scientific-classification

Kingdom: Animal

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Repitila (?)

Order: Dragonia

Family: Wyvern

Genus: Dovah

Species: Frost Dragon

I am very passionate in my insistence that Wyverns ARE dragons, albeit a specific type. Asian dragons would be a Family. Lundwyrms would be a Family. Western dragons would be a Family. And all of them are under the Dragon Order

asexualpretzel asked:

So, what's the difference between lizards and iguanas?

Good question!

The word “lizard” is commonly used to refer to any reptile. So, that means an iguana is a lizard, right? Well, if you’re just talking to your friend, sure, but technically, an iguana is not a lizard.

Lizard, or Lacertilia, is a suborder belonging to the order Squamata. Iguanas, on the other hand, are their own genus, belonging to the suborder Iguania. Iguania also belongs to Squamata though, so they are related fairly closely.

Don’t worry too much about calling iguanas “lizards” by accident. I’m sure they won’t mind.
-thelambdacache

Throughout the greater part of the eighteenth century, principles of scientific classification testified to a mixture of theocratic, rationalist, and protoevolutionist systems of thought. Translated into principles of museological display, the result was the table, not the series, with species being arranged in terms of culturally codified similarities/dissimilarities in their external appearances rather than being ordered into temporally organized relations of precession/
succession. The crucial challenges to such conceptions came from developments within geology and biology, particularly where their researches overlapped in the stratigraphical study of fossil remains.
However, the details of these developments need not concern us here. So far as their implications for museums were concerned, their main significance was that of allowing for organic life to be conceived and represented as a temporally ordered succession of different forms of life where the transitions between them were accounted for not as a result of external shocks (as had been the case in the eighteenth century) but as the consequence of an inner momentum inscribed within the concept of life itself.
—  Tony Bennett, “The Exhibitionary Complex,” New Formations, No.4 (Spring 1988), pg.90 (x)
About Me

Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Theria
Infraclass: Eutheria
Order: Primates
Suborder: Anthropoidea
Infraorder: Catarrhini
Superfamily: Homonoidea
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Tribe: Hominini
Genus: Homo
Species: sapiens
Subspecies: sapiens

YES! I am so HAPPY! I’ve been blundering around the internet; no one seems to have an appreciation for the actual definition of the Latin and greek words being used in scientific classification which is making my research difficult and annoying. but I stumbled upon the most perfect page ever! A nearly complete list of taxonomic etymologies for classification! YES!!!

Check it out Taxonomic Etymologies

I’m so excited! Knowing what I’m writing and seeing in nature is going to be so much easier to find a mnemonic reference to.

I’m so genuinely and unironically happy that an animal that’s considered so cute that its scientific classification might actually include the word “adorable” is a slimy, multi-limbed, ocean-dwelling invertebrate and not, like, a fox or some shit.

This is a fish profile for the Ropefish/Reedfish.
Scientific name:
Erpetoichthys calabaricus
Classification: polypteridae
Genus: Erpetoichthys-only species in this genus.

Specs:
temperature: 73-86F (23-30C)
pH: 6.0-7.5

Origen:
These fish are found in various parts of Africa.

Size:
Tank size- 16ish inches
Wild size- 36ish inches

Tank size: minimum 55 gallon

Tank setup: a planted aquarium with driftwood and plenty of hiding places is ideal. A tight fitting lid is ESSENTIAL! This fish IS an escape artist!

Important notes:
1. These guys are tough fish… Due to the conditions they live in(in the wild), they can survive 4 HOURS out of water!
2. This fish IS a carnivore BUT it is peaceful. It is advised NOT to keep it with small fish under 2-3 inches. Personally, mine has never touch a fish and lives with 1 inch Otocinclus. This is not to say it can’t happen though.
3. Breeding is undocumented, that being said nearly all of these fish are WILD caught.
4. Because of them being wild caught, a proper, long, acclimation with the lights off will be the least stressful to them.
5. Please be aware this fish IS nocturnal! It will hide! And they don’t like bright lighting! Mine has grown accustomed to the bright light and comes out every now and then BUT still hides quite a bit. Do not be surprised if you get one and it is always hiding…

Diet- wild caught plays a factor, mine is very picky and ONLY accepts LIVE worms just as earthworms and nightcrawlers. Unlike mine, many can be trained to frozen food like Mysis and Bloodworms. (at give me topics!!!)

fightirene1 asked:

dear, we sincerely invite you to cooperate with us for shop promotion. You can get money or free clothes in return. If you want more informations, please inform us your email address . Hope you have a nice day! - irene

Maize

This article is about the cereal grain. For other uses, see Maize (disambiguation).
“Corn” redirects here. For other uses, see Corn (disambiguation).
This page has some issues
Maize
Zea mays - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-283.jpg
Illustration depicting both male and female flowers of maize
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Tribe: Andropogoneae
Genus: Zea
Species: Z. mays
Subspecies: Z. mays subsp. mays
Trinomial name
Zea mays subsp. mays
L.
Maize (/ˈmeɪz/ MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times.

