*looking at mugs in a store* this one says "Queen of Fucking Everything" ... now does that mean "fucking" is a modifier for "queen" or are they implying that whoever buys this mug is performing the action of fucking on everything?
other language learners:
I have learned so much about my own languages from language study. I now have a greater understanding of linguistics and the nuances of grammar and sentence structure. language learning is just so good for your brain!
learning to type in Russian has made my typing in English far worse than it used to be. I am slowly becoming equally mediocre at both languages. soon I will have forgotten where all the letters are
I have been musing on Elucien again (because this is what my life has now become devoted to) and I enjoy the similarity of these two lines:
‘And it was Elain—Elain—who sighed and murmured, “I hope they all burn in hell.”’
“Well, that explains the wings.”’
It’s got exactly the same set-up and sentence structure, same emphasis, same everything. But what I like most of all is that the phrases they spit out that seem unusual for them are 100% things that the other would say?
Elain’s ‘I hope they all burn in hell’ is just, straight up savage Lucien snark. And Lucien’s ‘well, that explains the wings’ is just so 100% Elain’s matter-of-fact, shrugging off chill (See: ‘Nesta did. I just stabbed him.’) Exactly the same tone. So there’s a little bit of the other inside each of them and that’s just beautiful, bless.
Anybody who has studied Japanese and Linguistics will know that Japanese is a part of the Japonic language family. For many years it was thought that Japanese was a language isolate, unrelated to any other language (Although there is some debate as to whether or not Japanese and Korean are related).
Today, most linguists are in agreement that Japanese is not an isolate. The Japonic languages are split into two groups:
Japanese (日本語) and its dialects, which range from standard Eastern Japanese (東日本方言) to the various dialects found on Kyūshū (九州日本方言), which are, different, to say the least.
The Ryukyuan Languages (琉球語派). Which are further subdivided into Northern and Southern Ryukyuan languages. Okinawan is classified as a Northern Ryukyuan Languages. There are a total of 6 Ryukyuan languages, each with its own dialects. The Ryukyuan languages exist on a continuum, somebody who speaks Okinawan will have a more difficult time understanding the Yonaguni Language, which is spoken on Japan’s southernmost populated island.
Japanese and Okinawan (I am using the Naha dialect of Okinawan because it was the standard language of the Ryukyu Kingdom), are not intelligible. Calling Okinawan a dialect of Japanese is akin to calling Dutch a dialect of English. It is demonstrably false. Furthermore, there is an actual Okinawan dialect of Japanese, which borrows elements from the Okinawan language and infuses it with Japanese.
So, where did the Ryukyuan languages come from? This is a question that goes hand in hand with theories about where Ryukyuan people come from. George Kerr, author of Okinawan: The History of an Island People (An old book, but necessary read if you’re interested in Okinawa), theorised that Ryukyuans and Japanese split from the same population, with one group going east to Japan from Korea, whilst the other traveled south to the Ryukyu Islands.
“In the language of the Okinawan country people today the north is referred to as nishi, which Iha Fuyu (An Okinawn scholar) derives from inishi (’the past’ or ‘behind’), whereas the Japanese speak of the west as nishi. Iha suggests that in both instances there is preserved an immemorial sense of the direction from which migration took place into the sea islands.” (For those curious, the Okinawan word for ‘west’ is いり [iri]). But, it must be stated that there are multiple theories as to where Ryukyuan and Japanese people came from, some say South-East Asia, some say North Asia, via Korea, some say that it is a mixture of the two. However, this post is solely about language, and whilst the relation between nishi in both languages is intriguing, it is hardly conclusive.
With that said, the notion that Proto-Japonic was spoken by migrants from southern Korea is somewhat supported by a number of toponyms that may be of Gaya origin (Or of earlier, unattested origins). However, it also must be said, that such links were used to justify Japanese imperialism in Korea.
Yeah, when it comes to Japan and Korea, and their origins, it’s a minefield.
What we do know is that a Proto-Japonic language was spoken around
Kyūshū, and that it gradually spread throughout Japan and the Ryukyu Islands. The question of when this happened is debatable. Some scholars say between the 2nd and 6th century, others say between the 8th and 9th centuries. The crucial issue here, is the period in which proto-Ryukyuan separated from mainland Japanese.
“The crucial issue here is that the period during which the proto-Ryukyuan separated(in terms of historical linguistics) from other Japonic languages do not necessarily coincide with the period during which the proto-Ryukyuan speakers actually settled on the Ryūkyū Islands.That is, it is possible that the proto-Ryukyuan was spoken on south Kyūshū for some time and the proto-Ryukyuan speakers then moved southward to arrive eventually in the Ryūkyū Islands.”
