search-for-life

Cassini Spacecraft: Top Discoveries

Our Cassini spacecraft has been exploring Saturn, its stunning rings and its strange and beautiful moons for more than a decade.

Having expended almost every bit of the rocket propellant it carried to Saturn, operators are deliberately plunging Cassini into the planet to ensure Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration – in particular, the ice-covered, ocean-bearing moon Enceladus, but also Titan, with its intriguing pre-biotic chemistry.

Let’s take a look back at some of Cassini’s top discoveries:  

Titan

Under its shroud of haze, Saturn’s planet-sized moon Titan hides dunes, mountains of water ice and rivers and seas of liquid methane. Of the hundreds of moons in our solar system, Titan is the only one with a dense atmosphere and large liquid reservoirs on its surface, making it in some ways more like a terrestrial planet.

Both Earth and Titan have nitrogen-dominated atmospheres – over 95% nitrogen in Titan’s case. However, unlike Earth, Titan has very little oxygen; the rest of the atmosphere is mostly methane and traced amounts of other gases, including ethane.

There are three large seas, all located close to the moon’s north pole, surrounded by numerous smaller lakes in the northern hemisphere. Just one large lake has been found in the southern hemisphere.

Enceladus

The moon Enceladus conceals a global ocean of salty liquid water beneath its icy surface. Some of that water even shoots out into space, creating an immense plume!

For decades, scientists didn’t know why Enceladus was the brightest world in the solar system, or how it related to Saturn’s E ring. Cassini found that both the fresh coating on its surface, and icy material in the E ring originate from vents connected to a global subsurface saltwater ocean that might host hydrothermal vents.

With its global ocean, unique chemistry and internal heat, Enceladus has become a promising lead in our search for worlds where life could exist.

Iapetus

Saturn’s two-toned moon Iapetus gets its odd coloring from reddish dust in its orbital path that is swept up and lands on the leading face of the moon.

The most unique, and perhaps most remarkable feature discovered on Iapetus in Cassini images is a topographic ridge that coincides almost exactly with the geographic equator. The physical origin of the ridge has yet to be explained…

It is not yet year whether the ridge is a mountain belt that has folded upward, or an extensional crack in the surface through which material from inside Iapetus erupted onto the surface and accumulated locally.

Saturn’s Rings

Saturn’s rings are made of countless particles of ice and dust, which Saturn’s moons push and tug, creating gaps and waves.

Scientists have never before studied the size, temperature, composition and distribution of Saturn’s rings from Saturn obit. Cassini has captured extraordinary ring-moon interactions, observed the lowest ring-temperature ever recorded at Saturn, discovered that the moon Enceladus is the source for Saturn’s E ring, and viewed the rings at equinox when sunlight strikes the rings edge-on, revealing never-before-seen ring features and details.

Cassini also studied features in Saturn’s rings called “spokes,” which can be longer than the diameter of Earth. Scientists think they’re made of thin icy particles that are lifted by an electrostatic charge and only last a few hours.  

Auroras

The powerful magnetic field that permeates Saturn is strange because it lines up with the planet’s poles. But just like Earth’s field, it all creates shimmering auroras.

Auroras on Saturn occur in a process similar to Earth’s northern and southern lights. Particles from the solar wind are channeled by Saturn’s magnetic field toward the planet’s poles, where they interact with electrically charged gas (plasma) in the upper atmosphere and emit light.  

Turbulent Atmosphere

Saturn’s turbulent atmosphere churns with immense storms and a striking, six-sided jet stream near its north pole.

Saturn’s north and south poles are also each beautifully (and violently) decorated by a colossal swirling storm. Cassini got an up-close look at the north polar storm and scientists found that the storm’s eye was about 50 times wider than an Earth hurricane’s eye.

Unlike the Earth hurricanes that are driven by warm ocean waters, Saturn’s polar vortexes aren’t actually hurricanes. They’re hurricane-like though, and even contain lightning. Cassini’s instruments have ‘heard’ lightning ever since entering Saturn orbit in 2004, in the form of radio waves. But it wasn’t until 2009 that Cassini’s cameras captured images of Saturnian lighting for the first time.

Cassini scientists assembled a short video of it, the first video of lightning discharging on a planet other than Earth.

Cassini’s adventure will end soon because it’s almost out of fuel. So to avoid possibly ever contaminating moons like Enceladus or Titan, on Sept. 15 it will intentionally dive into Saturn’s atmosphere.

The spacecraft is expected to lose radio contact with Earth within about one to two minutes after beginning its decent into Saturn’s upper atmosphere. But on the way down, before contact is lost, eight of Cassini’s 12 science instruments will be operating! More details on the spacecraft’s final decent can be found HERE.

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You are the lone survivor on Earth. You have spent the last 30 years searching the globe for any signs of life, when one day, you find a sign that says “There are more of you.” You spend the rest of your life searching for the person who wrote the message, never to remember that it was you.

The Rising Signs

Aries rising: You are active, confident, adventurous, voluntary, and sometimes you tend to have accidents. Proud of your independence, it is difficult for you to get settled.

Taurus rising: You are obstinate, warm, you seek safety and you change slowly. There is something reassuring in your presence, but you don’t open easily.

Gemini rising: You are loquacious, emotional, funny, you’re however easily bored , maybe you also do insomnia. You collect information quickly, you react quickly, and your adaptability is great.

