolate it through injecting into it the heritage of the Persian state so as to secure instability within the Muslim Ummah. They kept a low profile, while Al-Talibiyyu maintained the high profile. Bearing in mind that Al-Talibiyyun are affiliated to `Ali bin Abu Talib, are a part of the Prophet’s Household and thus held in a high esteem by people, such people secured continuation of there mission.

Thus, attempts of Persophils united with those of Al-Talibiyyun belonging to the Prophet’s Household to form a new independent, not only political but also religious, entity.

Back to Al-Talibiyyun, we can see that after the death of `Ali Al-Rida whom Abbasid Caliph Al-Ma'mun nominated as the crown prince, he was succeeded by his son Mohammed Al-Jawad who died in 220 A.H. The latter was also succeeded by his son `Ali bin Mohammed Al-Hadi who died in 254 A.H. Finally, the latter was succeeded by Al-Hassan bin `Ali called Al-`Askary who also died suddenly in 260 A.H. leaving behind a young 5-year-old son, Mohammed.

Throughout previous years, separatist movements, which consisted of some of the Prophet’s Household and Persophils, would swear allegiance to the elder son of Al-Talibiyyun’s leader, starting with `Ali Al-Rida and ending with Al-Hassan Al-`Askary. Concerning the ascendants of `Ali Al-Rida, such as his father Musa Al-Kazim or his grandfather Ja`far Al-Sadik or his grandfather’s father Mohammed Al-Baqir, they did not assume the revolutionary leadership against Umayyad or Abbasid rule.

However, after Al-Hassan Al-`Askary had died in 260 A.H., revolutionists got totally confused as to who is to assume leadership when Al-Hassan Al-`Askary left behind a young son. They even got more confused after the sudden death of that young son. This resulted in dividing such revolutionary groups into many sects each different from the other in terms of principles and ideas as well as even in laws and beliefs.

The most famous among such sects is Ithna `Ashriyyah (Imamiyyah), now prevailing in Iran, Iraq and Lebanon. It is the biggest Shiite sect at present.

The leaders of this sect started to add to Islam ideas that would work best for situations they are exposed to currently and that may ensure the continuation of their sect despite the absence of their leader.

They added many serious Bid'ahs (innovations in religion) to the religion of Islam, claiming them to be part and parcel of Islam. Thus, such Bid'ahs, with the passage of time, became a key component of their ideology and thought. Some of such Bid'ahs relate to Imamate (caliphate). Seeking a justification for the lack of a current imam, they argued that Imams are twelve only, arranging them in the following order: 1- `Ali bin Abu Talib, 2- Al-Hassan bin `Ali, 3- Al-Hussein bin `Ali, 4- `Ali Zainul-`Abidin bin Al-Hussein, 5- Mohammed Al-Baqir bin Zainul-`Abidin, 6- Ja`far Al-Sadik bin Mohammed Al-Baqir, 7- Musa Al-Kazim, 8- `Ali Al-Rida, 9- Mohammed Al-Jawad, 10- `Ali Al-Hadi, 11- Mohammed Al-Mahdi and 12- Al-Hassan Al-`Askary.

That is why this sect is called Ithna `Ashriyyah. Seeking to justify why the Imam succession came to an end, they claimed that the young child Muhammad bin Al-Hassan Al-`Askary has not died yet, and that, according to them, he has disappeared in a mountain cave and that he is still alive (over one thousand years now). They further claim that he will be back one day to rule the world. They also believe him to be the Awaited Mahdi (Righteous Imam). They also claimed that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) bequeathed Imamate to those twelve names but Companions withheld such information. This is why they judge Companions in general to be disbelievers (however, some of them judge Companions to be only profligate) as they concealed such a bequeath. Influenced by the Persian system of rule, they introduced the inevitability of the monarchical system believing that the Imam must be the elder son of `Ali bin Abu Talib and likewise all succeeding Imams. As known to all, this notion is not Islamic at all. Even Sunni Islamic states based on a monarchical system, such as Umayyad, Abbasid, Seljuk, Ayyubi and Ottoman caliphates, never considered the monarchical system to be a part of religion or that ruling must be on a dynasty basis. Influenced also by Persia, they introduced sanctification of the ruling dynasty. Accordingly, they believed in the infallibility of the aforementioned Imams and thus considered their sayings to be as holy as the Qur'an and Prophetic Hadith. Moreover, most of their Fiqhi (jurisprudential) rules are even derived from the sayings of Imams, regardless of whether these sayings are authentically or falsely attributed to them. Furthermore, in his book “Islamic Government”, Khomeini, the leader of the Iranian revolution, stated, “One of the fundamentals of our ideology is that our Imams are higher in rank than devoted angels and prophets.(1)” Hence, this explains their bitter hostility to all Companions (except for a few of them who do not exceed thirteen). They also show hostility to even some of the Prophet’s Household, such as Al-`Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), Allah’s Messenger’s uncle, and his son Abdullah bin `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), the great scholar of the Ummah. Unarguably, hostility to these two figures and judging them to be disbelievers is due to the historical conflict between Ithna `Ashriyyah and Abbasid caliphate.