This is a theory supported by Iha Fuyu who claimed that the first settlers on Amami were fishermen from
This opens up two possibilities, the first is that ‘Proto-Ryukyuan’ split from ‘Proto-Japonic’, the other is that it split from ‘Old-Japanese’. As we’ll see further, Okinawan actually shares many features with Old Japanese, although these features may have existed before Old-Japanese was spoken.
So, what does Okinawan look like?
Well, to speakers of Japanese it is recognisable in a few ways. The sentence structure is essentially the same, with a focus on particles, pitch accent, and a subject-object-verb word order. Like Old Japanese, there is a distinction between the terminal form (
) and the attributive form (
). Okinawan also maintains the nominative function of nu ぬ (Japanese: no の). It also retains the sounds ‘wi’ ‘we’ and ‘wo’, which don’t exist in Japanese anymore. Other sounds that don’t exist in Japanese include ‘fa’ ‘fe’ ‘fi’ ‘tu’ and ‘ti’.
Some very basic words include:
はいさい (Hello, still used in Okinawan Japanese) にふぇーでーびる (Thank you) うちなー (Okinawa) 沖縄口 (Uchinaa-guchi is the word for Okinawan) めんそーれー (Welcome) やまとぅ (Japan, a cognate of やまと, the poetic name for ‘Japan’)
Lots of Okinawan can be translated into Japanese word for word. For example, a simple sentence, “Let’s go by bus” バスで行こう (I know, I’m being a little informal haha!) バスっし行ちゃびら (Basu sshi ichabira). As you can see, both sentences are structured the same way. Both have the same loanword for ‘bus’, and both have a particle used to indicate the means by which something is achieved, ‘で’ in Japanese, is ‘っし’ in Okinawan.
Another example sentence, “My Japanese isn’t as good as his” 彼より日本語が上手ではない (Kare yori nihon-go ga jouzu dewanai). 彼やか大和口ぬ上手やあらん (Ari yaka yamatu-guchi nu jooji yaaran). Again, they are structured the same way (One important thing to remember about Okinawan romanisation is that long vowels are represented with ‘oo’ ‘aa’ etc. ‘oo’ is pronounced the same as ‘ou’).
Of course, this doesn’t work all of the time, if you want to say, “I wrote the letter in Okinawan” 沖縄語で手紙を書いた (Okinawa-go de tegami wo kaita). 沖縄口さーに手紙書ちゃん (Uchinaa-guchi saani tigami kachan). For one,
is an alternate version of っし, but, that isn’t the only thing. Okinawan doesn’t have a direct object particle (を in Japanese). In older literary works it was ゆ, but it no longer used in casual speech.
Introducing yourself in Okinawan is interesting for a few reasons as well. Let’s say you were introducing yourself to a group. In Japanese you’d say みんなさこんにちは私はフィリクスです (Minna-san konnichiwa watashi ha Felixdesu) ぐすよー我んねーフィリクスでぃいちょいびーん (Gusuyoo wan’nee Felix di ichoibiin). Okinawan has a single word for saying ‘hello’ to a group. It also showcases the topic marker for names and other proper nouns. In Japanese there is only 1, は but Okinawan has 5! や, あー, えー, おー, のー! So, how do you know which to use? Well, there is a rule, typically the particle fuses with short vowels,
a → aa, i → ee, u → oo, e → ee, o → oo, n → noo.
Of course, the Okinawan pronoun
我ん, is a terrible example, because it is irregular, becoming 我んねー instead of
我んのー or 我んや. Yes. Like Japanese, there are numerous irregularities to pull your hair out over!
I hope that this has been interesting for those who have bothered to go through the entire thing. It is important to discuss these languages because most Ryukyuan languages are either ‘definitely’ or ‘critically’ endangered. Mostly due to Japanese assimilation policies from the Meiji period onward, and World War 2. The people of Okinawa are a separate ethnic group, with their own culture, history, poems, songs, dances and languages. It would be a shame to lose something that helps to define a group of people like language does.
I may or may not look in the
Kyūshū dialects of Japanese next time. I’unno, I just find them interesting.