Cancer rising: You are of a changing mood, you are sensitive, imaginative, wise and protective. You like safety, comfort, your home and look after others. Your feelings are still deep.

Leo rising: You like to have fun, you are wellvieillant (???), charismatic and friendly. You cannot stand not being noticed. You do your best to give yourself the image of a light and confident heart. People appreciate your presence.

Virgo rising: You have the practical sense, you are master of yourself, nervous and considerate. You are also clear and fast, you can discuss any topic, and you are an observer.

Libra rising: You are full of tact, easygoing, and friendly, but you would do anything to avoid a conflict. You can not stand being in a hostile environment. You also have the artistic fiber, you are attractive.

Scorpio rising: Your intense eyes and your irresistible manners attract people. You are secret, magnetic and sexy. You are also a fighter who takes the reins in times of crisis. You have the will and opportunity to transform yourself, both internally and externally. You can completely change your facets from one person to another.

Sagitatrius rising: You are extrovert, independent, optimistic, restless and reckless. In your search for a life of communication, you travel as much as possible and you can settle completely on an udée. Opportunities come to you.

Capricorn rising: You do not like disorganized places. You are someone serious, reserved, who has a method for everything. Ambitious and competitive, you assume responsibility and exercise authority effectively. But you do not relax easily, and sometimes subject to depressions.

Aquarius rising: You have lots of interests, and a calm and friendly personality. You still have a certain distance that can make you seem indifferent. You follow your own rhythm.

Pisces rising: You are romantic, influential, sentimental, and compassionate. Your psychic abilities are strong, and you are a person of great kindness.

Humans are stubborn. They will often disregard the dangers or foolishness of an endeavor if they believe it must be done.

Human-Megan was the first recorded example of this trait. She was called to the bridge during the time that a small landing party was sent to a planet she insisted was a “Death Star” simply because of its highly metallic atomic makeup.

Everything seemed to be proceeding as normal. The landing party arrived successfully, and began to survey the surrounding terrain, searching for any signs of life. Occasionally, the captain would glance in Human-Megan’s direction, in hopes that she would offer her strangely accurate insight on the progress of the mission; however, he was given nothing but incoherent mumbling about “bad feelings” and the need to “screw this noise”.

But then the mission fell into disaster. The landing party, as cautious as they were, found themselves ambushed by a group of cybernetic lifeforms, who dragged them beneath the planet’s surface after firing several devastating shots to their scouting vessel.

The captain frowned, pressing two of his four tentacles together as he considered their new situation. It would not be wise to send anyone to retrieve their fallen crew members – – it was likely they would be killed within the next few minutes. This in mind, he gave the order to resume flight towards the nearest inhabited system in order to refuel and collect new crewmates.

“What the hell?”

Those are for the bridge ceased preparations to resume flight for a moment, observing Human-Megan in confusion. She seemed suddenly distraught–she was trembling, her hands clenched into what her species called “fists”, teeth bared in something that was most definitely NOT a human smile.

“Aren’t you going to send someone after them?” she said incredulously, waving a hand harshly in the direction of the monitor.

“Human-Megan, I fail to see the logic in your statement,” the captain stated calmly.

“The logic in my–” The human interrupted her own words with a sound that set hairs on end and jolted the nervous system. If her shipmates didn’t know any better, they would have called it a growl.

“They’re our CREW MATES!” she cried, eyes darting back and forth as if silently damning all present for not taking her meaning. “More than that, they’re our FRIENDS! You can’t just–no, you WON’T just ditch them down there!”

The captain raised an eye-ridge. Was his human–was she threatening him? Despite himself, a shiver of fear raced down his lengthy spine–he had heard tales of what ignoring human threats had led to, and those tales were not to be taken lightly.

“Is that insubordination, Human-Megan?” he inquired, struggling to keep his own voice level despite the ever-growing fear in his stomach.

“No, that’s common-****ing sense,” she spat in return. “You don’t leave shipmates behind like that. You just don’t. What if that was you? Would you be okay with us just abandoning YOU down there?”

Again, confusion. “I believe you have met our first officer. He is perfectly qualified to act as captain until another can be appointed. There is no reason to lose crewmen unnecessarily.”

For a moment, he thought he had successfully gotten through to the human. She didn’t respond, simply staring at him, breathing erratically, mouth slightly open in such a way that for a moment he was forced to consider that he may have BROKEN his human.

But then she reacted. She pursed her lips and–spat at him.

The crew members who had done research on human culture physically recoiled in shock. She had actually SPAT at him–a human sign of absolute loathing and lack of respect. The captain himself was visibly shocked, observing his human almost blankly as his brains struggled to make sense of her actions.

She spun about, hissing a vile “Fine,” at those around her with a venom that made all near her flinch. Without another word she marched towards the lift, reaching out and grabbing an officer’s stunner directly from her waist before exiting.

Everyone resumed their work after a moment. Humans were strange, they were well aware of this by now. This was just another strange human behavior. Granted, human insight on situations was often valuable, but this was not one of those situations. This was the human refusing to see sense.

However, a few moments later an alarm was triggered, and a crew member appeared, breathing heavily, at the entrance to the bridge.

“Sir–captain,” he gasped. “The human–”

“What?”

“She–she stole a scouting vessel, sir,” the crewman said, his voice trembling. “She is en route for the planet’s surface.”

Chaos ensued on the bridge instantly. Their human was RETURNING to the danger? What could possibly have possess them to do something so illogical? The captain, minds reeling, immediately opened a comm line.