The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels. Maize kernels are often used in cooking as a starch. The six major types of maize are dent, flint, pod, popcorn, flour, and sweet.[1]

History

Names


Many small male flowers make up the male inflorescence, called the tassel.
The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant, maiz.[9] It is known by other names around the world.

The word “corn” outside North America, Australia and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple.[10][11] In the United States,[10] Canada,[12] Australia, and New Zealand,[citation needed] corn primarily means maize; this usage started as a shortening of “Indian corn”.[10] “Indian corn” primarily means maize (the staple grain of indigenous Americans), but can refer more specifically to multicolored “flint corn” used for decoration.[13]

In places outside North America, Australia, and New Zealand, corn often refers to maize in culinary contexts. The narrower meaning is usually indicated by some additional word, as in sweet corn, sweetcorn, corn on the cob, popcorn, corn flakes, baby corn.

In Southern Africa, maize is commonly called mielie (Afrikaans) or mealie (English),[14] words derived from the Portuguese word for maize, milho.[15]

Maize is preferred in formal, scientific, and international usage because it refers specifically to this one grain, unlike corn, which has a complex variety of meanings that vary by context and geographic region.[11] Maize is used by agricultural bodies and research institutes such as the FAO and CSIRO. National agricultural and industry associations often include the word maize in their name even in English-speaking countries where the local, informal word is something other than maize; for example, the Maize Association of Australia, the Indian Maize Development Association, the Kenya Maize Consortium and Maize Breeders Network, the National Maize Association of Nigeria, the Zimbabwe Seed Maize Association. However, in commodities trading, corn consistently refers to maize and not other grains.[citation needed]

Structure and physiology

The maize plant is often 2.5 m (8 ft) in height, though some natural strains can grow 12 m (40 ft).[16] The stem has the appearance of a bamboo cane and is commonly composed of 20 internodes of 18 cm (7 in) length.[17][18] A leaf grows from each node, which is generally 9 cm (3.5 in) in width and 120 cm (4 ft) in length.

Ears develop above a few of the leaves in the midsection of the plant, between the stem and leaf sheath, elongating by[citation needed] ~ 3 mm/day, to a length of 18 cm (7 in) (60 cm or 24 in being the maximum observed in the subspecies [19]). They are female inflorescences, tightly enveloped by several layers of ear leaves commonly called husks. Certain varieties of maize have been bred to produce many additional developed ears. These are the source of the “baby corn” used as a vegetable in Asian cuisine.

The apex of the stem ends in the tassel, an inflorescence of male flowers. When the tassel is mature and conditions are suitably warm and dry, anthers on the tassel dehisce and release pollen. Maize pollen is anemophilous (dispersed by wind), and because of its large settling velocity, most pollen falls within a few meters of the tassel.

Elongated stigmas, called silks, emerge from the whorl of husk leaves at the end of the ear. They are often pale yellow and 7 in (178 mm) in length, like tufts of hair in appearance. At the end of each is a carpel, which may develop into a “kernel” if fertilized by a pollen grain. The pericarp of the fruit is fused with the seed coat referred to as “caryopsis”, typical of the grasses, and the entire kernel is often referred to as the “seed”. The cob is close to a multiple fruit in structure, except that the individual fruits (the kernels) never fuse into a single mass. The grains are about the size of peas, and adhere in regular rows around a white, pithy substance, which forms the ear (maximum size of kernel in subspecies is reputedly 2.5 cm/1 in [20]). An ear commonly holds 600 kernels. They are of various colors: blackish, bluish-gray, purple, green, red, white and yellow. When ground into flour, maize yields more flour with much less bran than wheat does. It lacks the protein gluten of wheat and, therefore, makes baked goods with poor rising capability. A genetic variant that accumulates more sugar and less starch in the ear is consumed as a vegetable and is called sweet corn. Young ears can be consumed raw, with the cob and silk, but as the plant matures (usually during the summer months), the cob becomes tougher and the silk dries to inedibility. By the end of the growing season, the kernels dry out and become difficult to chew without cooking them tender first in boiling water.

Female inflorescence, with young silk

Full-grown maize plants

Mature maize ear on a stalk

Planting density affects multiple aspects of maize. Modern farming techniques in developed countries usually rely on dense planting, which produces one ear per stalk.[21] Stands of silage maize are yet denser,[22] and achieve a lower percentage of ears and more plant matter.