okay so this reminded me of an idea I’ve been meaning to write forever, cause I saw a post (or maybe an ad? idk) for a mug that said “marry me” at the bottom & I imagined nat, being her usual meddling self, buying it and offering it to steve the next time she sees him making coffee for tony
she does like a wink wink nudge nudge thing but it goes completely over steve’s head, he just fills the mug without looking and takes it down to tony
he hangs out there a bit while tony takes a break to chat & play footsie under the table or whatever, until eventually tony gets to the bottom and drops the cup. It lands on the table and only cracks a little, thankfully, but steve’s like hey, whoa, what’s up and tony just reaches across the table and hauls him in, kisses him with an intensity steve doesn’t understand in the slightest but is totally down for. they kiss for a long few moments and tony keeps saying “yes” in between kisses and steve’s like “okay, sure, yes? yeah yes alright” not entirely understanding what they’re yes-ing here and tony’s like “of course yes, you idiot” and steve’s like “wait I’m not totally sure what we’re talking about here, do you wanna go upstairs? I thought you had work” and tony freezes, like full body freezes, and steve can see the wheels in his mind working full speed then tony sort of reboots, kisses him again softer this time and is like “I do have work, I forgot, yes, I was just…y’know, yes like I love you, I don’t know, I’m tired” “yes you sure are” steve teases and there’s a flicker of—of something, something steve quite can’t identify it before it disappears, but he knows it’s out of place. disappointment? he’s not sure but tony seems fine and when steve asks about it tony smiles and brushes him off and steve chalks it up to tony working too hard again/exhaustion/a moment of them not being on the same wavelength
he hangs out for a little while (tony subtly moves the cup away, out of steve’s reach/sight) and things smooth back to normal. a couple days later, steve walks in to surprise tony, sees him fiddling with the cup. when he says hello, tony jumps and shoves it forcefully onto the table. steve raises his eyebrows, tony says it’s nothing, he just got caught up in his own head. steve’s like okay sure and takes him out to dinner like planned. it sort of niggles at him all night though; how tony had dropped it the first time, how it was still in the workshop instead of taken upstairs at the end of the week like all the other dishes, how guilty tony had looked when steve had seen him fiddling with it. plus the fact that natasha had handed it to steve kinda out of the blue. it was a new cup, wasn’t it? he’d never seen it before. when they come home steve excuses himself briefly (“I’ll be right up, I just want to check on something”) while tony goes upstairs
steve goes into the workshop, intending to look it over and assure himself it’s just a stupid cup and he’s being weird, but instead sees marry me? inscribed at the bottom. his stomach swoops and bottoms out and he has to grab the table to steady himself because oh god he’s such an idiot
he takes the cup with him and goes upstairs. tony’s in pjs now and clearly waiting for him, lax and easy and happy when steve walks in until he sees the cup in steve’s hand, then he stiffens and draws himself in defensively and steve’s like “I didn’t—natasha gave it to me, told me I should take you some coffee but I didn’t look, I just—I didn’t know it said anything” and tony’s like “yeah, I figured that part out pretty fast” and steve steps forward, sucks in a breath because “you said yes” and tony looks away, locks his jaw “it was stupid. it’s too fast and we haven’t talked about it and it’s stupid, I should’ve known it was an accide—” “marry me” tony’s eyes lock back on him, startled, “what?” steve dares to hope, to grin, “you heard me” “if you’re joking, it’s not funny” “what in the hell would make you think I’m joking?”
steve tosses the cup on the bed as he moves forward, takes tony in his arms and kisses him with all the hopeful intensity tony had kissed him those few days ago, asks again, “yes?” and tony laughs, “yes” and steve teases “c’mon, like you mean it” and tony laughs again, nearly into steve’s mouth because he’s already going for another kiss even as he says, “yes, idiot, of course yes”
hello! i just found this blog and it's so amazing to see all the questions people have because then i don't feel so alone! but i haven't seen this question yet so my question is: can you go over the basic sentence structures for things? because sometimes i'll think i have it correct and then suddenly the words are switched around but then when i try /that/ method again, it goes back to the way i had first? like if i put verb before subject, then it says subject before verb? do i make any sense?
Thank you so much, love!! <3
I’ll try to cover the sentence structure in Norwegian main clauses (the post would probably get way too long if I tried to cover subordinate clauses as well, though I could do that in another post if you want! The main clause is definitely the most important/basic one though.)
( Also, do keep in mind that there are always exceptions in a language, so you might stumble across sentences that don’t follow these rules - though most sentences should. )
#1 - Essentials.
Like English, Norwegian is a SVO-language (though it can also act as a VSO-language in certain sentences, but more about that in #5).
To make a sentence in Norwegian you must have:
1 - A verb 2 - A subject (you can omit the subject if you’re ordering someone to do something (e.g. “Run!” or “Come here!”), but to make an actual sentence, you would need both).
This is enough to make very basic sentences, such as:
“Han går.” - “He walks.” / “He’s walking.”
“Jeg spiser.” - “I eat.” / “I’m eating.”
“Du ler.” - “You laugh.” / “You’re laughing.”
*!!! - as you can probably see; in Norwegian there is no past progressive form, so sentences like “Han går” can be translated into both “He walks” and “He’s walking”.
#2 - Verbs.
- Verbs must be the second element in a regular main clause
- Verbs must be the second element in a question if it’s not a yes/no-question
- Verbs must be the first element in a question if it is a yes/no-question
*!!! -“element” is not the same as “word”. The subject could be “Mary and John”, but it’s still only one element.
A regular main clause:
“Jeg bor hjemme.” - “I live at home.”
“Han spiste fisk.” - “He ate fish.”
“De løp rundt.” - “They ran around.”
A regular question:
“Hvor bor du?” - “Where do you live?”