“Human-Megan, what are you doing?”

“The right thing, assholes,” a venomous voice shot back. “Why? You gonna stop me?”

“Human-Megan–”

“Oh, don’t ‘Human-Megan’ me,” she snapped. “My NAME is Megan. Just Megan. And if you’re gonna just leave them to die, then what do you care if I go after them? You weren’t all broken up when they got taken, why should I be any different?”

It was then that the comm line went silent. For much longer than was productive, the bridge remained still and silent, with baited breath, awaiting the fate of their human. Was she truly going back to that place? Perhaps she was simply “bluffing”, as they called it. Tricking them. She was being strangely vindictive today–was this more of this behavior?

However, after a few tense hours the GEV registered the presence of the scouting vessel–significantly battered and charred–returning to dock in the ship’s bay. The landing party had returned, injured but alive, led by a frighteningly frazzled and blood-drenched Human-Megan, stunner in hand and fire in her eyes.

It was with a strange mix of awe and utter terror that the captain approached the feral-looking human. “You…you were successful in rescuing them.”

For a moment, the human was silent. She turned to face the captain, no longer furious, but strangely aglow, radiating such strength that the captain was intimidated by her very presence.

“There’s something you should know,” she said, no longer furious, but victorious. “It is NEVER okay to leave one of your own behind. No matter the circumstances, no matter the likelihood that you’ll die getting them to safety, it is NEVER okay to just ditch them in a dangerous situation just because you might not be able to save them. Got it?”

The captain did “get it”, although not quite as she seemed to, and made a note to himself to upgrade the human handbook with a new insight:

“Humans are capable of impossible things. If crewmembers are ever in serious danger and it is likely a rescue mission will not be successful, humans will find a way to MAKE it successful regardless of the odds. We are eternally lucky that they are on our side.”

Advice For The Signs

Aries:Forgiveness does not equal weakness.
Taurus:People will treat you how you treat them, be considerate.
Gemini:The world is not against you, I promise
Cancer:Stop living in search of validation, live life for you
Leo:Accept all the love you can, you know you need it
Virgo:Take a deep breath and remember to take care of yourself too
Libra:You don’t have to impress anyone, do what you love
Scorpio:Take time to find your center, you’re no help all stressed out
Sagittarius:Listen to others with intention to learn, not to teach
Capricorn:Reassess your priorities, no sign is more capable of manifesting their own destiny
Aquarius:Let people love you, stop running from them
Pisces:Stand your ground, you know your heart better than anyone else could

Solar System: Things to Know This Week

Our solar system is a jewel box filled with a glittering variety of beautiful worlds–and not all of them are planets. This week, we present our solar system’s most marvelous moons.

1. Weird Weather: Titan

Saturn’s hazy moon Titan is larger than Mercury, but its size is not the only way it’s like a planet. Titan has a thick atmosphere, complete with its own “water cycle” – except that it’s way too cold on Titan for liquid water. Instead, rains of liquid hydrocarbons like ethane and methane fall onto icy mountains, run into rivers, and gather into great seas. Our Cassini spacecraft mapped the methane seas with radar, and its cameras even caught a glimpse of sunlight reflecting off the seas’ surface. Learn more about Titan: saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/science/titan/

2. Icy Giant: Ganymede

Jupiter’s moon Ganymede is the largest in the solar system. It’s bigger than Mercury and Pluto, and three-quarters the size of Mars. It’s also the only moon known to have its own magnetic field. Details: solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/ganymede/indepth

3. Retrograde Rebel: Triton

Triton is Neptune’s largest moon, and the only one in the solar system to orbit in the opposite direction of its planet’s rotation, a retrograde orbit. It may have been captured from the Kuiper Belt, where Pluto orbits. Despite the frigid temperatures there, Triton has cryovolcanic activity – frozen nitrogen sometimes sublimates directly to gas and erupts from geysers on the surface. More on Triton: solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/triton/indepth

4. Cold Faithful: Enceladus

The most famous geysers in our solar system (outside of those on Earth) belong to Saturn’s moon Enceladus. It’s a small, icy body, but Cassini revealed this world to be one of the solar system’s most scientifically interesting destinations. Geyser-like jets spew water vapor and ice particles from an underground ocean beneath the icy crust of Enceladus. With its global ocean, unique chemistry and internal heat, Enceladus has become a promising lead in our search for worlds where life could exist. Get the details: saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/science/enceladus/

5. Volcano World: Io

Jupiter’s moon Io is subjected to tremendous gravitational forces that cause its surface to bulge up and down by as much as 330 feet (100 m). The result? Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System, with hundreds of volcanoes, some erupting lava fountains dozens of miles high. More on Io’s volcanoes: solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/io/indepth

6. Yin and Yang Moon: Iapetus

When Giovanni Cassini discovered Iapetus in 1671, he observed that one side of this moon of Saturn was bright and the other dark. He noted that he could only see Iapetus on the west side of Saturn, and correctly concluded that Iapetus had one side much darker than the other side. Why? Three centuries later, the Cassini spacecraft solved the puzzle. Dark, reddish dust in Iapetus’s orbital path is swept up and lands on the leading face of the moon. The dark areas absorb energy and become warmer, while uncontaminated areas remain cooler. Learn more: saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/2892/cassini-10-years-at-saturn-top-10-discoveries/#nine

