semaeostomeae

Purple jellyfish | ©Frédéric Lechat   (Belle-Île, France)

Pelagia noctiluca (Semaeostomeae - Pelagiidae) is a jellyfish found in the Northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, and western and central Pacific. Sometimes it is commonly named Mauve stinger.

These jellyfishes are beautiful, especially when they phosphoresce. The Mauve stinger glows by producing luminous mucus from surface cells when it is knocked or disturbed by waves.

Unlike most jellyfish, the life cycle of the mauve stinger does not involve a fixed stage.

[Source]

Blue Jellyfish (Cyanea lamarckii)

Also known as the bluefire jellyfish, the blue jellyfish is a striking species of Cyaneid jellyfish which is distributed throughout the North Atlantic where it occurs off the west coast of Scotland, the North Sea, and the Irish Sea. Like most jellyfish species, blue jellyfish are predatory and will feed on passing zooplankton which hare dispatched via their stinging nematocysts. 

Classification

Animalia-Cnidaria-Scyphozoa-Semaeostomeae-Cyaneidae-Cyanea-C. lamarckii

Image: Malene Thyssen

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Unbelievable. Possibly a jellyfish from the genus Deepstaria, only described since the 60s, and until know only known from fragments:  

Imperfectly known, many specimens damaged. Two nominal species, information from both combined here based on Russell (1967), Larson (1986), Larson et al. (1988). Bell remarkably thin, broad, delicate … flexing down in “pursing” manner… most specimens reported colorless but deep brown … lining a paler brown recorded once (Larson et al., 1988, as Deepstaria reticulum); more observations needed before value of this as species character can be evaluated. 

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The Lion’s Mane Jellyfish - The largest jellyfish in the Atlantic Ocean

Scientifically named Cyanea capillata (Semaeostomeae - Cyaneidae), this impressive jellyfish is the largest jellyfish in the Atlantic Ocean and one of the largest in the world. 

The Lion’s mane jellyfish generally grows to 30-50 cm in diameter in British waters. However, they have been known to grow up to 2 m, and its tentacles can be up to 60 m long.

Cyanea capillata has a global distribution, although it is mostly found in the northern hemisphere in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and North Sea, as well as around Australia in the south.

References: [1] - [2]

Photo credit: ©Dan Hershman | Locality: Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Washington, US (2006)

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“Big Red” (Tiburonia granrojo)

…a species of Ulmarid jellyfish that is the sole member of the subfamily Tiburoniinae. Tiburonia granrojo has been observed in deep waters (around 600 to 1,500 meters) across the Pacific Ocean, including in the Sea of Cortez, Monterey Bay, Hawaii, and Japan. Tiburonia granrojo can grow up to 75 centimeters (30 in) in diameter and in place of the long tentacles found in most other jellyfish it has thick oral arms. Only 23 specimens of Tiburonia granrojo have ever been observed, and only one has been collected (a small [15 cm] specimen) for study. 

Classification

Animalia-Cnidaria-Scyphozoa-Semaeostomeae-Ulmaridae-Tiburoniinae-Tiburonia-T. granrojo

Image(s): NOAA/Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

Moon jellyfish  (Moon jelly, Common jellyfish, Saucer jelly)

Aurelia aurita (Semaeostomeae - Ulmaridae), the Moon jellyfish, often lives in large groups in the sea. You can easily identify them by their four moons’ in the middle. These are the reproductive organs. Males have white and females have pink moons’.

Moon jellyfish have short tentacles along the edge of the bell and four short arms situated around the mouth for catching food. The tentacles of the moon jellyfish are poisonous for small marine animals but people are not affected by the toxin since it does not penetrate the skin. 

Aurelia aurita is a cosmopolitan species, found near the coast, in mostly warm and tropical waters.

Reference: [1]

Photo credit: ©Marten Hansson

Locality: Limhamn, Malmö, Sweden

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Lion’s Mane Jellyfish - Cyanea sp.

Medusae in the genus Cyanea (Semaeostomeae - Cyaneidae), commonly referred to as Lion’s Mane Jellyfish, are conspicuous members of the gelatinous zooplankton in many parts of the world, however the taxonomic history of south-eastern Australia Cyanea is quite complex and has been unsettled.

Phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that Cyanea in southern New South Wales and Cyanea in Tasmania and Victoria constitute two distinct morphological groups. Moreover, these clades are molecularly distinct from C. capillata from its North Sea type locality.

So it has been stated that Cyanea annaskala is a valid species for those specimens from Tasmania and Victoria; and Cyanea rosea is tentatively resurrected for medusae from New South Wales.

Reference: [1]

Photo credit: ©Richard Ling (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) | Locality: Bare Island, Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia (2012)

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Aurelia labiata

…is a species of “Moon Jellyfish” (Aurelia spp.) which is known to inhabit the northern Pacific Ocean, ranging from the eastern coast of Japan to the coast of California. Like other jellyfish A. labiata is predatory, using its stinging nematocysts to dispatch small passing invertebrates. A. labiata is very similar to its more common relative A. aurita, and will even occasionally occur in the swarms of A. aurita. However, A. labiata is known to be larger and has a dark brown margin, and well branched subumbrellar canals (canals on the underside of the bell)

Classification

Animalia-Cnidaria-Scyphozoa-Semaeostomeae-Ulmaridae-Aurelia-A. labiata

Image: Spacebirdy

“Fried Egg Jellyfish” (Phacellophora camtschatica)

Also known as the “egg yolk jellyfish”, the fried egg jellyfish is a species of Phacellophorid jellyfish (it was formerly considered a Ulmarid) which can found in cool-water areas of most of the worlds oceans. Like most jellyfish P. camtschatica is a pelagic drifter, moving with the current feeding on a range of zooplankton and occasionally other jellyfish. Because P. camtschaticsa has a relatively weak sting it is generally is a home for small crustaceans which ride on its bell and steal food from it. 

Classification

Animalia-Cnidaria-Scyphozoa-Semaeostomeae-Phacellophoridae-Phacellophora-P. camtschatica

Image: Tom Thai

Brownbanded Moon Jelly - Aurelia limbata

An extraordinary photo of the scyphomedusa (moon jelly) Aurelia limbata (Semaeostomeae - Ulmaridae), an epipelagic species which occurs in arctic waters. The umbrella diameter of this species may vary from 16 to 40 cm.

Molecular analyses have demonstrated that all currently recognized morphospecies of Aurelia are polyphyletic, and that A. limbata includes at least two molecular species.

References: [1

Photo credit: ©Alexander Semenov | Locality: Sea of Okhotsk - Western Pacific (2014)

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