scottish troops

I live and grew up in Falkirk, Scotland and don’t recall ever being taught this in school, we only briefly covered the Suffragettes (and even that was taught in a way to impress upon us how wrong their methods were nor was it taught in a way to spark any further interest), we were never taught about the Peterloo massacre (not Scottish but still relevant to working class struggle) and nor were we taught about the 1919 George Square “riot” where Winston Churchill ordered English troops to put down an industrial dispute in George Square Glasgow. You might wonder why not use Scottish troops? They worried that local troops would side with the people.

Why were we never taught this in school? It’s almost as if the establishment doesn’t want us to know how hard won the little rights we have were! Instead they teach us shite in Schools about Kings and queens, English ones at that. How is it that as a Scot I can name more English Kings than Scottish ones? Almost like the establishment wants us to forget our history?! 🤔

Why Catherine of Aragon is awesome

She lead english troops against Scottish, while pregnant.
She was one of the most loved queen of England.
She was the first female ambassador of Europe
She made fashionable the female education in England court.
She was the daughter of Isabel of Castile.

The Birth of Mary, Queen of Scots:

On the 8th of December 1542, nearly a month after the defeat of the Scottish troops at Solway Moss, Princess Mary Stewart was born on Linlithgow Palace. She was the only surviving child of Mary of Guise and James V of Scotland. Unlike his father who had died in the battlefield, nearly three decades before him, James V died as a result of an illness

“There is no record that James ever saw his daughter, though he might have had time to do so before he was laid low by severe illness.” (Porter)

James V died six days after Mary’s birth, making Mary the first Christ Queen Regnant of the British Isles. She was crowned the following year, being less than a year old. There is a tradition that when James V heard of his daughter’s birth that he said “It came with a lass and it will end with a lass.” But this as Porter points out, given how ill he was, it is highly dubious that he was able to utter such coherent words. But for historical novelists, this makes up for good drama no doubt.

Mary, Queen of Scots as she became known became part of the ‘Rough Wooing’ –this was an aggressive Anglo-Scottish policy that was Henry VIII’s brainchild. He sought to have the Scottish nobles he captured during the battle return to Scotland with the mission to convince the Queen Dowager and the other nobles to his proposal of a betrothal between her and his son (then) Prince Edward.

At one point, when her father’s body wasn’t yet cold, Henry VIII attempted to invade Scotland and there was one man who firmly opposed this and this was none other than John Dudley who’s reputation hasn’t been so good thanks in part to his former allies turning against him when the going got tough following the Jane Grey fiasco and pop culture.

Before Christmas of that year, John Dudley voiced his concerns, saying that “seeing that God hath thus disposed his will of the said King of Scots, I thought it should not be to Your Majesty’s honor, that we your soldiers should make war or invade upon a dead body or upon a widow or upon a young suckling…”

When the King died, a man who continued Henry VIII’s aggressive policy under his royal nephew and new King was Edward Seymour, newly named Lord Protector and Duke of Somerset.

Somerset had no intention for diplomacy. As far as he was concerned, diplomacy was failing. The Scots could understand he meant business by only one way and that was through fire and blood. Pillaging and heavy artillery. Although this did the trick, planting fear into the Scots’ hearts, it also strengthened Mary of Guise and her allies’ resolve. She decided to stall and secretly sent her daughter, her companions, among them the well-known four Maries, her half brother (Moray, who would return shortly after), to France where she would meet her future spouse, the future King of France, Francois.

Mary, Queen of Scots has a lot of detractors and defenders and seldom any people in between. On the one hand you have this naïve girl who was well-educated, who loved playing sports, and dressed in men’s clothes for that, and was also very beautiful, and had received not a lot of training to be a ruler but more how to be a Queen Consort while she was in France, but on the other hand, you also have a girl who caught on pretty fast and who wanted to reconcile both factions of her country, Protestant and Catholic, and tried her best but failed. And then tried again, using conspiracy to oust her cousin Queen Elizabeth when she didn’t agree to reinstate her. And this last act of hers not only failed but ended with her being sentenced to death. This was extremely painful as her executioner botched it and it took more than one blow to finish the deed.
The truth is likely somewhere in between. Mary was a quick learner, well-learned, fashionable Queen, but at the same time, she was also tired after years of trying and having little to show for it except plotters at every turn who hated her because of her sex and religion and for refusing to give up. When she finally gave up, she tried to rise up but once again she felt defeated and sought her cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England for help and as previously stated, when she realized this was a huge mistake, she plotted against her and this ended with terrible results. She was much a victim of circumstance as of her own actions and rearing.