7. A Double World: Charon and Pluto

At half the size of Pluto, Charon is the largest of Pluto’s moons and the largest known satellite relative to its parent body. The moon is so big compared to Pluto that Pluto and Charon are sometimes referred to as a double planet system. Charon’s orbit around Pluto takes 6.4 Earth days, and one Pluto rotation (a Pluto day) takes 6.4 Earth days. So from Pluto’s point of view Charon neither rises nor sets, but hovers over the same spot on Pluto’s surface, and the same side of Charon always faces Pluto. Get the details: www.nasa.gov/feature/pluto-and-charon-new-horizons-dynamic-duo

8. “Death Star” Moon: Mimas

Saturn’s moon Mimas has one feature that draws more attention than any other: the crater Herschel, which formed in an impact that nearly shattered the little world. Herschel gives Mimas a distinctive look that prompts an oft-repeated joke. But, yes, it’s a moon. More: olarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/mimas

9. Don’t Be Afraid, It’s Just Phobos

In mythology, Mars is a the god of war, so it’s fitting that its two small moons are called Phobos, “fear,” and Deimos, “terror.” Our Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter caught this look at Phobos, which is roughly 17 miles (27 km) wide. In recent years, NASA scientists have come to think that Phobos will be torn apart by its host planet’s gravity. Details: www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/phobos-is-falling-apart

Learn more about Phobos: solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/phobos/indepth

10. The Moon We Know Best

Although decades have passed since astronauts last set foot on its surface, Earth’s moon is far from abandoned. Several robotic missions have continued the exploration. For example, this stunning view of the moon’s famous Tycho crater was captured by our Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which continues to map the surface in fine detail today. More: www.lroc.asu.edu/posts/902

Discover more lists of 10 things to know about our solar system HERE.

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anonymous asked:

can you look at what houses the boys' juno is in and what it means for their future marriages? 🌸🌷

Jin and Yoongi - Juno in the 4th house

  • both their junos are also in the sign cancer so their marriages just scream domestic !!
  • their partner will have cancer traits: sensitive, caring, and nurturing. one that enjoys homemaking activities like cooking and looking after the nest. someone who feels like home. 
  • speaking of home, that will be the most important part of their relationship 
  • a lot of time will be put into creating a serene, cozy den where many memories will bloom
  • both jin and yoongi may become more homebodies after getting married and maybe even set aside work to stay there
  • instead of going out to town with their every night, quiet nights in are preferred
  • they’d rather enjoy hot chocolate by a cozy fireplace with their s/o than go out dancing
  • creating a family is a high priority. children are considered blessings
  • where they’ll meet their soulmate: they might be childhood sweethearts or someone from their youth. or they’ll meet at ikea

Originally posted by seokjinies

Hoseok - Juno in the 7th house

  • the asteroid of marriage in the house of marriage puts great focus on relationships 
  • marriage is something he has thought or dreamed about for a long time, since childhood 
  • he will “find himself” through his partner. they will reveal sides of him that he didn’t know he had
  • a theme of self discovery and growth during the marriage 
  • with his juno in scorpio and pluto in the same house, he may have fear or hesitation of marriage 
  • he will transform (pluto) greatly in marriage 
  • he may go through many marriages, with jupiter also in the 7th house 
  • either way, he is searching for a life long partner and will not settle until he finds them 
  • partner and relationship will have libra traits: balanced, fair, and social
  • romance and intimacy are key. he will change into a truly lovesick boy with his partner 
  • where he’ll meet his soulmate: because we form relationships everywhere we go, he could meet them anywhere. they might be business partners or in some form of a partnership. wherever it’ll be, it’ll feel like a movie once they lay eyes on each other

Originally posted by hobies

Namjoon and Jungkook - Juno in the 11th house

  • the 11th house rules friends and that’s exactly who these two will marry: a best friend
  • someone who they’ve known for a long time and developed strong feelings for over time
  • it may not be a love at first sight and it could take time to truly realize their feelings for their soulmate
  • but it will be a strong love that can stand the test of time 
  • a classic “friends to lovers” story
  • it may occur at a moment where they’re spending time with them and see them smile in a certain way and it just clicks: “Wow, this is the person i want to spend the rest of my life with.”
  • the 11th house is ruled by uranus, the planet of everything different 
  • their marriage will be non-traditional in some way
  • it could be an age gap, interracial, different backgrounds, may even same-sex
  • partner will have aquarius traits: unique, eccentric, someone who embraces the things that make them different 
  • the 11th house also rules community so both of them may join social causes with their s/o. they will share a similar vision and it will most likely involve changing the world in some way
  • where they’ll meet their soulmate: in their friend group, a charity event, online, in a dream

Originally posted by ksjknj

Jimin - Juno in the 6th house

  • the 6th house is known for ruling work but it also rules our daily routine, habits, and health
  • his future marriage will be with someone he can work well with. not only in a career sense, but also in daily activities and emotionally
  • tending to small things around the house like chores and things that are usually seen as nuisances will strengthen the relationship
  • him and his partner will find joy in washing dishes together, doing laundry, things like that
  • co-operation is essential in the relationship. so is autonomy and freedom
  • work could keep them apart for long periods of time so trust is also key
  • he needs someone he can rely on and who can also rely on him
  • he could be quite literally married to his work, or find love at his workplace 
  • partner will have virgo traits: an intellect, someone who pays attention to detail, someone organized and trustworthy
  • his partner will very likely look after his health a lot
  • exercise or sport may be activities they enjoy together
  • he may want a partner who serves him, someone more submissive
  • or vice versa, his partner may try to make him their servant
  • balance and fairness needs to be kept or else things could go south 
  • where he’ll meet his soulmate: at work, a co-worker or colleague, or at the gym or spa