“Hva spiser du?” - “What are you eating?”
“Hvem er det?” - “Who is that?”
“Bor du her?” - “Do you live here?”
“Spiser du fisk?” - “Do you eat fish?”
“Er det deg?” - “Is that you?”
#3 - Subject.
- The subject is usually the first element
- If it’s not the first element, it will be the third element, directly after the verb (this can happen when an adverbial or object is the first element etc.)
- If the sentence has more than one verb and the subject is not the first element, the subject will be in between the verbs.
Subject as the first element:
“Jeg liker iskrem.” - “I like ice cream.”
“Jeg liker iskrem nå.”- “I like ice cream now.”
Subject as the third element: (usually you would make a sentence like this if you want to put more stress on the object or adverbial (time/place/etc.))
“Nå liker jeg iskrem.” - “Now I like ice cream.”
Two verbs + subject as the first element:
“Jeg kan spise iskrem nå.” - “I can eat ice cream now.”
Two verbs + subject as the third element (subject between the verbs):
“Nå kan jeg spise iskrem.” - “Now I can eat ice cream.”
#4 - Negation.
- In a main clause the negation “ikke” will usually come directly after the verb.
- If the sentence has more than one verb, the negation will split the two.
- The subject can sometimes split the verb and “ikke”if it’s the third element of the main clause instead of the first
“Jeg liker ikke brød.” - “I don’t like bread.”
“Han snakker ikke mye.” - “He doesn’t talk much.”
“Han kan ikke lese.” - “He can’t read.”
“Jeg liker ikke å skrive.” - “I don’t like to write.”
When the subject is the third element:
“Nå lager han ikke mat.” - “He’s not making food now.”
“Denne boken liker jeg ikke.” - “I don’t like this book.”
*!!! - be aware that the negation “ikke” comes before the verb if it’s a subordinate clause and not a main clause.
#5 - Adverbial.
- Usually either the first or the very last element in a normal sentence.
“Nå leser han.” - “Now he’s reading.”
“Han leser nå.”- “He’s reading now.”
*!!! -when an adverbial is the first element, the sentence can turn into an VSO-sentence instead of an SVO-sentence.
Like previously mentioned, there are always a lot of exceptions in a language, but this should at least be enough to make and understand basic sentences! c:
Writing Tips #13: Sentence Structure Part 1: Simple, Compound, and Complex.
Hello everyone, and welcome to another episode of Writing Tips! Apologies for the hiatus (I got a little ambitious with Camp NaNoWriMo). But we’re back for the month of May, and today we’ll be focusing on sentence structure. Again, we’ll need multiple lessons to give this topic in the depth it deserves, so today we’ll just be looking at the basics.
There are a few main categories of sentence structure: simple, compound, and complex. Varying your sentence structure can add variety and rhythm to an otherwise clunky paragraph, as well as allow you to expand on and add nuance to ideas. Let’s look at each type individually:
Simple Sentences: Simple sentences are the most basic of the three. They are used to convey a single complete thought, without any coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Here are some examples:
a.) You stole a cat.
b.) He walked through the graveyard.
c.) They stabbed the guardsmen.
The simplest of simple sentences contain only a subject and a verb. These can be effective when used sparingly, but be aware that in most situations, these are a little too bare-bones. Examples:
d.) They ran.
e.) She wept.
f.) You jumped.
Do not underestimate the simple sentence. Some writers avoid simple sentences because they feel too straightforward/unornamented, but using them can help limit the amount of extraneous detail in your sentences, which makes for stronger writing. Simple sentences can even be used for emphasis, as we see in the opening chapter of N.K Jemisin’s The Fifth Season:
This is what you must remember: the ending of one story is just the beginning of another. This has happened before, after all. People die. Old orders pass. New societies are born. When we say “the world has ended,” it’s usually a lie, because the planet it just fine.
But this is the way the world ends.
This is the way the world ends.
This is the way the world ends.
For the last time.
Part of what makes this passage so effective is its use of simple sentences (although there are a few more intricate sentences in there, for variety). These straightforward statements build upon one another, creating an almost percussive rhythm, which reaches a crescendo as we reach a critical statement: This is the way the world ends.
Compound Sentences: Compound sentences are basically two simple sentences mashed together by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). Compound sentences join two independent clauses, but unlike with complex sentences (see below), the relationship between each clause can sometimes be ambiguous. Let’s expand on those simple sentences from before for our examples:
g.) You stole a cat, so the owner chased after you with a pitchfork.
h.) He walked through the graveyard, but his girlfriend never arrived.
i.) They stabbed the guardsmen, and the Pumpkin Queen ate cake.
These are all viable compound sentences. However, the observant among you will have noticed that that last example was somewhat odd. The two clauses don’t seem to be connected in any meaningful way, which makes the sentence lose some cohesion. It feels clumsy and awkward, and without additional context, we cannot glean the relationship between the two statements contained within.
