SYRIA. Aleppo governorate. Aleppo. March 9, 2017. Mohammed Mohiedin Anis, or Abu Omar, 70, smokes his pipe as he sits in his destroyed bedroom, listening to music on his hand-cranked gramophone in the city’s formerly rebel-held al-Shaar neighbourhood. Anis had recently returned to Aleppo, with plans to rebuild not only his home, but his large collection of vintage American cars, despite everything being reduced to wreckage and rubble. When reporters asked him about the gramophone, he responded “I will play it for you, but first, I have to light my pipe. Because I never listen to music without it.”
Mohammed Mohiedin Anis, or Abu Omar, 70, smokes his pipe as he sits in his destroyed bedroom listening to music on his gramophone in Aleppo’s formerly rebel-held al-Shaar neighborhood on March 9. Photo by Joseph Eid/AFP/Getty Images
SYRIA. Aleppo governorate. Aleppo. September 27, 2016. White Helmets hand the body of a girl down to civilians on the ground after she was pulled from rubble of a building following airstrikes on the then rebel-held neighbourhood of al-Shaar.
What was the relationship between Sephardim and Ashkenazim on the West Coast?
By Leora Singer, Former Research Intern
This is my second blog
post in a series of three posts in which I discuss the theme of Sephardim in
the West Coast in the 19th-20th century. You can see my first post here. In this post, I compare and contrast
the relationship between Ashkenazim and Sephardim in Seattle and San Francisco.
When Calvo and Policar
(the first two Sephardim in Seattle) first encountered the Orthodox Ashkenazi
Jews living in the city, they weren’t exactly welcomed with open arms. These
observant Jews didn’t believe that Policar and Calvo were “real Jews” because
they spoke Greek instead of Yiddish (Adatto, 56), and their names didn’t “sound
Jewish” (Angel, 553). Because they felt ostracized by the Jewish community,
Calvo and Policar spent a lot of time with Greek non-Jews living in Seattle
(Adatto, 58). Fortunately, the rabbi of Bikur Holim, an Orthodox synagogue,
convinced the Orthodox Ashkenazim that the Sephardim were just as observant as
they were. The Ashkenazim accepted Calvo and Policar as members of the Jewish
The Seattle Sephardic
community kept growing as Calvo and Policar brought family members over, and
these family members spread the word about the opportunities available in
Seattle (Adatto, 60). In 1904, the first Rhodesli Sephardic immigrant came to
Seattle (FitzMorris, 29). As the number of Sephardim in Seattle grew, their
ties to the overall Jewish community of Seattle grew. Many Sephardim prayed at
Bikur Holim. They felt somewhat connected to the Orthodox Ashkenazim because
they, like the Sephardim, upheld high religious standards (Adatto, 116).
However, the perception was that their cultures were just too different to mix
together, so the Sephardim and Orthodox Ashkenazim remained fairly separate.
For example, intermarriage between the two groups was highly rare (Adatto,
Despite its rocky
nature, the beginning of the relationship between Orthodox Sephardim and
Orthodox Ashkenazim was still stronger than the beginning of the relationship
between Sephardim and Reform Ashkenazim. The Sephardim distrusted the Reform
Ashkenazim because they believed that the Reform Ashkenazim were not following
enough of the Jewish traditions. Fortunately, Aubrey Levy from the Reform
Temple de Hirsch helped to change this negative view of Reform Judaism by
forming a friendship with the Sephardic Jews. As a lawyer, he helped Sephardim
with legal work, free of charge. For example, in 1914, he assisted them with
the legal logistics in the purchase of the (previously Ashkenazi-owned) Bikur
Holim synagogue (Adatto, 118-119). Levy was highly regarded by the Sephardim.