Taehyung - Juno in the 2nd house

  • the 2nd house rules the income, money, possessions, and also our self-esteem 
  • his marriage will likely increase his sense of self-worth and confidence
  • his partner will be someone who boosts his ego and makes him feel like he could take over the world
  • this could manifest negatively where he marries someone in hopes to increase his self-worth or secure financial security. a common example is marrying into a rich family just for money. this usually doesn’t end well
  • possessiveness could be an issue. seeing his partner as something he “owns”
  • he could avoid divorce/leaving a bad relationship due to fear of losing money 
  • on a more positive note: marriage will most likely be a blessing financially either way. he will amass great wealth with his partner 
  • the relationship will be steady, committed, and solid. almost nothing can sway the strong foundation he will build with his s/o
  • a marriage characterized by luxury: a grande wedding, million dollar home, etc. 
  • showing love through tangible things will be common. this could be gift giving or lots of physical touch
  • partner will have taurus traits: loyal, down to earth, and very sensual 
  • overall i think this is an excellent placement of juno in his capricorn dominant chart
  • where he’ll meet his soulmate: his hometown, an event for the wealthy, the bank

Originally posted by jeovkks

Solar System: 10 Things to Know This Week

The Living Planet Edition

Whether it’s crops, forests or phytoplankton blooms in the ocean, our scientists are tracking life on Earth. Just as satellites help researchers study the atmosphere, rainfall and other physical characteristics of the planet, the ever-improving view from above allows them to study Earth’s interconnected life.

1. Life on Earth, From Space

While we (NASA) began monitoring life on land in the 1970s with the Landsat satellites, this fall marks 20 years since we’ve continuously observed all the plant life at the surface of both the land and ocean. The above animation captures the entirety of two decades of observations.

2. Watching the World Breathe

With the right tools, we can see Earth breathe. With early weather satellite data in the 1970s and ‘80s, NASA Goddard scientist Compton Tucker was able to see plants’ greening and die-back from space. He developed a way of comparing satellite data in two wavelengths.

When healthy plants are stocked with chlorophyll and ready to photosynthesize to make food (and absorb carbon dioxide), leaves absorb red light but reflect infrared light back into space. By comparing the ratio of red to infrared light, Tucker and his colleagues could quantify vegetation covering the land.

Expanding the study to the rest of the globe, the scientists could track rainy and dry seasons in Africa, see the springtime blooms in North America, and wildfires scorching forests worldwide.

3. Like Breathing? Thank Earth’s Ocean

But land is only part of the story. The ocean is home to 95 percent of Earth’s living space, covering 70 percent of the planet and stretching miles deep. At the base of the ocean’s food web is phytoplankton - tiny plants that also undergo photosynthesis to turn nutrients and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen. Phytoplankton not only feed the rest of ocean life, they absorb carbon dioxide - and produce about half the oxygen we breathe.

In the Arctic Ocean, an explosion of phytoplankton indicates change. As seasonal sea ice melts, warming waters and more sunlight will trigger a sudden, massive phytoplankton bloom that feeds birds, sea lions and newly-hatched fish. But with warming atmospheric temperatures, that bloom is now happening several weeks earlier - before the animals are in place to take advantage of it.

4. Keeping an Eye on Crops

The “greenness” measurement that scientists use to measure forests and grasslands can also be used to monitor the health of agricultural fields. By the 1980s, food security analysts were approaching NASA to see how satellite images could help with the Famine Early Warning System to identify regions at risk - a partnership that continues today.

With rainfall estimates, vegetation measurements, as well as the recent addition of soil moisture information, our scientists can help organizations like USAID direct emergency help.

The view from space can also help improve agricultural practices. A winery in California, for example, uses individual pixels of Landsat data to determine when to irrigate and how much water to use.

5. Coming Soon to the International Space Station

A laser-based instrument being developed for the International Space Station will provide a unique 3-D view of Earth’s forests. The instrument, called GEDI, will be the first to systematically probe the depths of the forests from space.

Another ISS instrument in development, ECOSTRESS, will study how effectively plants use water. That knowledge provided on a global scale from space will tell us “which plants are going to live or die in a future world of greater droughts,” said Josh Fisher, a research scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and science lead for ECOSTRESS.

6. Seeing Life, From the Microscopic to Multicellular

Scientists have used our vantage from space to study changes in animal habitats, track disease outbreaks, monitor forests and even help discover a new species. Bacteria, plants, land animals, sea creatures and birds reveal a changing world.

Our Black Marble image provides a unique view of human activity. Looking at trends in our lights at night, scientists can study how cities develop over time, how lighting and activity changes during certain seasons and holidays, and even aid emergency responders during power outages caused by natural disasters.

7. Earth as Analog and Proving Ground

Just as our Mars rovers were tested in Earth’s deserts, the search for life on ocean moons in our solar system is being refined by experiments here. JPL research scientist Morgan Cable looks for life on the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. She cites satellite observations of Arctic and Antarctic ice fields that are informing the planning for a future mission to Europa, an icy moon of Jupiter.

The Earth observations help researchers find ways to date the origin of jumbled, chaotic ice. “When we visit Europa, we want to go to very young places, where material from that ocean is being expressed on the surface,” she explained. “Anywhere like that, the chances of finding biomarkers goes up - if they’re there.”