Compound sentences do not require a relationship between the independent clauses–any pair of independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction qualifies as a compound sentence–but generally speaking, if there’s no relationship between the two statements presented in your sentence, you probably shouldn’t be putting those statements into the same sentence to begin with.
Of the three categories listed here, compound sentences are the most overused. Often, it’s better to split these up into simple sentences or revise them to make each clause’s relationship to one another more explicit. Which brings us to …
Complex Sentences: Complex sentences use subordinating conjunctions (after, because, although, when, while, etc) to join an independent clause and a dependent clause. This type of sentence tends to have more nuance than the other two types, and is a staple of good writing. Here are some examples:
j.) After sneaking into an old woman’s house, you stole a cat.
k.) Because his girlfriend never arrived, he walked through the graveyard alone.
l.) They stabbed the guardsmen while the Pumpkin Queen laughed and ate cake.
Complex sentences allow you to make the relationship between two clauses more explicit, which in turn adds clarity and specificity to your writing. That said, don’t feel like you have to make every sentence into a complex sentence. Just as you wouldn’t enjoy a song that relies solely on one chord, readers won’t enjoy a story that only makes use of one type of sentence.
Thanks again for reading, and I hope you’ve found this post helpful. If you have any questions or comments, let me know: I may even make an entire lesson out of it. Otherwise, I’ll see you in the next one.
Here’s the first part of a fic- AU where Bitty and Jack meet for the first time at the EpicKegster.
Note that the second part of this is not written yet, and I’m crushed under my to-do list, so don’t expect it soon and please don’t ask when the next part will come, I don’t know. But I wanted to share this with y’all, so I hope you enjoy.
I apologise for errors, typos or weird sentence structure, all my editing power is and will be concentrated on my own novel, so ha.
pairings and warnings: pretty much what you get from the canon
Jack went down the stairs with a huff of annoyance. The first floor of the Haus was packed from wall to wall. Loud thumping music, laughter and yells that were barely tolerable from his room now seemed almost tangible, crushing him from all sides. He could already feel the beginnings of a headache.
He pushed his way through and managed to reach the kitchen unscathed. Only three guys were sitting at the table, loudly debating Plato’s cavern versus the Matrix, and another was leaning on the counter near the stove, muttering to himself.
Jack opened a cupboard, swore under his breath when he saw that it was empty of their usual mugs, glasses and bottles. He took a new red solo cup from the enormous pack available to all, and filled it with tap water, trying to ignore the guys at the table.
‘…aren’t you the most precious thing, baby…’
Jack turned around. The guy next to the oven was muttering endearments with a southern drawl- but there was no one next to him. He wasn’t even holding his phone.
Jack had a doubt. Was the guy talking to him?
‘Yes, you are lovely, a bit old, but I would love you, and take care of you, and create glorious things with you, oh sweetheart, if only…’
The guy was not talking to Jack. He was talking to the oven.
He was also, apparently, completely drunk.
‘… better things than pizza rolls, you can be sure of that, you sexy thing…’
Jack was a moment away from heading back to his room when he heard a sob.
‘… but it’s not to be, pretty thing, you and I will have to go our own separate ways and- sniffle- get with our own lonely lives and - oh lord, I’m being ridiculous-’
‘Huh-’ started Jack. ‘Are you okay?’
The guy turned around. He looked older than Jack expected. At least, he seemed to be over eighteen. Jack only had an impression of eyes and blond before he got the drunkest and fakest smile he ever saw in his life.
‘HI!’ said the boy. ‘Gosh, you’re big.’
‘… are you okay?’ repeated Jack.
‘Why, yes, of course! I’m peachy!’
The guy seemed surprised by this fact. He dried his tears with the sleeve of his hoodie and made a dismissive gesture with his other hand.
‘Don’t mind me, sweetheart, I’m being silly.’
‘…You were crying,’ insisted Jack. ‘And talking to the oven.’
‘Well, no one else seemed to give her love, so I figured-’
He stopped himself and looked at Jack.
‘You’re the Captain of the hockey team,’ he realised. ‘This is your house. This is your oven.’
‘…Yes? In a manner of speaking?’
‘What’s her name?’
‘The OVEN,’ insisted the guy.
‘She- it doesn’t have a name?’
‘Blasphemy. If I had the chance to own such a lovely baby, I would name her something adorable! Like Daisy, or Betsy, and I would bake everyday, I would make pies and cookies and biscuits and-’
He burst into tears.
Jack threw a look around. The guys at the table were staring at them.
‘Dude, what’d’you do to him?’
‘D’you break up with him or something?’
‘No! We just met! He was talking about the oven- and then- and then-’
He made a helpless motion towards the crying boy.
‘Maybe you should do something about it?’ suggested one of them.
‘Dunno. Something. To make him stop crying.’
