Tetralogy of Fallot.

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a congenital heart defect which is classically understood to involve abnormalities of the heart. It is the most common cyanotic heart defect, and the most common cause of blue baby syndrome.

As such, by definition, it involves four heart malformations which present together:

  • Pulmonary Infundibular Stenosis: A narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract. It can occur at the pulmonary valve (valvular stenosis) or just below the pulmonary valve (infundibular stenosis).
  • Overriding aorta: Aorta is situated above the ventricular septal defect and connected to both the right and the left ventricle.
  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart.
  • Right ventricular hypertrophy: The right ventricle is more muscular than normal, causing a characteristic boot-shaped (coeur-en-sabot) appearance as seen by chest X-ray. 

Signs and symptoms: Tetralogy of Fallot results in low oxygenation of blood due to the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the left ventricle via the ventricular septal defect (VSD) and preferential flow of the mixed blood from both ventricles through the aorta because of the obstruction to flow through the pulmonary valve. This is known as a right-to-left shunt. The primary symptom is low blood oxygen saturation with or without cyanosis from birth or developing in the first year of life. Other symptoms include a heart murmur which may range from almost imperceptible to very loud, difficulty in feeding, failure to gain weight, retarded growth and physical development, dyspnea on exertion, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and polycythemia. Digital clubbing or watch-glass nails with cyanotic nail beds is common in adults with tetralogy of Fallot (2nd picture).

Stanford scientists reveal complexity in the brain’s wiring diagram

When Joanna Mattis started her doctoral project she expected to map how two regions of the brain connect. Instead, she got a surprise. It turns out the wiring diagram shifts depending on how you flip the switch.

"There’s a lot of excitement about being able to make a map of the brain with the idea that if we could figure out how it is all connected we could understand how it works," Mattis said. "It turns out it’s so much more dynamic than that."

Mattis is a co-first author on a paper describing the work published August 27 in the Journal of Neuroscience. Julia Brill, then a postdoctoral scholar, was the other co-first author.

Mattis had been a graduate student in the lab of Karl Deisseroth, professor of bioengineering and of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, where she helped work on a new technique called optogenetics. That technique allows neuroscientists to selectively turn parts of the brain on and off to see what happens. She wanted to use optogenetics to understand the wiring of a part of the brain involved in spatial memory – it’s what makes a mental map of your surroundings as you explore a new city, for example.

Scientists already knew that when an animal explores habitats, two parts of the brain are involved in the initial exploring phase and then in solidifying a map of the environment – the hippocampus and the septum.

When an animal is exploring an environment, the neurons in the hippocampus fire slow signals to the septum, essentially telling the septum that it’s busy acquiring information. Once the animal is done exploring, those same cells fire off intense signals letting the septum know that it’s now locking that information into memory. The scientists call this phase consolidation. The septum uses that information to then turn around and regulate other signals going into the hippocampus.

"I wanted to study the hippocampus because on the one hand so much was already known – there was already this baseline of knowledge to work off of. But then the question of how the hippocampus and septum communicate hadn’t been accessible before optogenetics," Mattis said.

Neurons in the hippocampus were known to fire in a rhythmic pattern, which is a particular expertise of John Huguenard, a professor of neurology. Mattis obtained an interdisciplinary fellowship through Stanford Bio-X, which allowed her to combine the Deisseroth lab’s expertise in optogenetics with the rhythmic brain network expertise of Julia Brill from the Huguenard lab.

Mattis and Brill used optogenetics to prompt neurons of the hippocampus to mimic either the slow firing characteristic of information acquisition or the rapid firing characteristic of consolidation. When they mimicked the slow firing they saw a quick reaction by cells in the septum. When they mimicked the fast consolidation firing, they saw a much slower response by completely different cells in the septum.

Same set of wires – different outcome. That’s like turning on different lights depending on how hard you flip the switch. “This illustrates how complex the brain is,” Mattis said.

Most scientific papers answer a question: What does this protein do? How does this part of the brain work? By contrast, this paper raised a whole new set of questions, Mattis said. They more or less understand the faster reaction, but what is causing the slower reaction? How widespread is this phenomenon in the brain?

"The other big picture thing that we opened up but didn’t answer is: How can you then tie this back to the circuit overall and learning memory?" Mattis said. "Those would be exciting things to follow up on for future projects."

temerxrio asked:

HC + heart

Send me HC + a word and I’ll write a headcanon about it regarding my character.

  • HC + heart

Wenhe was born with a congenital heart defect called Ventricular Septal Defect, or VDS for short. (Both lead to two different sites about VDS: click both if you’re curious)

Without all the fancy terminology, basically she had a hole in her heart that prevented oxygenated blood from properly flowing through the chambers. With VDS, the holes can range in size and small ones often close up during childhood, sometimes even undetected.