Among their Bid`ahs also is that they consider most Muslim countries to be Darul-Kufr (House of disbelief). They also judge the people of Medina, Mecca, Egypt and Levant to be disbelievers, falsely reporting the Messenger of Allah to have said something in this regard and thus believe it to be a part of their religion.

You can refer to such ideas in their original resources, such as Al-Kafy, Bihar Al-Anwar and Tafsir Al-Qummi, Tafsir Al-`Ayyashi, Al-Burhan and other books.

Consequently, they do not acknowledge any Sunni scholars and all the authentic Hadith books, such as Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Nasa'i. They also deny the authority of Abu Hanifah, Malik, Al-Shafi`i and Ibn Hanbal. They also do not admit the excellence of Khalid bin Al-Walid or Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas, `Umar bin Abdul-`Aziz,, Musa bin Nusair, Nourul-Din Mahmoud, Salahud-Din, Qutuz and Muhammad Al-Fatih.

As a result of their non-recognition of Companions, Successors and books of Hadith and Tafsir (exegesis of the Qur'an), they depended largely on sayings attributed to their Imams through very weak chains of narrators. Consequently, many abhorred Bid'ahs took place regarding their doctrines, acts of worship, transactions and other wakes of life. In this article, I do not intend to give a list of their Bid'ahs; actually, such a goal requires composing many books. I only refer here to the origin of the problem so that we may understand its consequences. However, it requires a lengthy talk to speak about such Bid'ahs as Taqiyyah (a dispensation allowing Shiites to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion) and Raj'a (the second coming or the return to life of their Imams after death), viewing that the Qur'an was interpolated, misbelieving in Allah, Bid'ahs committed at the shrines, building such shrines in mosques, abhorred Bid'ahs committed on the anniversary of Al-Hussein’s Martyrdom and thousands of other Bid'ahs that became key pillars in religion according to Ithna `Ashriyyah.

All that I have mentioned so far is only a part of the ideology of Ithna `Ashriyyah. However, there are several other sects that rose during the same period in history, especially during the period known in history as the period of “Shia Bewilderment”, which started as early as the middle of the third century A.H. following the death of Al-Hassan Al-`Askary (the twelfth and last Imam according to them).

From this period on, literature and books that plant their ideology and doctrines were composed. Their methodologies spread widely in the Persian region in particular and in the Muslim world in general. However, till then no state was established to officially adopt such ideologies. Anyway, by the end of the third century and the beginning of the fourth century A.H., serious developments took place that led to Shia assuming power in some areas, which had serious repercussions on the entire Muslim Ummah. This is what I will deal with in the next article, if Allah so wills.

However, I have to repeat the rule that “one cannot pass a judgment on something unless one has a clear conception of it”. Thus, if we are to take a decision regarding a specific matter or issue, we have to have knowledge about it first. In other words, we can judge something to be right or wrong or say that it is better to do so-and-so only when authentic information is available. Undoubtedly, judgments based of passions and on no study leads certainly to evil consequences.

We ask Allah to glorify Islam Muslims.