Jack hesitated. He thought about retreating to the safety of his room, where the music didn’t hurt his ears and blonde strangers didn’t burst into tears at the sight of a kitchen appliance.
Awkwardly, he lifted a hand and patted the guy’s shoulder.
‘…there, there,’ he muttered, feeling like the most ridiculous man on Earth.
He got several thumbs ups from the table residents. Which didn’t help his predicament at all. The boy was still crying.
‘Hey, hey, shh, don’t cry, everything is going to be okay…’
‘You don’t know that!’ wailed the blonde boy.
‘Okay, you’re right. Maybe, huh, what could make it right?’
Common mistakes English speakers make while speaking Spanish
Here are some of the common mistakes I hear from English native speakers who are learning Spanish.
Translating English expressions in Spanish literally. This is something quite common with all language learners, really. An example is “I’m hot” wich English speakers translate as “Estoy caliente”, which actually means “I’m horny”. (We say “Tengo calor” = I have heat). This happens because English speakers translate the sentence from their mother tongue (if you spoke a romance language this method could help, but with English it doesn’t)
Using the subject in every sentence. You might have heard about this. You could write an essay with perfect Spanish, but if the reader sees the subject in every sentence they will know that you aren’t a native speaker. This is because in English you always have to use the subject, but in Spanish it doesn’t sound natural.
Word order. While English has a word order that you can’t really change, in Spanish you can basically do whatever you want. Of course you can use the English sentence structure, but sometimes those structures sound weird in Spanish.
Mixig up the indicative and subjunctive. Ok, if you say the verb in indicative people won’t laugh at you, we know that you don’t have the subjunctive in English and it’s a pain in the ass to learn it, and it’s an advanced level. But if you want to reach proficiency, then you must learn those verbal tenses (sorry).
There is/there are. In Spanish we do not say “there is/there are”, “there was/there were”, “there has been/there have been”, etc. We ONLY use the singular form.
Possessive pronouns. The use of possessive pronouns in Spanish is a bit different. For example, we do not say “Me duele mi cabeza” (literally, My head hurts), but, rather, “Me duele la cabeza” (The head hurts). Same thing with other parts of your body.
IN/ON-EN/SOBRE. The equivalents would be “en” and “sobre”. However, we tend to use “en” for “sobre” too. For example, in English you say “It’s on the table”, which in Spanish is “Está sobre la mesa”, but “Está en la mesa” is more natural. Also, we say that somethig is “en Internet”, “en el periódico”, “en la televisión”…
And there are more, of course, but these are the ones I find the most interesting, basically because I had the same problems but the other way round when I was learning English. Good luck with your studies!
1. 오늘 공원에서 남자친구랑 점심을 먹으려고 만났어요.
2. 치킨 샌드위치와 작은 샐러드를 만들었어요. 과일과 아이스티도 포장했어요.
3. 오늘은 아름다운 날이었기 때문에 제가 좋아하는 신발을 신었어요.
4. 점심 먹은 후에, 우리는 산책하러 커피를 마시러 찾아갔어요. 저는 라떼를, 그는 아메리카노를 주문했어요.
5. 제 남자친구는 사무실로 돌아가야했지만, 저는 카페에서 이메일을 쓰고 공부하기 위해 조금 더 머물었어요.
1. My boyfriend and I met for lunch in the park today.
2. I made chicken sandwiches with a small salad. I also packed some fruit and iced teas.
3. Since today was a beautiful day, I wore my favorite shoes.
4. After lunch, we went for a walk to find coffee. I got a latte and he ordered an Americano.
5. He had to go back to the office, but I stayed at the cafe a little longer to study and write emails.
Make sure the subject of your sentence is the perpetrator of the action, not the recipient.
You can watch out for to-be verbs (was, am, are, etc.) As they can often indicate the use of passive voice, though this isn’t always the case!
Passive: The TARDIS was ridden by the Doctor. Active: The Doctor rode the TARDIS. Also Active: The Doctor was riding the TARDIS.
Passive: The Doctor was upset by the color of his kidneys. Active: The color of his kidneys upset the Doctor.
Passive: Amy was frightened by the Weeping Angels. Active: The Weeping Angels frightened Amy.
Passive: Rose was left in another universe by the Doctor. Active: The Doctor left Rose in another universe.
Passive: Clara was dubbed “The Impossible Girl.” Active: The Doctor dubbed Clara “The Impossible Girl.”
Passive: Young Time Lords are exposed to the Time Vortex. Active: Elders expose young Time Lords to the Time Vortex.
Do you see in that last example how blame is removed, but the event is still made? It creates distance from the details of the event, yet if a Time Lord elder was telling the story, he might prefer the passive voice because it doesn’t mention who’s at fault.
In scientific writing, passive voice is actually the standard because it creates a feeling of objectivity.
Passive: In a study that was conducted at Harvard, the results showed drastic improvement. Active: We conducted a study at Harvard which showed drastic improvement.
