One of the hallmarks of the Star Wars franchise is the portrayal of the constant struggle between good and evil. The Jedi against the Sith, the unscrupulous bounty hunters and gangsters against the heroes, the Empire against freedom. The prequel trilogy dealt more with the black-and-white nature of this struggle ([this] is wrong, no two ways about it), while the original trilogy had a bit more leniency, possibly because beggars couldn’t afford to be choosers (Han Solo the smuggler siding with the Rebellion, for example).
But it wasn’t until The Clone Wars TV show that we began to see more grey areas not only in the heroes (namely, Anakin), but the villains as well.
Image: Demonstrators in the port city of Aden carry the flag of South Yemen. Those who support breaking away from northern Yemen marched in Aden’s Tawahi district on February 23, 2015. (Nabih Bulos/ The Times)
A replica Big Ben still looks down on the harbor. Queen Victoria casts a dour gaze from her bronzed throne in a patch of green fronting the port.
But this one-time jewel of the British empire has fallen onto hard times – and now seethes with sedition as Yemen lurches toward civil war and possible disintegration.
The return this weekend of ousted President Abdu Rabu Mansour Hadi, a southerner, after weeks of house arrest in the capital, Sana, has done little to quell separatist furor here in the south.
Blue-tinged flags of an erstwhile new independent nation are ubiquitous. Gaggles of pro-independence protesters march on the streets. Separatist slogans line the walls. Talk of rebellion is rampant. “If there is no secession, then this area will become the biggest conflict in the Middle East – bigger than Iraq or Syria,” warned Mohammad Nasser Hattab, who heads a “popular committee” militia that has commandeered a police station across from the tattered park where a stolid and plump Victoria still observes the horizon. Read more
Searing agony and the horrifying sound of crushed bone.
'Names and addresses’
He’s sobbing out a no and reminding himself to breath through the pain.
'Names and addresses’
His nerve endings are on fire and he can’t feel anything past the pain, but they find a way. There’s the taste of metal in his mouth and then pain, and his own screams are drowning out the never ending litany.
'Names and addresses’
'Names and addresses’
'Names and addresses’
He wakes up not from his own thrashing, but from his head colliding with the nightstand, and he finds himself truly tangled in his sheets, halfway off his bed. He’s heaving for air and still he’s drowning - grasping the sheets and forgetting why they feel wrong to his fingers. He focuses his gaze on the empty wine bottle on the floor nearby, and just tries to remember how to breath.
Over the 17th century, individuals questioned the elders of the
Massachusetts Bay Colonies, leading to moral, spiritual, and political
consequences. The disruptions of war and immigration led to paranoia and
turmoil evidenced in the infamous Salem Witch Trials.
Puritans and Separatists both
came to Massachusetts for religious reasons. Puritans:
goal is a model community not on making money (like Jamestown) Brought doctors, educators,
merchants, farmers, etc. Built
schools based on number of families in towns (see previous lecture notes)
Hierarchy = God -> Man
(husband/father) -> Wife / Woman Men and women are spiritual equals,
but on earth, women are subservient. Strict
discipline of children to mold them to fit the hierarchy Charter
states they (Puritans) will uphold the laws of England. Separatist:
want to separate away from England so they are in violation of English law.
Roger Williams - Puritan
minister at Salem, Mass. Ideas
troubling to the Puritan church elders; see him as a threat. Minister
without a church. Comes over as a Puritan
but “comes out” as a Separatist. If Elders gave
Williams a church, they would go against the law and would be in danger of
losing their charter.
Williams questioned: 1. The idea
that you must go to church to show you love God. Elders concerned that if you
were not in church, you could be out doing anything, including causing trouble (Puritans must go to church -
attendance required -) 2. Land theft
from the indians. Says people should purchase the land legally instead of
seizing it. Criticizes the king: “Not even the king of England can take land
from the indians.” 3. Argues for
separation of church and state. Government should not have an official
religion. Advocates religious tolerance.
Elders of Mass.Bay Colony say
Williams is: - In violation of English law and the God’s
Law (5th Commandment) - Threat to society. Want to deport him to England
for trial and sentencing to death, but he flees and sets up Rhode Island.