By: Dr. Ragheb El Sergani

Fatima, Daughter of the Prophet of Allah by Amr Khalid

The sons of the Prophet were al-Qasim, Abdullah, Tahir/Tayib, and the daughters were Zaynab, Ruqayya, Umm-Kulthoom and Fatima.
She was born five years before her father was sent as a Prophet. Mohammed was 35 years old when she was born. She was born during the year when the Ka"bah was being rebuilt. She became a Muslim when she was 5 years old, as soon as her father was sent as a Prophet. She was the youngest Muslim in Islam.
What does the name Fatima mean? It comes from the word “fitam” which means the one that is kept away from evil and bad character. Fatima has four nicknames. Does anyone know them? They are ‘Zahraa", “Batool”, “Umm al-Hasan wal-Husayn” and the last is the nicest nickname “Ummu Abeeha”. From the extent of her love and affection for the Prophet, and the fact that she was always with him and trying to defend him, just as a mother has these feeling towards her child, so she became known as “Umm Abeeha” by the Sahaba and scholars. She was called Zahraa because she greatly resembled the Prophet in that she was white and her cheeks were a rosy, pink colour, or as some scholars say it is because she is the flower of the Prophets peace be upon him life. Why is she called Batool? The word Batool is used to refer to Maryam the mother of Jesus peace be upon him. Fatima’s worship resembled Maryam’s worship as well as her modesty and so she was called Batool. The Prophet said that, “Fatima is the sayyidat of the women of Paradise after Maryam”.
My intention is for us to love her greatly because she was greatly loved by the Prophet (s). The extent of the Prophet’s love for her was beyond normal bounds. For example, the Prophet (s) would say, “Fatima is a part of me, he who upsets her, upsets me”. There is a hadith where the Prophet (s), “Me, Fatima and al-Hasan and al-Husayn and he who loves us comes on the Day of Judgment while the people are being held to account and they sit with us while we eat and drink until people have finished being questioned by Allah” (at-Tabarani).
There is a hadith where the Prophet (s) talks about what will happen on the Day of Judgment, speaking of the intercession where everyone is afraid and they require someone to intercede for them. The Prophet (s) says, 'All the Prophets that Day will be saying, “myself, myself”, except me, I will say “O my Lord, my Ummah, my Ummah! O my Lord, I do not ask you for my sake nor for the sake of Fatima my daughter”".
Also if the Prophet (s) would be seated and Fatima would enter he would get up and kiss her between her eyes, all the time. And therefore when he was about to die, she could tell because he was unable to stand up to kiss her. These days fathers don’t even know how to hug their daughters let alone greet them with a kiss. Look at the affection, softness and sweetness of the Prophet (s).
If the Prophet (s) was traveling and entered al-Madina, the first thing he would do when he entered al-Madina would be to enter the Masjid and prays two raka`at and then he goes and visits Fatima. And if he was leaving Madina the last thing he would do before leaving is to go and see her. Look at our Prophet (s), and this affection and how important she was to him.
Amongst all this love for her, the Prophet (s) still would not be biased in dealing with her. The Prophet (s) said, “By Allah, if Fatima the daughter of Mohammed stole something Mohammed would cut off her hand”. Many parents love their kids and so they end up oppressing others because of it, and so they ruin the child. Look at his equality or justice near his love.
So why is all this love for Fatima and all this honour in that she is the sayyidat of the women of Paradise? One of the reasons is that she is the product of the Prophets peace be upon him upbringing and therefore she resembled him the most. She had the greatest resemblance to the Prophet (s) in appearance, character, walking. `Aisha ® says, “I have never seen anyone resemble the Prophet in his way of dealing with people, or character more than Fatima”. She also said, “I have never seen a greater resemblance in the style of walking of the Prophet (s), then of Fatima. Aisha also said, "I have never seen anyone more truthful or more modest than Fatima other than her father - the Prophet Mohammed”.
Imagine her maturity. When she was 18 years old the Prophet (s) was married to nine women. She never backbit any of them or said anything displeasing about any of them.
She had an enormous amount of patience. She went through a lot. Her mother died when she was 10years old, and so she lived alone. And she saw her father who was known as “the truthful and trustworthy” being hit and hurt. And she lived through the mihna, the torture and oppression by Quraysh. When her father migrated he left her behind and she then migrated after him. She lost her three sisters and then all her brothers also died. She was patient through all of this. She saw her father as he was dying between her hands. She was patient in her lifestyle, as her husband Ali was poor and she would have nothing to eat.
She was also one of the only ones who lived through the stages of Islam from the moment that her father was made a Prophet until his death. The only other person was Abu Bakr, so they witnessed everything that happened to the Prophet and they also shared in the suffering right from the start until the end. As a result, she became the person she is.