The passive voice leaves the scientists out of it, which is preferred in that setting. (See that use of passive voice there??)
In fiction, though, active voice should comprise 85-90% of your writing. Passive voice has its place, of course, but you should always be using intentionally.
Writing Tip #1: Passive Voice, and Why You Should Avoid it.
Greeting everyone, and welcome to the first installment of my writing advice series (aptly named “Writing Tips”). In each of these segments, I will briefly summarize a bit of writing advice, explain why you should follow it, and provide examples of how to use these tools effectively. Today’s writing tip is all about the Passive Voice.
What is Passive Voice? Passive Voice is a method of constructing sentences in which you place the subject of the sentence after the predicate in such a way that the sentence reads as if an object is performing an action upon the subject, rather than the subject performing an action on the object. Basically, the sentence looks like this: The object was verbed by the subject.
Why you should avoid it: The Passive Voice is problematic for several reasons. Aside from the wordiness introduced by its unusual structure, Passive Voice also tends to sound stilted when spoken aloud. Writing was invented to convey the spoken word (although there are exceptions to this, such as kanji, which is written symbolically. But that’s a discussion for another time). As such, good writing should be able to be read aloud and still flow naturally.
Passive Voice: A cup of tea is had by you.
Active Voice: You had a cup of tea.
Try reading the first example aloud. You’ll swiftly realize how awkward and unnatural it sounds. Meanwhile, the second example reads normally and is therefore less likely to jolt readers out of the story.
Tips for identifying Passive Voice:
1. If you can add the phrase “by zombies” to the sentence/phrase in question, it’s likely written in the Passive Voice.
John was eaten … by zombies.
The girls were yelled at … by zombies.
The cart was pushed … by zombies.
2. You can also look for passive verbs. These will not always indicate that a sentence/phrase is passive, but like a canary in a coal mine, they are a useful indicator that something has gone wrong. Passive verbs include: is, was, were, are, am, be, being, and been. That said, don’t feel like you need to eliminate every instance of these words. Sometimes they really are the best way to convey a bit of information. Just keep in mind that they can often be replaced with more dynamic, evocative words and structures.
And that’s pretty much everything you’ll ever need to know about Passive Voice. I hope you found this lesson useful. I intend to post one of these writing tips every couple days, so please stay tuned for more. Thanks for reading!
i was taught back in freshman year of high school that there are two ways you can structure a sentence. for example:
american sign language(ASL)
this structure is commonly called glossing.
say i pick a sentence from a song
“i just cant stop loving you.”
by glossing, you have a reorganized sentence.
“I NOT STOP LOVE YOU”
there is also active and passive signing.
if the subject is your topic , you are using an active voice.
“I EAT CANDY”
if the object is your topic you are using a passive voice.
“CANDY, I EAT”
fun fact- a lot of people tend to use an active voice because of how similar it is to English grammar.
a topicalized sentence is using the object of the sentence as the topic and introducing it as a “yes/no question expression” ending with a comment.
“YOUR CANDY? I EAT YESTERDAY”
your candy is the topic and the sentence is in object-verb-subject word order.
“ I ate YOUR CANDY YESTERDAY”
woahhh kaylee, you made an error. why is ate not capitalized but the rest of the sentence is?
well first off, i didn’t make an error. second, words that have a sign for them such as “SOUR” are in caps. words without a sign such as “of, ate,ran,” can be finger spelled but then you'd be using SEE instead of ASL. there aren’t past tense words, that’s why you say what time of day it is!! “YESTERDAY, I RUN” or “I RUN YESTERDAY”.
either way is fine.
signing exact english
that is exactly what it sounds like. SEE is based on signs drawn from asl but is expanded using words that give a complete visual representation. “the girl had soft, silky hair.”
thats all i can think of atm so if you have anything else on asl and see let me know/add on. i might add on a bit later tho after i go shower brb
so Shire-talk is canonically a very different dialect of Westron than what Gondorians or Elves or whatever speak and some of the hobbits can code switch between the two and it’s extremely interesting to see how Tolkien portrays it
I’ve just gotten to the part where Frodo meets Faramir, and the difference between how he talks to Faramir and how he talks to Sam, for instance, is v noticable
with Sam he’s a lot more casual and even slightly more modern (for the value of 1954, not 2017) vs with Faramir where he switches to this very formal, quite archaic to our ears (“seven companions we had”)
and then Sam himself doesn’t seem comfortable speaking this prestige dialect (his style includes rather more general “vernacular” features common across regional nonliterary English dialects) - probably bc unlike Frodo he was not given the type of education that would lend itself to learning how to speak it comfortably - so there’s this clash between how Faramir talks to them and how Sam talks back
there’s also the bit where Theoden meets Merry and Pippin, and Merry greets him in very high formality, Pippin addresses Gimli casually bc they’re friends, then turns to Theoden and switches to the formal style, they both talk some more to him, and then after he’s gone Pippin turns to Merry and says Theoden was a “fine old fellow, very polite” (in the more casual style)
In that one scene you have a lot of style switching depending on the person they’re addressing and their status and relationship to the hobbits, but, for instance, Gimli’s sentence structure sounds more like the formal dialect even when he’s happily berating them and calling them villains, probably because he doesn’t use Shire-talk
How to Learn a Language Naturally: Back to the Basics
Lately as I’ve been gradually
getting back into independent language learning I’ve found myself struggling
with where to begin. Every textbook I would take out would leave me bored and
frustrated with either the simplicity or the level it was placed at relative to
where I was at that time; yet without some sort of direction, I felt lost.