Sources:

·         Tudors vs Stewarts by Linda Porter

·         Ten Tudor Statesmen by Arthur D. Innes

·         Tudor. Passion. Murder. Manipulation by Leanda de Lisle

·         On this day in Tudor History by Claire Ridgway

·         The Tudors by John Guy

The 31st of January 1919 saw The Battle of George Square.


60,000 striking workers fought with police, but, as the strikers included many former servicemen, they drove the police off.  In the aftermath some 10,000 English Soldiers were sent to Glasgow, nearby a Scottish Regiment at Maryhill, was locked down as the Government feared full revolution.

The demo in George Square was in support of the 40-hours strike and to hear the Lord Provost’s reply to the workers’ request for a 40-hour week. Whilst the deputation was in the building the police mounted a vicious and unprovoked attack on the demonstrators, felling unarmed men and women with their batons. The demonstrators, with the ex-servicemen to the fore, quickly retaliated with fists, iron railings and broken bottles, and forced the police into a retreat.
On hearing the noise from the square the strike leaders, who were meeting with the Lord Provost, rushed outside to restore order. One of the leaders, David Kirkwood, was felled to the ground by a police baton, and along with William Gallacher was arrested by the police.

After the initial confrontation between the demonstrators and the police in George Square, further fighting continued in and around the city centre streets for many hours afterwards. The Townhead area of the city and Glasgow Green, where many of the demonstrators had regrouped after the initial police charge, were the scenes of running battles between police and demonstrators.
In the immediate aftermath of ‘Bloody Friday’, as it became known, other leaders of the Clyde Workers’ Committee were also arrested, including Emanuel Shinwell, Harry Hopkins and George Edbury.

Government concerns about industrial militancy and revolutionary political activity in Glasgow reached new heights after the events of 31 January 1919. Fears within government of a workers’ revolution in Glasgow led to the deployment of troops and tanks in the city.

An estimated 10000 English troops in total were sent to Glasgow in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of George Square. This was in spite of a full battalion of Scottish soldiers being stationed at Maryhill barracks in Glasgow at the time. No Scottish troops were deployed, with the government fearing that fellow Scots, soldiers or otherwise, would go over to the workers side if a revolutionary situation developed in Glasgow.

On 10 February 1919 the 40-hours strike was called off by the Joint Strike Committee. Whilst not achieving their stated aim of a 40-hour working week, the striking workers from the engineering and shipbuilding industries did return to work having at least negotiated an agreement that guaranteed them a 47-hour working week; 10 hours less than they were working prior to the strike.


You might see other pics of a tank around online linked to this story with crowds of people and trams in the background, that picture was taken a year before, it was on some sort of publicity tour. While tanks were deployed, there is a picture on Wiki showing the tanks at the Glasgow Cattle Market in the Gallowgate, there is no evidence of the tanks being used on the streets, that doesn’t take away from the fact they were there and that there were no Scottish troops used to restore order, a shameful reflection of the lengths that Churchill went to to stop a revolution in Scotland after the first world war

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                                     .♕  Catherine of Aragon  ♕.

         "But for her sex she could have surpassed all the heros of history.

Catherine was born near Madrid in December 1485. She was the daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, whose marriage had united Spain.

Was the Queen of England as the first wife of Henry VIII of England, and Princess of Wales by her first marriage to Arthur, Prince of Wales.
In 1501, at the age of 16, Catherine arrived in England after a treacherous three-month sea voyage. She was married to Prince Arthur – now 15 – in old St Paul’s Cathedral. They moved to Ludlow Castle on the Welsh border. Unfortunately their marriage was to be short lived as Arthur contracted what may have been "sweating sickness” and died shortly afterwards. 
Catherine stayed on in England and was betrothed to Arthur’s younger brother, Henry. However, they weren’t married straight away due to wrangling between King Ferdinand and King Henry VII over Catherine’s dowry. 
In April 1509 Henry assumed the throne on the death of his father, married Catherine in a private ceremony in June after receiving a dispensation from the Pope, and Catherine’s short marriage to Arthur was annulled. 
Weeks after their wedding Catherine was crowned Queen of England alongside Henry in an extravagant joint coronation ceremony at Westminster Abbey. For the first few years accounts suggest they lived happily together. In 1509, Henry VIII wrote to his father-in-law about his new wife,

 ‘The bond between them is now so strict that all their interests are common, and the love he bears to Katherine is such, that if he were still free, he would choose her in preference to all others.’ 

