series 44


Non Metric Traits

Non-metric traits, also known as discrete traits, discontinuous morphological traits, or epigenetic variants, are a part of normal human variation and are not pathological in nature. As the name suggests, it is thought that they have some sort of genetic basis. They are usually recorded as either “present” or “absent,” or they can be scored on a continuous scale. Their very nature means that they can’t often be quantified, though they can be used in conjunction with other things for identification of an individual or for population studies.

Often subdivided into cranial, dental, and postcranial traits, they can be extra bones, articular differences, variations in the number of foramina, extra ossification of a particular feature, or ossification failure.

Non-metric traits include Wormian bones (top), sternal foramina (2nd row left), metopic sutures which persist into adulthood (2nd row right), calcaneal notches (bottom), third trochanters of the femur, and vertebral number shifts, among other things. Dental metric traits in particular, such as shoveled incisors or differing cusp numbers, can be used to guess population affinity.


Buikstra, J.E. & Ubelaker. D.H. (eds) 1994, Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains: Proceedings of a Seminar at the Museum of Natural History, Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series, No. 44. Fayetteville, Arkansas.

White, Tim D. & Folkens, P.A. 2005, The Human Bone Manual. Elsevier Academic Press.Burlington, MA

Image Source:

The Museum of London: Center for Human Bioarchaeology Database of Photographs: <>


I spent the last four days watching the Blacklist and I just finished season two so here’s some Red doodles I managed to crank out in-between comic stuff!

Idk when I’ll get to start season 3 and it’s killing me :[


Someone on the THAC forums cracked the code, and it led to an unlisted video on the Marble Hornets channel. This is the audio, as well as a transcript that should be mostly right:

We interrupt this broadcast for a missing person alert.  *** was reported missing at 8:36 A.M. *** years old, has dark brown hair, *** (green?) eyes, is approximately 5”*** tall, and is of average build. Last seen ***, wearing a gray plaid shirt and blue jeans. No possible abductor has been identified. If you have any information, please contact the nearest police department, or call 1-800-***-****.

There’s different tones at the beginning and end of the clip. I also hear what might be some music around the 30 second mark.

Watch the video here.


Elizabeth Tudor to Robert Dudley
19 July, 1586

Rob, I am afraid you will suppose by my wandering writings that a midsummer moon hath taken possession of my brains this month, but you must need take things as they come in my head, though order be left behind me. When I remember your request to have a discreet and honest man that may carry my mind and see how all goes there, I have chosen this bearer, whom you know and have made good trial of. I have fraught him full of my conceits of those country matters, and imparted what way I mind to take and what is fit for you to use. I am sure you can credit him, and so I will be short with these few notes.

First, that Count Maurice and Count Hollock find themselves trusted of you, esteemed of me, and to be carefully regarded if ever peace should happen; and of that assure them on my word, that yet never received any. And for Norris and other captains that voluntarily without commandment have many years ventured their lives and won our nation honour and themselves fame, be not discouraged by any means, neither by new-come men nor by old trained soldiers elsewhere. If there be fault in using of soldiers or making profit by them, let them hear of it without upon shame, and doubt not but I will well chasten them therefor. It frets me not a little that the poor soldier that hourly ventures life should want their due that well deserve rather reward; and look in whom the fault may duly be proved -let them smart therefor. And if the treasurer be found untrue or negligent, according to deserved he shall be used, though you know my old wont that love not to discharge from office without deserving. God forbid! I pray you let this bearer know what may be learned herein; and for this treasure I have joined Sir Thomas Shirley to see all this money discharged in due sort where it needed and behoved.

Now will I end, that do imagine I talk still with you, and therefore loathly say farewell ôô, though ever I pray God bless you from all harm, and save you from all foes with my millions of legion of thanks for all your pains and cares.

                                                     As you know, ever the same, E.R.

Let Wikes see that he is acceptable to you. If anything there be, that Wikes shall desire answer of, be such as you would have but me to know, write it to myself. You know I can keep both others’ counsel and mine own. Mistrust not that anything you would have kept shall be disclosed by me; for although this bearer ask many things, yet may you answer him such as you shall think meet, and write to me the rest.