Qashqai are mixed clans of different ethnic origins, including Persian, Lori, Kurdish, Arab and Turkic. They mainly live in the Iranian provinces of Fars, Khuzestan and southern Isfahan, especially around the city of Shiraz in Fars. They are bilingual, speaking the Qashqai language - which is a member of the Turkic family of languages and which they call Turki - as well as (in formal use) the Persian language. The Qashqai were originally nomadic pastoralists and some remain so today. The traditional nomadic Qashqai travelled with their flocks each year from the summer highland pastures north of Shiraz roughly 480 km or 300 miles south to the winter pastures on lower (and warmer) lands near the Persian Gulf, to the southwest of Shiraz. The majority, however, have now become partially or wholly sedentary. The trend towards settlement has been increasing markedly since the 1960s. The Qashqai are made up of a number of tribes and sub-tribes including the Amele, Derre-Shuri, Kashkyoli, Shesh(6) Baluki, Farsimadan, Qaraja, Rahimli and Safi -Khanli.