and Catherine proved a competent regent when Henry was campaigning in France from 1512 to 1514. Before leaving for France, Henry VIII had left his wife, Catherine in charge of England as Governor of the Realm and Captain General of the Forces. 
On the 9th September 1513, while Henry VIII was away, busy campaigning against the French, James IV and his Scottish troops crossed the border and challenged the English force.
Catherine was Regent and was to manage the kingdom, with the help of a council, while Henry was fighting France, with the help of Imperial forces. Flodden was a victory for Catherine. After about three hours of fighting, the English army had defeated the Scots, killing most of the Scottish aristocracy, including two abbots, two bishops, twelve earls and King James IV himself.
She was obviously proud of the English victory, but somewhat disappointed that she couldn’t send her husband James IV’s body. 
Catherine of Aragon wrote to Henry VIII of the victory on 16th September:

My husband, for hastiness, with Rougecross I could not send your Grace the piece of the King of Scots coat which John Glynn now brings. In this your Grace shall see how I keep my promise, sending you for your banners a king’s coat. I thought to send himself unto you, but our Englishmens’ hearts would not suffer it. It should have been better for him to have been in peace than have this reward. All that God sends is for the best. 


Henry and Katherine’s relationship over the next 10 or 15 years appears to have been a happy one. Henry jousted as ‘Sir Loyal Heart’ and laid trophies at Katherine’s feet at tournaments. 
But, somewhere between the private tragedy of miscarriages and stillbirths and the public political and dynastic ambitions of Henry VIII, their marriage failed. As time passed, hope for more children began to fade. There were other changes in the once strong marriage. Katherine, now 40, was six years older than Henry, and this began to show. She withdrew from the lively court life that Henry still enjoyed, becoming increasingly pious and devout. 
In all she bore Henry six children, including three sons, but all of them died except for one – their daughter, Mary (later Mary I), born in 1516. 
Henry doted on his little princess and was extremely proud of her. Katherine took an active role in her education and corrected her Latin homework.
Unable to produce a male heir, Catherine’s marriage to Henry began to sour and Henry began pursuing her lady-in-waiting, Anne Boleyn. 
In 1527 Henry, still desperate for a son, asked the Pope for an annulment of his marriage so he could marry his new mistress. He claimed that the marriage was cursed as it went against the biblical teaching that a man should never marry his brother’s widow.
However, Catherine refused to give in to Henry, saying her marriage to Arthur had never been consummated. She attracted much popular sympathy as she fought for her own rights and those of her daughter Mary. 
For seven years the Pope refused to annul their marriage. With Anne Boleyn already pregnant with his child she and Henry wed in secret in 1533. He then passed the Act of Supremacy, declaring that he was the head of the English church, and appointed Thomas Cranmer as Archbishop of Canterbury, who annulled Henry’s marriage to Catherine.
On 10 April 1533, Eustace Chapuys wrote to Charles V to inform him, among other things, that the previous day (9 April), the king had sent a delegation of Councillors, including the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, to inform Katherine that the king had married Anne Boleyn and that she should now refrain from calling herself queen and instead adopt the title of ‘duchess’, (Dowager Princess of Wales).
Catherine was exiled from court and did not see her daughter again. She never accepted her fate. Her last letter to Henry, as she lay dying, is testament to her broken dreams and stubborn pride.
She signed it, ’Katherine the Queen.

June 2, 1916 - Ypres: Battle of Mont Sorrel Begins

Pictured - Canadian soldiers in a reserve trench at Ypres, June 1916.  By now the tin hat has become standard issue for British and Imperial forces on the Western Front.

The summer campaigning season kicked off in June 1916 with a vicious German attacks at Verdun, where the Crown Prince’s army was beginning to turn its attention from the Left Bank to the Right Bank, and at the Ypres Salient, where the Germans hit the British lines.  In a two-week battle against Scottish Highlanders and Canadian troops, the Germans advanced 700 yards on a 3,000-yard front, capturing British front-line trenches, as well as killing one British general and taking another prisoner.

However, many of the losses were regained barely 48 hours later.  More importantly, the attack did not disrupt British and French planning for their big push on the Somme.  The Germans suspected a coming attack, and diversions like Mont Sorrel were meant to break it up.  Allied spies reported encouragingly, however, that the Entente had succeeded in concentrating forces on the Western Front, with 103 French and 54 British divisions versus 121 German.

On this day in Scottish history Jacobite troops defeated the Hanoverian army near Falkirk.
The battle, fought on the south muir of the town on 17th January 1746 was the last Jacobite triumph on the battlefield and the last time the famous Highland charge swept the clansmen to victory. Unlike Prestonpans, where untested government troops had broken in the face of the Highland charge, here it was well trained veteran troops under an experienced commander. This was arguably the high point of the Jacobite campaign of 1746, but it was not the devastating victory that might have been achieved. It was a propaganda success but in reality it had revealed the great weaknesses of the Jacobite forces.