Already battling against lack of motivation, creating a
self-study program from scratch seemed like an incredibly daunting task.
However, after taking a step back I’ve begun to see other approaches that I can
take to learn the language in a more natural way
– turning away from standard
study that leaves me unmotivated, and focusing instead on fun and entertaining
ways of language application. Here is what I’ve come up with.
Starting off as a beginner:
My greatest and first word of
advice for starting off as a beginner in your target language would be to start
looking around websites such as Memrise and Quizlet for lists of most commonly
used words. The “Learn [Language] in 200/300 words” posts on Tumblr by @funwithlanguages
are also a great place to start. Start working on pronouns, general sentence
structure or basic phrases, and learning the overall conjugation patterns for
the most basic verbs. Flashcards and index cards are incredibly useful here. This
will give you a good foundation off of which you can build further.
In addition, having some sort of
structured course, such as the Teach Yourself series or many available courses
on Memrise that teach vocabulary connected with dialogues, is extremely
helpful. It has been scientifically proven that a person learns vocabulary much
faster when they have some sort of emotional connection formed, and by learning
words in context, it is much easier to remember what something means and how it
Find some good, easy, dual-language books to start off with.
Go through them chapter by chapter, making sure to read each paragraph in only
the target language before going back and looking up/checking unknown words.
Read each section multiple times as to ensure comprehension, and, even better,
read it to yourself out loud while working on pronunciation. Later, as you become
more advanced, you can move on to books entirely in your target language, and
try to write your own definitions of unknown words using the given context
before checking them yourself.
Search for different news sources from countries where your
target language is spoken. Read through the article and write your own
summaries of events.
Try changing the language settings on your phone or social
media accounts to your target language, and make note of any new vocabulary –
don’t allow yourself to go on autopilot.
Challenge yourself to make short vlogs or general videos in
your target language. If needed, feel free to write a script to read off of;
otherwise, challenge yourself to speak purely off the top of your head – using as
much as you know, even if your sentences start off broken.
Set up Skype sessions with native speakers and practice
communicating using whatever knowledge of your target language you possess. If
you are unsure of a word, try to use others to describe it instead of resorting
to your native language (or even just ask how you would say something using
your target language).
Look up the lyrics to different songs in your target
language and practice translating. Similarly, try translating other songs into
your target language.
Find native speakers who would be willing to communicate
with and correct you, and practice conversing using only your target language
(no matter how often you need to use a dictionary – but make sure you take note
of any new vocabulary or concepts you come across!).
Practice writing status updates (whether on a private
account or not), journal entries, essays, or fictional pieces in your target
language. If able, see if you can find a native speaker who would be willing to
give you corrections, or simply post your text on Lang8!
Youtube is a great resource for all levels of language
learning. Try searching for content creators that make videos in a genre you
enjoy, and utilize their channels to practice your listening skills and
inferring from context while immersing yourself. Write down any words you are
unsure of to look up later.
Music in your target language – listen for words you
recognize, and look up those you don’t. Things like lyrics are much more likely to stick in your memory, so use that to your advantage!
Look around for an online radio that broadcasts news in your
target language, or even an online news source that posts or broadcasts video.
Watch films in your target language, even if it’s content
that was originally in English. Many DVDs come with dubs in other languages
depending on where you’re from, and Netflix (especially Netflix Original
Series) also offers many different dub and subtitle options depending on the
content. Even YouTube occasionally has films or TV episodes uploaded in other
languages, so long as you look hard enough.
When it comes to grammar, it is important to have a good,
solid grammar book that breaks down all basic ideas into something that is comprehensible.
Don’t start off with learning grammar right away, however; give yourself some
time to really soak up the language itself and get used to basic concepts
first. Once you’re at a higher level, being able to properly break down your
target language and put it back together will substantially help your
progression to fluency.
Incorporate practice sentences into your writing, utilizing
each concept. By forcing yourself to physically use each grammatical structure
in a context you’ve come up with yourself, it will be much easier for you to
master each idea, as well as help it to become more natural.
Hopefully this was helpful in some way! Good luck, and happy language learning!