8. Only One Living Planet

Today, we know of only one living planet: our own. The knowledge and tools NASA developed to study life here are among our greatest assets as we begin the search for life beyond Earth.

There are two main questions: With so many places to look, how can we home in on the places most likely to harbor life? What are the unmistakable signs of life - even if it comes in a form we don’t fully understand? In this early phase of the search, “We have to go with the only kind of life we know,” said Tony del Genio, co-lead of a new NASA interdisciplinary initiative to search for life on other worlds.

So, the focus is on liquid water. Even bacteria around deep-sea vents that don’t need sunlight to live need water. That one necessity rules out many planets that are too close or too far from their stars for water to exist, or too far from us to tell. Our Galileo and Cassini missions revealed that some moons of Jupiter and Saturn are not the dead rocks astronomers had assumed, but appear to have some conditions needed for life beneath icy surfaces.

9. Looking for Life Beyond Our Solar System

In the exoplanet (planets outside our solar system that orbit another star) world, it’s possible to calculate the range of distances for any star where orbiting planets could have liquid water. This is called the star’s habitable zone. Astronomers have already located some habitable-zone planets, and research scientist Andrew Rushby of NASA Ames Research Center is researching ways to refine the search. “An alien would spot three planets in our solar system in the habitable zone [Earth, Mars and Venus],” Rushby said, “but we know that 67 percent of those planets are not inhabited.”

He recently developed a model of Earth’s carbon cycle and combined it with other tools to study which planets in habitable zones would be the best targets to look for life, considering probable tectonic activity and water cycles. He found that larger planets are more likely than smaller ones to have surface temperatures conducive to liquid water. Other exoplanet researchers are looking for rocky worlds, and biosignatures, the chemical signs of life.

10. You Can Learn a Lot from a Dot

When humans start collecting direct images of exoplanets, even the closest ones will appear as only a handful of pixels in the detector - something like the famous “blue dot” image of Earth from Saturn. What can we learn about life on these planets from a single dot?

Stephen Kane of the University of California, Riverside, has come up with a way to answer that question by using our EPIC camera on NOAA’s DSCOVR satellite. “I’m taking these glorious pictures and collapsing them down to a single pixel or handful of pixels,” Kane explained. He runs the light through a noise filter that attempts to simulate the interference expected from an exoplanet mission. By observing how the brightness of Earth changes when mostly land is in view compared with mostly water, Kane reverse-engineers Earth’s rotation rate - something that has yet to be measured directly for exoplanets.

The most universal, most profound question about any unknown world is whether it harbors life. The quest to find life beyond Earth is just beginning, but it will be informed by the study of our own living planet.

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From Microscopic to Multicellular: Six Stories of Life that We See from Space

Life. It’s the one thing that, so far, makes Earth unique among the thousands of other planets we’ve discovered. Since the fall of 1997, NASA satellites have continuously and globally observed all plant life at the surface of the land and ocean. During the week of Nov. 13-17, we are sharing stories and videos about how this view of life from space is furthering knowledge of our home planet and the search for life on other worlds.

Earth is the only planet with life, as far as we know. From bacteria in the crevices of the deepest oceans to monkeys swinging between trees, Earth hosts life in all different sizes, shapes and colors. Scientists often study Earth from the ground, but some also look to our satellites to understand how life waxes and wanes on our planet.

Over the years, scientists have used this aerial view to study changes in animal habitats, track disease outbreaks, monitor forests and even help discover a new species. While this list is far from comprehensive, these visual stories of bacteria, plants, land animals, sea creatures and birds show what a view from space can reveal.

1. Monitoring the single-celled powerhouses of the sea

Known as the grass of the ocean, phytoplankton are one of the most abundant types of life in the ocean. Usually single-celled, these plant-like organisms are the base of the marine food chain. They are also responsible for the only long-term transfer of carbon dioxide from Earth’s atmosphere to the ocean. 

Even small changes in phytoplankton populations can affect carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere, which could ultimately affect Earth’s global surface temperatures. Scientists have been observing global phytoplankton populations continuously since 1997 starting with the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of View Sensor (SeaWiFS). They continue to study the small life-forms by satellite, ships and aircrafts.

2. Predicting cholera bacteria outbreaks

Found on the surface of zooplankton and in contaminated water, the bacteria that cause the infectious disease cholera — Vibrio cholerae — affect millions of people every year with severe diarrhea, sometimes leading to death. While our satellite sensors can’t detect the actual bacteria, scientists use various satellite data to look for the environmental conditions that the bacteria thrive in

Specifically, microbiologist Rita Colwell at the University of Maryland, College Park, and West Virginia University hydrologist Antar Jutla studied data showing air and ocean temperature, salinity, precipitation, and chlorophyllconcentrations, the latter a marker for zooplankton. Anticipating where the bacteria will bloom helps researchers to mitigate outbreaks.

Recently, Colwell and Jutla have been able to estimate cholera risk after major events, such as severe storms, by looking at satellite precipitation data, air temperature, and population maps. The two maps above show the team’s predicted cholera risk in Haiti two weeks after Hurricane Matthew hit over October 1-2, 2016 and the actual reported cholera cases in October 2016.

