On the 8th
of December 1542, nearly a month after the defeat of the Scottish troops at
Solway Moss, Princess Mary Stewart was born on Linlithgow Palace. She was the
only surviving child of Mary of Guise and James V of Scotland. Unlike his
father who had died in the battlefield, nearly three decades before him, James
V died as a result of an illness
no record that James ever saw his daughter, though he might have had time to do
so before he was laid low by severe illness.” (Porter)
died six days after Mary’s birth, making Mary the first Christ Queen Regnant of
the British Isles. She was crowned the following year, being less than a year
old. There is a tradition that when James V heard of his daughter’s birth that
he said “It came with a lass and it will end with a lass.” But this as Porter
points out, given how ill he was, it is highly dubious that he was able to utter
such coherent words. But for historical novelists, this makes up for good drama
Queen of Scots as she became known became part of the ‘Rough Wooing’ –this was
an aggressive Anglo-Scottish policy that was Henry VIII’s brainchild. He sought
to have the Scottish nobles he captured during the battle return to Scotland
with the mission to convince the Queen Dowager and the other nobles to his
proposal of a betrothal between her and his son (then) Prince Edward.
point, when her father’s body wasn’t yet cold, Henry VIII attempted to invade
Scotland and there was one man who firmly opposed this and this was none other
than John Dudley who’s reputation hasn’t been so good thanks in part to his
former allies turning against him when the going got tough following the Jane
Grey fiasco and pop culture.
Christmas of that year, John Dudley voiced his concerns, saying that “seeing
that God hath thus disposed his will of the said King of Scots, I thought it
should not be to Your Majesty’s honor, that we your soldiers should make war or
invade upon a dead body or upon a widow or upon a young suckling…”
King died, a man who continued Henry VIII’s aggressive policy under his royal
nephew and new King was Edward Seymour, newly named Lord Protector and Duke of
had no intention for diplomacy. As far as he was concerned, diplomacy was
failing. The Scots could understand he meant business by only one way and that
was through fire and blood. Pillaging and heavy artillery. Although this did
the trick, planting fear into the Scots’ hearts, it also strengthened Mary of
Guise and her allies’ resolve. She decided to stall and secretly sent her
daughter, her companions, among them the well-known four Maries, her half
brother (Moray, who would return shortly after), to France where she would meet
her future spouse, the future King of France, Francois.
Queen of Scots has a lot of detractors and defenders and seldom any people in
between. On the one hand you have this naïve girl who was well-educated, who
loved playing sports, and dressed in men’s clothes for that, and was also very
beautiful, and had received not a lot of training to be a ruler but more how to
be a Queen Consort while she was in France, but on the other hand, you also
have a girl who caught on pretty fast and who wanted to reconcile both factions
of her country, Protestant and Catholic, and tried her best but failed. And
then tried again, using conspiracy to oust her cousin Queen Elizabeth when she
didn’t agree to reinstate her. And this last act of hers not only failed but
ended with her being sentenced to death. This was extremely painful as her
executioner botched it and it took more than one blow to finish the deed.
The truth is likely somewhere in between. Mary was a quick learner,
well-learned, fashionable Queen, but at the same time, she was also tired after
years of trying and having little to show for it except plotters at every turn
who hated her because of her sex and religion and for refusing to give up. When
she finally gave up, she tried to rise up but once again she felt defeated and
sought her cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England for help and as previously
stated, when she realized this was a huge mistake, she plotted against her and
this ended with terrible results. She was much a victim of circumstance as of her
own actions and rearing.
vs Stewarts by Linda Porter
Tudor Statesmen by Arthur D. Innes
Passion. Murder. Manipulation by Leanda de Lisle
Rebecca kept combing her fingers through her hair to keep herself from having a panic attack after receiving the news from her home country, knowing that she had to do something to help all of the people effected by it, but not knowing what action would be the best to help the people who now lived in fear from this attack. She knew better than to resort to writing everything down in case someone was to get a hold of it and tell the English enemies of her strategy to drive them out, so she had to resort to silent contemplation on what was the best of her options. The only way that would have even a small chance of working against the very forceful English troops, was coming back with the force of French, Irish, and Scottish troops. Hopefully, she could also get other countries that were against England to help, but she knew that Spain and Portugal were allied with England. There had to be some way for her to keep her home country safe against the English troops, she would keep trying to find a way until the day that she died. She hoped that Nicholas would be able to help her, so she set off to find him to help her with a strategy. All she wanted was a way to keep her and her father’s legacy alive, but now that seemed impossible. She had been on the throne since she was a baby, but she had regents taking care of most of the business. This was the first real decision involving her country that was hers to make, but she still had a net of safety.
June 2, 1916 - Ypres: Battle of Mont Sorrel Begins
Pictured - Canadian soldiers in a reserve trench at Ypres, June 1916. By now the tin hat has become standard issue for British and Imperial forces on the Western Front.
The summer campaigning season kicked off in June 1916 with a vicious German attacks at Verdun, where the Crown Prince’s army was beginning to turn its attention from the Left Bank to the Right Bank, and at the Ypres Salient, where the Germans hit the British lines. In a two-week battle against Scottish Highlanders and Canadian troops, the Germans advanced 700 yards on a 3,000-yard front, capturing British front-line trenches, as well as killing one British general and taking another prisoner.
However, many of the losses were regained barely 48 hours later. More importantly, the attack did not disrupt British and French planning for their big push on the Somme. The Germans suspected a coming attack, and diversions like Mont Sorrel were meant to break it up. Allied spies reported encouragingly, however, that the Entente had succeeded in concentrating forces on the Western Front, with 103 French and 54 British divisions versus 121 German.