By association, his synagogue became highly regarded as well. In fact, many
Sephardic children got their Jewish education at the Hebrew School of Temple de
Hirsch. However, even after many years, there was still very little
intermarriage. The Sephardim still did not feel like a part of Ashkenazi
There was a temporary
Sephardic congregation in the early 1850s (Zerin, 30). The congregation was
called Shaar Hashamayim. It was so temporary that it never even had a building
because the congregation stopped meeting only a few months after its creation
(Zerin, 47). This is likely because the construction of new buildings for two
Ashkenazi-run synagogues, Temple Emanu-El and Temple Sherith- Israel, was
underway. Since the Sephardim and Ashkenazim in San Francisco were united,
(especially in comparison to these sects in other West Coast cities) the
Sephardim didn’t want to divide it by having their own synagogue. Also, some
members of the Sephardic congregation had been leaders in the other synagogues,
because they were so prominent and respected by the Ashkenazim (Stern and
Sephardim from San
Francisco are sometimes difficult to identify because intermarriage with
Ashkenazim and even non-Jews was common (Stern and Kramer, 45). This practice
showed a stark difference between the Jews of San Francisco and in other West
Coast cities. In the other cities, intermarriage between pretty much anyone
that was not a Jew from your home country was frowned upon.
Adatto, Albert. Sephardim
and the Seattle Sephardic Community. Seattle: U of Washington, 1939. Print.
Angel, Marc D., Hasson,
Aron, Kramer, William M., Maimon, Isaac, Samuels, Beth, Sidell, Loraine, Stern,
Norton B. Sephardic Jews in the West Coast States : An Anthology. 1st
ed. Los Angeles: Published for the Skirball Cultural Center, Los Angeles by the
Western States Jewish History Association, 1996. Print. Western States Jewish
History ; v. 28, No. 1-3.
Stern, Stephen. The
Sephardic Jewish Community of Los Angeles. New York: Arno, 1980. Print.
Folklore of the World (New York).
Edward. Jewish San Francisco. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2006. Print.
Images of America
Shaar HaShamaim Synagogue in Belem, Brazil, 1984. Photo by Abraham Amzalak.
“Shaar Hashamaim” in Hebrew, “Porta do Ceu” in Portuguese, or “Gate of Heaven” in English, is the name of the first synagogue established by the Sephardi Jews who immigrated from Morocco to Brazil in the 19th century. The blue and white two storied structure was built in Colonial style in 1824 by Judah Eliezer Levy.
Damian, Skaar and Daken …..sons of three of the most well known heroes in comic industry ( Batman, Hulk and Wolverine respectively). Are they destined to rule the earth after their fathers have died? will they take up the mantle and fight the good fight? or will they try to tear down want their fathers have tried so hard up hold any chance they get?
At this point Damian is trying to do the right thing somewhat by becoming Robin and assisting in his father’s crusade against crime. However he still has that assassin’s mentality and would kill where his father would not.
Daken has proven that he is the total opposite to Wolverine and he is willing to do what it takes to end his father. No father/son bonding has gotten through to him but his goals are clear, destroy his father and build an empire unheard of.
Skaar came to earth to kill his father for the death of his mother and the destruction caused on his home world. Giving the chance and the resources Skaar would have destroyed the earth to achieve his goals however he has taken to the side of good (for now).
These three are just examples of the children some heroes produce that can make this world a better place or bring it to it’s knees.
The gold dwarves in the Shaar have numerous portals in and around the Great Rift to defend
and simplify their lives.
Most of these portals
were created centuries ago, and unlike portals in human lands, most are still known.
The long memories of the gold dwarves don’t leave them prone to leaving
“lost" portals lying around.
Since dwarves are a civic-minded race, they are known to put their
greatest powers into defensive fortification.
SYRIA, ALEPPO : Syrian girls, carrying school bags provided by UNICEF, walk past the rubble of destroyed buildings on their way home from
school on March 7, 2015 in al-Shaar neighbourhood, in the rebel-held
side of the northern Syrian city of Aleppo. Heavy fighting shook the
Syrian city of Aleppo on march 6, 2015 as the exiled opposition chief
said for the first time that President Bashar al-Assad’s ouster need not
be a pre-condition for peace talks. AFP PHOTO / AMC / ZEIN AL-RIFAI