3. Viewing life on land

From helping preserve forests for chimpanzees to predicting deer population patterns, scientists use our satellites to study wildlife across the world. Satellites can also see the impacts of perhaps the most relatable animal to us: humans. Every day, we impact our planet in many ways including driving cars, constructing buildings and farming – all of which we can see with satellites.

Our Black Marble image provides a unique view of human activity. Looking at trends in our lights at night, scientists can study how cities develop over time, how lighting and activity changes during certain seasons and holidays, and even aid emergency responders during power outages caused by natural disasters.

4. Tracking bird populations

Scientists use our satellite data to study birds in a variety of ways, from understanding their migratory patterns, to spotting potential nests, to tracking populations. In a rather creative application, scientists used satellite imagery to track Antarctica’s emperor penguin populations by looking for their guano – or excrement.

Counting emperor penguins from the ground perspective is challenging because they breed in some of the most remote and cold places in the world, and in colonies too large to easily count manually. With their black and white coats, emperor penguins are also difficult to count from an aerial view as they sometimes blend in with shadows on the ice. Instead, Phil Trathan and his colleagues at the British Antarctic Survey looked through Landsat imagery for brown stains on the sea ice. By looking for penguin droppings, Trathan said his team identified 54 emperor penguin colonies along the Antarctic coast.

5. Parsing out plant life

Just as we see plants grow and wilt on the ground, satellites observe the changes from space. Flourishing vegetation can indicate a lively ecosystem while changes in greenery can sometimes reveal natural disasters, droughts or even agricultural practices. While satellites can observe plant life in our backyards, scientists can also use them to provide a global picture. 

Using data from satellites including SeaWiFS, and instruments including the NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, scientists have the most complete view of global biology to date, covering all of the plant life on land and at the surface of the ocean.

6. Studying life under the sea

Our satellites have helped scientists study creatures living in the oceans whether it’s finding suitable waters for oysters or protecting the endangered blue whale. Scientists also use the data to learn more about one of the most vulnerable ecosystems on the planet – coral reefs.

They may look like rocks or plants on the seafloor, but corals are very much living animals. Receiving sustenance from photosynthetic plankton living within their calcium carbonate structures, coral reefs provide food and shelter for many kinds of marine life, protect shorelines from storms and waves, serve as a source for potential medicines, and operate as some of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet.

However, coral reefs are vulnerable to the warming of the ocean and human activity. Our satellites measure the surface temperature of ocean waters. These measurements have revealed rising water temperatures surrounding coral reef systems around the world, which causes a phenomenon known as “coral bleaching.” To add to the satellite data, scientists use measurements gathered by scuba divers as well as instruments flown on planes.

During the week of Nov. 13-17, check out our stories and videos about how this view of life from space is furthering knowledge of our home planet and the search for life on other worlds. Follow at www.nasa.gov/Earth.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

Moon in the houses

Originally posted by recked

1st

Moon in 1st people are sensitive, and their emotions are often displayed where everyone can see. Their emotions are instant and always are on the surface, making it hard for them to keep their emotions under wraps. They’re often known for being moody and emotional, which can sometimes make them seem impatient and overbearing to others. However, what a lot of people don’t notice about moon in 1st people, is that they’re extremely caring and nurturing towards others. They’re able to relate easily to other people, using their emotions to understand them.

2nd

Moon in 2nd house people’s emotion are often tied in with their personal values and possessions. Your belongings give you a sense of security, which is very important to you. Because of this, moon in 2nd house people love to collect things. Usually things with sentimental value. Despite their attachment to their belongings, moon in 2nd house people are often scared of being in trouble with money, or owing debt. These guys want to feel secure and go out of their way to make sure all their bills are paid. Sometimes vanity is also tied in with moon in 2nd house people. They often need to seek attention from others in order to develop feelings of self worth, which can make their emotions delayed or unresponsive.

3rd

Moon in 3rd people’s emotions are often intellectualised or communicated freely. Sometimes, these people flick between the two, finding it hard to make up their mind. They’re the masters at imitation, usually changing their views and opinions depending on who they’re with. This makes them the masters at communicating with others. Especially concerning emotion subjects and topics. These peoples find it very easy to pick up on the emotions and feelings around them. This is what makes them such good communicators when it comes to emotions. They often relate and understand the community and people around them.

4th

Moon in fourth house people often have a strong yearn for a sense of belonging. This then results in them usually searching in their past to find it. Because of this, they may find it difficult to break old habits and traditions, especially habits in childhood. It is indicated that moon if fourth house also have strong ties to their mother. She mothered and cared for you deeply as a child, creating a strong bond. Because of this, these people often struggle with the aspect of ‘growing up’ and can sometimes unleash that burden on others. Moon in 4th people also often have a strong urge to redecorate and move home’s frequently. Without this stimulation, these people often find hard to stabilize their emotions and take care of themselves.

5th

These people have a flair in their emotions! Moon in fifth house people can often dramatise and make a fuss out of their emotions. Like moon in first, the find it difficult to hide their emotions, and sometimes they don’t want to, they want people understand what they’re feeling. Another key aspect to Moon in 5th house people, is that they’re usually are known for having dramatic and intense love affairs. These affairs often change frequently as well as creative hobbies. These people also have an inner child, which also gives them a strong connection to children. You are always trying to connect to your inner child, whether that’s through your creative passion or emotions, you need to find it in order to be fulfilled emotionally.