Anne Hutchinson: ~40 years old,
had 12 children, midwife (very important in colonial society) Wants
to help so she holds bible study in her home *Problem because, in Puritan society, the only people qualified to minister
are trained ministers, and all ministers must be men.*
teachings of John Calvin (Covenant of
Grace -> predestination: God has already chosen the people that will go to
of following the Covenant of Works (God will let you into heaven based on the good works you do in life.) Put
on trial for slandering elders for her accusations. (see reader transcript) Accused
of breaking the 5th Commandment (not honouring church elders) Says
God has spoken to her and told her, she has the ability and authority to
out of colony w/ husband, children, and about 80 other people follow her. Goes
to Williams’s colony in Rhode Island, then to New Netherlands (dies there)
Only in Massachusetts for about 8 years but she is one of the earliest
individuals whose criticisms were a warning to the elders to keep an eye on
their people. Puritans wanted freedom to practice their religion, but if you
were to be in their society, you must practice their religion.
Elders established new towns
near and around what became Boston. The more people that show up, the more
values they bring along with them.
The new people
are more concerned about making money instead of developing a model community
as originally intended.
continued taking land from the natives
English believe that once land
is purchased, it belongs to the buyer only.
The indians believe that, because land is owned communally, if it is to be
sold, everyone must agree to the sale. Afterwards, they believe they still
retain some right to it, including hunting.
Pequot War, 1637 - 1638 Pequot
indian killed an Enlish fur trader, so the English retaliated. Pilgrims got
Indian allies to fight back ~300 Pequot indians died and the English take their land. Indian
wars are fairly common, and disputes between colonists and indians are in an
almost constant state of negotiation for land between indians and other
1670s, Wampanoag, Metacom (King
Philip) English order Metacom to
surrender land but Metacom refuses and starts a war with the English.
= Metacom’s / King Philip’s War In proportion to the American Civil War, King Philip’s War was more
destructive because 1 out of 25 settlers were killed. New
England and Indians raided each other, killed, raped, slaved, etc. ~4000 killed Metacom
is killed, his wife and children are sold into slavery
1689, King William’s War William
declares war on France and spills over into colonies. Ravages upstate New York, Nova
Scotia, Quebec. French and English colonies are devastated. People
flee to the colonies and the influx strains Salem and the Massachusetts colonies.
Samuel Parris (failed Caribbean
merchant turned minister) Salem
Village’s 1st ordained minister in 1689; very rigid and not popular The
people also believe that all the quarrelling that happened around the time
Parris came into town was the work of the devil.
witchcraft begins in his home. Parris
purchased slaves including John Indian and his wife, Tituba.
Tituba is referred to an a Caribbean Indian.
Historians see her as African Indian.
Tituba worked in the Parris
household and interacted daily with Parris’ daughters, Elizabeth and Abigail,
telling them stories of her beliefs and customs from the Caribbean. (Perhaps
rituals and practices such as her voodoo or or spirituality.)
Elizabeth and Abigail start having ‘fits’. Screaming, weird sounds,
contortions, etc. Their neighbor and friend Ann Putnam has similar episodes.
29, 1692, (Leap Day) the girls are pressured to answer why they are having
accuse Tituba, Sarah Good, and Sarah
Osborne, who are then interrogated about their roles in the girl’s fits and
Sarahs proclaim their innocence. Tituba confessed to “Devil’s work” and offers
to point others out to the authorities. All three are imprisoned.
June to September 1692: More
than 100 are accused and jailed.
include: gossips, midwives, and a few men, such as Giles Corey and his wife. Giles
Corey testifies against his wife, but later recants. Found innocent
but wishes to be punished according to what death they would have put him to
(would rather die an innocent man instead of an accused witch.) Refuses to
accuse anyone else. September
19, 1692 - escorted to field beside the jail and pressed (crushed) to death. Supposedly yelled “More weight!” as boulders were placed on top of him.
Salem Witch Trials: 18
women hanged by the neck until dead. 5
people and 1 baby die in prison.
When the governor’s wife is
accused of witchcraft, the governor calls a stop to the hunts because now
they’ve become ridiculous and have gone too far.
In the 1950s, Sen. Joseph McCarthy went on a “witch hunt” for
communists in the US government. (Even accused author of The Crucible,
Arthur Miller.) Claimed he had lists of “known communists” but could never
provide them. Part of the hysteria after World War II.
At the end of the 17th century,
faith in science and reason begin to replace superstition.
natural disasters were thought to have some evil behind them until science
begin explaining the real causes. (Natural disasters, disease, death, etc)
End of cohesive puritan society
and end to the Model Community they tried to build.