Fatima’s Early life in Mecca
From when she was born until she was 5-years old, when she started maturing, she used to see her father climb up to the cave and then her mother would take her up also to see her father while in the cave. She would see her mother give some food to her father and she would comfort him and then they would return. Once she found her father as he came back from the cave shivering and saying, “cover me, cover me” and she started hearing that this man – her father is now the Prophet of Allah for this nation. And the Prophet (s) after becoming a Messenger, gathered all his relatives and he began saying, “Oh Banu Hashim save yourselves from the fire, Oh Banu `Abdul-Muttalib save yourselves from the fire! O Abbas, (the uncle of the Prophet) save yourself from the fire! O Safiyya (the aunt of the Prophet), save yourself from the fire! O Fatima the daughter of Mohammed, save yourself from the Hellfire, for I can not benefit before Allah”. She was five years old at the time, and from then she decided that she wanted to be a Muslim and to help her father, not just simply be the daughter of the Prophet.
Fatima used to always follow or accompany her father wherever he would go, she would try to help him if he needed anything, or protect him if anyone would try to harm him, while she was only 6 or 7 years old. She used to witness her father being harmed and hit. When we read the seerah of the Prophet (s), whenever the Prophet (s) would be in a harmful situation someone would come to his aid–it would be Fatima. She would not be out playing with the girls her age, she would be looking out for her father.
Once she saw her father while he was in sujood, and `Uqbah ibn Abi Mu`ayt came and placed the guts of a dead animal on the Prophet’s back while he was praying. The Prophet (s) stayed in his position, and Fatima ran to her father and removed the filth off his back while she was crying. The Prophet saw her crying and said, “don’t cry my daughter for indeed Allah will make your father victorious”.
And a number of times the Prophet (s) would enter his house covered with soil, because the unbelievers would throw soil on him. Fatima would run to him before her other sisters did, and she would start wiping off the dirt from him, while she would be crying. And again the Prophet (s) would tell her, “don’t cry my daughter for indeed Allah will make your father victorious”.
She also witnessed her father and mother being surrounded and isolated in Shi`b Abi Talib (like a prison where Quraysh placed all the Muslims in an area of the desert) for three years, and all she would eat is the tree leaves. She was 13 years old at the time. So from 13-16years old she was in Shi`b Banu Talib, eating the leaves off the trees with the Sahaba. And after that was finished she was shocked to find that her mother was dying. After about two or three months her mother Khadija died. She was at that time a girl 16-years of age and yest, while her mother was dying she said, “By Allah I can only say “We belong to Allah and to him we shall return, Oh Allah reward me for the death and loss of my mother, Oh Allah I do not know whether I should be upset at the death of my mother or whether I should be happy in regards to what she was given glad tidings of in Paradise”. Just before Sayyida Khadija died, Jibreel came down to the Prophet (s) and said “give glad tidings to Khadija of a palace in Paradise. And tell her that Allah says salam to her”.
After Khadija died and the Prophet’s uncle Abu Talib died, the harm posed and carried out on the Prophet increased. Once ten of the unbelievers gathered around the Prophet and one started hitting him while the other was punching and hitting him. So Fatima came and said, “Woe to you, are you persecuting my father after the death of my mother and uncle, by Allah I will stone you with these rocks”, and she threw stones at them. The Prophet (s) said to her, “Make it easy upon yourself, for verily Allah will make your father victorious”.
Her father migrated to Madina before her, because if he allowed her to go before him Quraysh would have known about it and if he took her with him, it would have posed a big danger to her. So she stayed back and followed him later to Madina.
Whenever any of the wives of the Prophet needed anything they would say to Fatima, “Tell the Prophet we need this”.
