secretarial work

anonymous asked:

What are considered Gmos? My friend says that they have to be manipulated in a lab, but many biology blogs say that a selectively bred animal or plant is a gmo.

Hey! I can understand your confusion, and I apologize for being one of those people who purposefully muddies the water around the definition of what exactly is a genetically modified organism.

The best description I could find was the one legally defined by the European Union: “An organism is genetically modified if its genetic material has been changed in a way that does not occur under natural conditions through cross-breeding or natural recombination”

These would include things like, in agriculture, introduced resistances to things that crops would normally be susceptible to - either natural pathogens (fungi, parasites, bacteria, viruses, etc), or something like an artificially-created herbicide to facilitate weed management (“Roundup Ready” crops that are resistant to the glyphosate herbicide Roundup). Ideally, it is used to enable more sustainable and efficient farming.

This would also include genetically engineered animals - a phrase that likely sparks fear into the majority of people, but, like in the plants mentioned above, boils down to just the addition of recombinant DNA (essentially a controlled version of DNAs natural reproductive process of genetic recombination) that produces the desired trait. For example, AquAdvantage Salmon that reach adult size faster due to an introduced growth hormone gene being controlled by an ocean pout gene promoter; VERY good news for the fishing industry, and as a result, the environment - since this means less demand on wild-caught sources. Science is so cool, you guys.

On the other hand, you’ve probably heard terms like artificial selection or selective breeding bandied about - and this is essentially the pre-labs, extremely long-game version of GMOs. Not to mention the version that is usually touted as being better since it’s “natural”, as though anything produced in a lab is sent straight from the ninth circle of Hell itself (looking at you, anti-vaxxers)

These are things like most of our basic food crops and domesticated animals, where humans have affected the evolution of the target organism to get the desired trait over hundreds and thousands of years. Such as how the extinct aurochs became more meat-heavy cows, wild teosinte became higher-yield corn, and Brassica became literally everything else, to a point where I wouldn’t even be surprised if dogs had some B. oleracea in them. 

So, artificial selection and GMOs overlap in a lot of ways, but I hope I clarified the subject a little bit better. Enjoy your Brassica oleracea canis

Lay - 161124 Weibo account update

Translation: “Happy Thanksgiving
Thank you to all who have been consistently supporting me throughout this journey
As time and age changes
My thoughts and actions are starting to change as well
My surroundings are also changing quietly
Thank you for your unchanging love, my Xingmis (Xback, the English version for Xingmis)
Thank you to my teachers who have taught and cultivated me
Thank you to every senior who has taken care of me
Thank you to the little secretaries working at my studio
Especially my Go Fighting brothers
Thank you to each and every members of exo
Thank you to father, mother, grandfather and grandmother
Thank you to myself
Thank you for everything, grateful for everything.“

Credit: 努力努力再努力x.

5

Michael x Reader

Requested By Anon


“How’s the new secretary working for you?” Tommy chuckled when he found Michael gazing over at you.

“Alright, besides she aint new, been here a few months now.” Michael pointed out.

“She still jumps every time she hears Arthur coming.” Tommy muttered and the both laughed.

Keep reading

ROTG Business AU featuring:

Production Manager North

Financial Officer Bunnymund 

Chief Operating Officer Toothiana

Marketing Manager Sanderson

College Intern Jack

Secretary Onyx (she used to be Sanderson’s secretary but now she works for Pitch. I’ve never seen Onyx in any human au, so I wanted to try it and I’m really happy with how she turned out)

And finally…

CEO Pitch 

npr.org
Army Corps Denies Easement For Dakota Access Pipeline
The decision essentially halts the construction of the oil pipeline right above the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation and it also comes as protests at the site continued to grow.

The Army Corps of Engineers has decided to deny a permit for the construction of a key section of the Dakota Access Pipeline.

The decision essentially halts the construction on the 1,172-mile oil pipeline about half a mile south of the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation. The decision is also a victory for the thousands of demonstrators across the country who flocked to North Dakota in protest.

“Our prayers have been answered,” National Congress of American Indians President Brian Cladoosby said in a statement. “This isn’t over, but it is enormously good news. All tribal peoples have prayed from the beginning for a peaceful solution, and this puts us back on track.”

Jo-Ellen Darcy, the the Army’s assistant secretary for civil works, said after talking with tribal officials and hearing their concerns that the pipeline could affect the drinking water, it became “clear that there’s more work to do.”

“The best way to complete that work responsibly and expeditiously is to explore alternate routes for the pipeline crossing,” Darcy said in a statement.

In a statement, Standing Rock Sioux Tribal Chairman Dave Archambault II said the tribe welcomed the decision, but he also sounded a note of caution saying he hoped the incoming Donald Trump administration would “respect this decision and understand the complex process that led us to this point.”

Archambault II went on:

“When it comes to infrastructure development in Indian Country and with respect to treaty lands, we must strive to work together to reach decisions that reflect the multifaceted considerations of tribes. Treaties are paramount law and must be respected, and we welcome dialogue on how to continue to honor that moving forward. We are not opposed to energy independence, economic development, or national security concerns but we must ensure that these decisions are made with the considerations of our Indigenous peoples.”