6th

Moon in sixth house people need to feel useful, organised and on top of things within their life, in order to feel emotionally stable. They need the stability in their life and often achieve this by following a daily routine. Their moods can easily fluctuate by how organized they are, or their emotional states at work. When these needs aren’t met, this can lead into emotional unrest. Moon in 6th house people also feel emotional satisfaction when they’re helping out a friend! They’re always there to lend a helping hand to help fix whatever situation that they can change or help with.

7th

Moon in 7th people rely and crave support in a partnership in order to feel emotionally stable. Not only do they rely on their partner for emotional support, they also prefer to take them wherever they go. Whether that’s to the mall, beach or to get some gas. They just prefer to be with someone. Moon in 7th people also gain a lot of emotional discovery when they’re with their partners. It’s like something switching on inside them, they discover all their emotional needs and feelings. They also have the ability to adapt and understand people’s emotional needs, which makes them very easy to get along with. Because they become so emotionally attached to their partners, there is a tendency to be too dependent. They may feel unsure about themselves without a partner.

8th

Moon in 8th people have a strong desire emotional intensity and security. They are looking for people to connect with on a deep and intimate level. This ultimately makes it very hard for them to get over from any emotional betrayals and losses. They are deep and loyal people, looking for ways to transform themselves emotionally. They often do this by looking below the surface and into their painful memories of the past. This erupts deep and fierce feelings of jealousy, hatred and passion. Moon in 8th people are also deeply sensitive to what lies below the surface, which makes them interested in taboos, death, sex and occult.

9th

Moon in 9th people feel as though they need to live beyond the normal cookie cutter everyday to day life. They have a strong desire to explore, travel and educate themselves about the world that surrounds them. This can also make moon in 9th people very interested in philosophy. These people are often prone to feeling restless and uneasy if they don’t have an idea of their future. They often feel discontented if they’re stuck in one place, feeling as though they need to break free and travel the world. They’re constantly searching for more of what life has to offer, and can sometimes be prone to blaming their unhappiness on whatever situation they’re in.

10th

Moon in 10th people feel emotionally content when they’re status and achievements are achieved. They often work hard to towards their image, and are ones for keeping up appearances. Because of this, these peoples tend to change their goals and passions often, trying to find the perfect path for themselves. Sometimes it’s hard for them make decisions, as they often only focus on their emotional needs and what others want. They feel an overwhelming pressure to please people and perfect their image.

11th

Moon in 11th people feel an overwhelming need to be with friends and to belong in a group. These people offer all their support to their friends and want to receive the same back. They’re almost always surrounded by a close group of people, often relying on them for emotional support. However, this placement can often indicate an unstable social life which can be hard for them to accept and deal with. Moon in 11th people also have many changing and fleeting ideas and dreams. They have a great hope for their future and can often find it difficult to stick to one goal.

12th

Moon in 12th people can often feel blind to their emotions, or feel so much they can’t discern what they are. These people often have delayed emotional reactions, the 12th house cloaking them and keep them hidden. This can be very difficult for these people to really understand what they’re feeling and they often need to retreat back to their space in order to recharge. This can consequently make them isolate themselves and feel very detached from the world. Despite these people not really understanding their own emotional needs, they are ready to understand others feelings and emotions. They have a strong desire to help.

I’ve been thinking about Tyler a lot lately. I’ve been thinking about when he was younger, when Twenty One Pilots was just starting out. This scrappy teen from Ohio with button up T shirts and shaky hands has started to grow on me. I’ve been thinking about his struggle as he got older, there’s something about it that’s really caught my attention. I keep dreaming about it and looking through old videos of Tyler when he was 17. I keep searching and searching for this boy who was finding his way, and probably still is. It’s scary. Tyler, with a rubber band on his wrist and dorky glasses on, just simply doesn’t exist anymore. It makes me sad. It makes me feel so lonely. I want to talk to him. I want to find 17 year old Tyler again so desperately. I want to walk down the streets of Ohio at 2 am to see him recording goner on an old accordion. I want to go down to the local Columbus baseball fields and see him scribbling down lyrics to Slowtown in a journal. I want so badly to see him and Josh in their white van parked outside a gas station while the sun rises. I want to see the basement where Tyler recorded No Phun Intended. I want the Tyler that was still looking for his purpose while standing over a kitchen sink. And what I mean by all if this is not that I don’t love him how he is now, or that I want to invade his privacy. I just want to find someone who understands. I want to find the Tyler that didn’t know if he was going to make it to 18 or 19. I want to find him simply for the fact that I feel the same way. I want to find him because maybe that would validate my feelings, maybe somehow that would fix my struggle, it would end my pain. But this isn’t true, and I know that.
Think about this.
Tyler is 29, married, and happier then he’s ever been. He’s wrote about love, hope, recovery, and yes, he still writes about pain, but not nearly as much as before. Him and Josh live comfortably and with the support of all of us. Tyler beat his Blurryface. Tyler found his purpose. Tyler has gone so so far. He’s lived through his own personal hell and back and by god, that’s so incredible. That’s what I’m searching for, it’s what we are all searching for. Purpose.
17 year old Tyler can’t give me that. 17 year old Tyler can’t give YOU that. 29 year old Tyler can’t even give you that. Only you can.
Only you can find your purpose.
Keep looking, keep searching, that’s what this life is about.
Stay Strong, Stay Safe, but most importantly, Stay Alive.

Have you ever wanted to save someone from their own darkness so badly that you are willing to set yourself on fire just to light the way?
Even if it melts your flesh and cracks your bones, you’d be okay with keeping them warm.
—  Odett G.