In Madina she was now 18years old, so the men starting coming to her father requesting Fatima in marriage. They all wanted to be related to the Prophet (s). Abu Bakr, then `Umar ibn al-Khattab, then `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Awf, may Allah be pleased with them, all came asking for Fatima’s hand in marriage, and the Prophet (s) in a gentles way turned them back. The Ansar then started saying to `Ali, 'Why don’t you request the hand of Fatima?’ He said, 'I don’t have much’. They said, “But the Prophet loves you”. So he went and sat in front of the Prophet (s) and did not say a word. The Prophet (s) said, “why are you silent O Ali?” He did not say anything. The Prophet (s) said, “maybe you came to ask for Fatima’s hand in marriage?” He said, “yes that"s it, that"s it”. The Prophet (s) said “do you have anything to marry her with?” He said, “no O messenger of Allah”. The Prophet (s) said, “do you not have a dir` (shield) that I gave you once?’ He said "yes, but its not worth more than 250 dirhams.’ The Prophet (s) said, "I will let you marry her with it”. He brought the dir` to the Prophet (s), and the Prophet (s) sold it for him and came with 250 dirhams, and so he gave a portion of it to Bilal and said, “O Bilal, buy with this some perfume for Fatima” and he gave the rest of the money to Ummu Salamah and said, “buy for Fatima the clothes and necessities of a bride”.
Sayyidina Ali came after a day or two and said, “O Messenger of Allah, I paid the mahr (dowry), so when am I going to marry Fatima?” (he was embarrassed). The Prophet (s) replied, “today if you want”. He said, “yes, O Messenger of Allah”. So they invited the people and slaughtered an animal. The Prophet (s) said, “if a person comes to you of whom you are satisfied with his deen and his character then get him married, if you do not there will be fitnah (dissent) on the earth and great fasaad (evil)“. This is in our time now. Fatima was riding on a camel, and Uthman was directing it. And the Sahaba had their swords raised up as a form of celebration. And the women were surrounding Fatima, and some anasheed were being sung.
Afterwards, Ali and Fatima entered their simple house which was further out from the Madina (not in the city center) because that was all Ali could afford. As they were about to enter the Prophet said, "O Ali don’t get up to anything (don’t get close to her) until I come to you”. Ali says, “so I sat on one side of the house and Fatima sat on the other side”. The Prophet came and placed his hand on her hand, and he began to make du`a, he said, “O Allah, Fatima is a piece of me, O Allah Fatima is beloved to my heart, O Allah Ali is my brother and the most beloved to me, O Allah give them baraka (an increase in all that is good) and place on them baraka and unite them on good, O Ali place your hand on Fatima"s head and say, "O Allah I ask you for the good in her, and for the good that she was created for, and I seek refuge in you from her evil, and the evil that she was created for, O Ali, may Allah place baraka among you”, and the Prophet (s) then got up to leave then said to them, “how about you both get up and pray two raka`at together”, he then closed the door. This was the start of their marriage.
Their first problem is that their house was far away from the Prophets peace be upon him house. The Prophets houses were on land belonging to Haritha Ibn al-Nu`man. Whenever the Prophet (s) would get married Haritha would give him some land as a gift. The Prophet (s) was too embarrassed to ask from him land for Fatima. So Haritha asked him, “do you not miss your daughter Fatima?” The Prophet (s) said “yes, but I was too embarrassed to ask because you have given us so much”, Haritha said that “by Allah, the land that I give to you is more beloved to me then the land that I keep with me, so take this piece of land for them. The Prophet (s) said, "Allah has given you in return a palace in Paradise”.
Ali was poor, and they were tired from their duties, he came back one day saying “Oh my back, its sore from carrying all that heavy water” and Fatima said, “Oh from my hands” so he said to her “I heard that the Prophet got a group of slaves, why don’t we go and ask him for a slave?” They went and asked the Prophet (s) for a slave, he said “no by Allah, these slaves I will sell them and use the money to help those who are in need more than you – the People of Suffah (very poor)”. So they returned home, the Prophet (s) then came knocking on the door. Ali opened up while Fatima was still laying in her bed, she quickly tried to get up, the Prophet said “stay in your place” and he came and sat between them on their bed. He said to them, “shall I not direct you to that which is better than a slave, if you get into your bed say subhanallah 33 times, and alhamdullilah 33 times and Allahu Akbar 34 times, Allah will suffice you from needing a slave. Ali says, "by Allah after saying it Allah increased us in strength so we did not need a slave”.