In Wenhe’s case, though, she was born premature with a hole that was borderline medium, which -considering the state of her birth- could have counted as a large defect for her.

While it didn’t close up during her childhood, it did shrink as the years went on; by the time she was in her final year of middle school, it closed properly.

Because of how long she’d had the hole in her heart, though, Wenhe still portrays some signs of VDS; she tires easily, and sometimes has shortness of breath when she gets overwhelmed more than usual. And, while she may be on the chubby side, her eating is rather poor in terms of quantity (her boyfriend, Miyaji Kiyoshi, is well aware of this and shares a meal with her under the knowledge that she can never finish one). One of the most prominent problem that was a result of having a hole in her heart that was rather large in terms of how it compared to her size as an infant is that Wenhe is considerably shorter than even the average Taiwanese height of about 160cm/5′3, instead being 142cm/4′8.

Even with the hole closed, though, Wenhe’s heart is still rather weak: if she were to get too physically overworked, it could lead to Sudden Cardiac Arrest, or SCA.

As of now -while she’s gotten close to an attack- it’s yet to actually happen. She takes great care in being cautious of how fast her heart beats and is often watched over by her older brother during physical education (he even brings an extra bottle of water for her just in case what a good onii-chan).

But, of course, she’s taking great care in strengthening her heart with dancing (hence the beginning of her Odorite channel on YouTube and NND.

She also is currently learning basketball from the Miyaji brothers (first Kiyoshi, and then Yūya after Kiyoshi graduates), which further aids in helping to strengthen her heart.

Unfortunately, as tiny as she is, she still doesn’t have much stamina and tires out rather easily at times.


Today was aiden’s cardiologist check up. At six months old she was diagnosed with atrial septum defect (ASD). We have had appointments every six months since then to monitor the hole in her heart. A year ago they told me her right ventricle was starting to dilate (expand) to the point it was concerning. They told me then that surgery would be soon. Today I was told to expect a call from Iowa City in the next 2-3 weeks to set up a consultation and surgery. He said to be considered a large hole it needs to be 8mm and her hole is 12-15mm. They want to do a less invasive procedure where they take a cathader up her groin and put a stopper over the hole. The only problem with that is the front wall of the heart is already a pretty small space. Aiden’s front wall is even smaller. There is a chance the stopper may not hold if there isn’t enough space for it to attach. From the sounds of it, it looks like my baby girl is going to have open heart surgery. They said if the stopper doesn’t hold they have to take it out and preform surgery. I am terrified. Today has made me all sorts of emotional. I am probably going to be up half the night crying.

Plucked Wings || About Gale

When Gale went into first grade, she had to miss school on various occasions due to medical related problems. It was known that Gale had a ventricular septal defect but no one noticed until she entered first grade that symptoms of her heart defect had begun to take over. Her activity in her PE classes had left her nearly having an asthma attack and they had begun to notice a huge amount of weight loss that seemed to come from a lack of weight gain.
 Holden and Farah took Gale in to see a specialist and in order to help the hyperactive child from suffering from a run after her cousins and siblings, they performed a surgery. The series of surgeries took a lot of time out of school, causing Gale to have to repeat first grade.

Shadbindu Tail (Oil) - Ayurvedic Medicine for Sinusitis and Nasal Polyps

Shadbindu Tail (Oil) – Ayurvedic Medicine for Sinusitis and Nasal Polyps

Shadbindu Tail (Oil) is herbal and ayurvedic medicated oil used for sinusitis and sinus infections. Shadbindu oil is a main medicine used in NASYA Panchakarma Therapy. It is also useful in the treatment of septal deviations or turbinate hypertrophy.

Shadbindu Tail has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action, so it is helpful in all types of nasal and sinus infections. It also relieves…

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What are the common heart diseases in children? - Dr. Durgaprasad Reddy

What are the common heart diseases in children? - Dr. Durgaprasad Reddy
The most congenital heart diseases are ASD, VSD,Tetralogy of fallot. There are four heart chambers.ASD is the condition in which there is a hole in atrial septal level.VSD is the condition in which there is a hole in ventricular septal level.In Tetralogy, there will be a hole in ventricular septal level and the artery which takes deoxygenated blood gets tight. For appointments,
Is Clomid Dangerous for Newborns?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has linked many birth defects with the infertility drug known as Clomid.

Birth defects include anencephaly, cloacal extrophy, Dandy-Walker malformation, coarctation of the aorta, craniosynostosis, esophageal atresia and septal heart defect.

Mothers that are expecting to have children, or plan to have children, should talk to a physician about taking Clomid, or any medication, during pregnancy.

If a child is born with a birth defect, and the mother was prescribed medication, there may be a chance that the mother can file a lawsuit on her child’s behalf for medical or pharmaceutical negligence. Speak to a birth injury attorney to see if medication was the cause of your child’s birth defects.

Farrell & Patel – Birth Injury Lawyers