Once the Prophet (s) saw Fatima’s face was yellow from the extent of her hunger, he said, “O Allah, the quencher of hunger, do not let Fatima get hungry". The Prophet of Allah, and all he could do for his daughter was make du`a for her. Even though Fatima and Ali were poor they still had a happy marriage. The Prophet (s) would go to visit them and he would hear their laughter from outside.
Once the Prophet (s) went to visit them, and found only Fatima, he asked where is Ali, she replied, “he upset me and left the house” he found him sleeping in the masjid covered in dust. The Prophet (s) woke him while wiping away the dust saying, “get up father of dust”. The Prophet did not even ask them what they fought about. The Prophet said “O Ali come back with me to your home”.
Ali was once offered to marry the daughter of Abu Jahl, Juwayriyah bint Abu Jahl. The Prophet (s) got up on the pulpit and said, “I do not make haram that which is halal, nor do I make halal that which is haram, but it is not feasible for the daughter of the enemy of Allah to unite with the daughter of the Prophet of Allah in the one house”. Ali returned and said, “O Fatima maybe I hurt you with this, can you forgive me?” she said, “yes, I"ll forgive you o Ali”. And the problem was resolved. Two months later she was pregnant with al-Hasan. They had four children, Hasan, Husayn, Muhsin (who died very shortly after birth) and Umm-Kulthoom. Each time a child would be born the Prophet (s) would ask Ali, “O Ali what did you name the child?” Ali says, “we named him Harba – War”, so the Prophet (s) said, “what do you think about naming him Hasan” so they named him Hasan. When the second child came along the Prophet (s) again asked, “O Ali what did you name the child?” Ali says, “we named him Harba – War”, so the Prophet (s) said, “what do you think about naming him Husayn?” so they named him Husayn.
When she was 28 years old her father died. She went through a very hard time. She entered upon the Prophet (s) when he was really tired and ill, and so he was unable to get up and kiss her, as was his usual. So she sat to the right of the Prophet (s) while she was crying. The Prophet (s) said “bring your ear closer to me O Fatima”, so he whispered something in her ear, so she cried. The Prophet (s) again said “bring your ear closer to me O Fatima” and he whispered something else in her ear, and so she laughed. Aisha later asked her after the death of the Prophet (s), please tell me what he whispered to you, she said, “firstly he said “O Fatima I am going to die tonight,” and so I cried, and when he saw me crying he said, “will you not be satisfied that you will be the first from amongst my family to follow me and that you will be sayyidat of the women of Paradise”, and so I laughed”.
She entered upon him during his last moments where he was very tired and sweating, she said, “O for the pain of my father” so the Prophet replied, “there is no more pain for your father after today”. After he died she was yelling out, “Oh my father, Allah has answered your du`a, Oh my father, the highest level of Paradise is your abode, O my father to Jibreel we nan`aa”. She was very tired when they were burying the Prophet. Anas Ibn Malik was one of the Sahaba that buried the Prophet (s), and he relates, 'As I was returning I found Fatima in front of me, and she said “How were you able to place the soil on the Prophet face?” Anas says, 'She looked at me then she started crying and left.’
She died six months after the Prophet (s). She made two requests from Sayyidina Ali ®. The first was that after her death he should marry Umamah (the daughter of her sister) for she would be more affectionate with Hasan and Husayn. The second was “When you bury me cover me properly, I don’t want anyone to see anything of me, and bury me during the night for I am embarrassed from the multitude of people attending.”

Fatima bint Muhammad died she died when she was 29 years old, and according to her instructions, she was buried at night. She was buried on a Tuesday 20th Ramadan 11years after the Hijra. She was buried in Jannat al-Baqee`, and Ali ® was very much affected by her death and cried a lot. He said, “I have never been more exhausted from anything more than I was as a result of the death of the Prophet (s) and Fatima within six months of each other”.