Maize is a facultative short-day plant [23] and flowers in a certain number of growing degree days > 10 °C (50 °F) in the environment to which it is adapted.[24] The magnitude of the influence that long nights have on the number of days that must pass before maize flowers is genetically prescribed[25] and regulated by the phytochrome system.[26] Photoperiodicity can be eccentric in tropical cultivars such that the long days characteristic of higher latitudes allow the plants to grow so tall that they do not have enough time to produce seed before being killed by frost. These attributes, however, may prove useful in using tropical maize for biofuels.[27]

Immature maize shoots accumulate a powerful antibiotic substance, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA is a member of a group of hydroxamic acids (also known as benzoxazinoids) that serve as a natural defense against a wide range of pests, including insects, pathogenic fungi and bacteria. DIMBOA is also found in related grasses, particularly wheat. A maize mutant (bx) lacking DIMBOA is highly susceptible to attack by aphids and fungi. DIMBOA is also responsible for the relative resistance of immature maize to the European corn borer (family Crambidae). As maize matures, DIMBOA levels and resistance to the corn borer decline.

Because of its shallow roots, maize is susceptible to droughts, intolerant of nutrient-deficient soils, and prone to be uprooted by severe winds.[28]

Ear of maize with irregular rows of seeds


Zea mays “Oaxacan Green” MHNT
While yellow maizes derive their color from lutein and zeaxanthin, in red-coloured maizes, the kernel colouration is due to anthocyanins and phlobaphenes. These latter substances are synthesized in the flavonoids synthetic pathway[29] from polymerisation of flavan-4-ols[30] by the expression of maize pericarp color1 (p1) gene[31] which encodes an R2R3 myb-like transcriptional activator[32] of the A1 gene encoding for the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (reducing dihydroflavonols into flavan-4-ols)[33] while another gene (Suppressor of Pericarp Pigmentation 1 or SPP1) acts as a suppressor.[34] The p1 gene encodes an Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments, while the P1-wr allele specifies colorless kernel pericarp and red cobs, and unstable factor for orange1 (Ufo1) modifies P1-wr expression to confer pigmentation in kernel pericarp, as well as vegetative tissues, which normally do not accumulate significant amounts of phlobaphene pigments.[31] The maize P gene encodes a Myb homolog that recognizes the sequence CCT/AACC, in sharp contrast with the C/TAACGG bound by vertebrate Myb proteins.[35]

Abnormal flowers

Sometimes in maize, inflorescences are found containing both male and female flowers, or hermaphrodite flowers.[36]

Genetics

Breeding

Maize reproduces sexually each year. This randomly selects half the genes from a given plant to propagate to the next generation, meaning that desirable traits found in the crop (like high yield or good nutrition) can be lost in subsequent generations unless certain techniques are used.

Maize breeding in prehistory resulted in large plants producing large ears. Modern breeding began with individuals who selected highly productive varieties in their fields and then sold seed to other farmers. James L. Reid was one of the earliest and most successful developing Reid’s Yellow Dent in the 1860s. These early efforts were based on mass selection. Later breeding efforts included ear to row selection, (C. G. Hopkins ca. 1896), hybrids made from selected inbred lines (G. H. Shull, 1909), and the highly successful double cross hybrids using 4 inbred lines (D. F. Jones ca. 1918, 1922). University supported breeding programs were especially important in developing and introducing modern hybrids. (Ref Jugenheimer Hybrid Maize Breeding and Seed Production pub. 1958) by the 1930s, companies such as Pioneer devoted to production of hybrid maize had begun to influence long term development. Internationally important seed banks such as International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and the US bank at Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign maintain germplasm important for future crop development.

Since the 1940s the best strains of maize have been first-generation hybrids made from inbred strains that have been optimized for specific traits, such as yield, nutrition, drought, pest and disease tolerance. Both conventional cross-breeding and genetic modification have succeeded in increasing output and reducing the need for cropland, pesticides, water and fertilizer.[43]

Global maize program

CIMMYT operates a conventional breeding program to provide optimized strains. The program began in the 1980s. Hybrid seeds are distributed in Africa by the Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa project.[43]

Genetic modification

Main article: Transgenic maize
Genetically modified (GM) maize is one of the 25 GM crops grown commercially in 2011.[44] Grown since 1997 in the United States and Canada, 86% of the US maize crop was genetically modified in 2010[45] and 32% of the worldwide maize crop was GM in 2011.[46] As of 2011, Herbicide-tolerant maize varieties are grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, El Salvador, the EU, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, the Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, and USA, and insect-resistant corn is grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, the EU, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Romania, Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Taiwan, USA, and Uruguay.[47]

In September 2000, up to $50 million worth of food products were recalled due to contamination with Starlink genetically modified corn, which had been approved only for animal consumption and had not been approved for human consumption, and was subsequently withdrawn from the market.[48]

Origin

See also: Origin of maize and interaction with teosintes
Maize is the domesticated variant of teosinte.[49] The two plants have dissimilar appearance, maize having a single tall stalk with multiple leaves and teosinte being a short, bushy plant. The difference between the two is largely controlled by differences in just two genes.[49]

Several theories had been proposed about the specific origin of maize in Mesoamerica:[50][51]

It is a direct domestication of a Mexican annual teosinte, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, native to the Balsas River valley in south-eastern Mexico, with up to 12% of its genetic material obtained from Zea mays ssp. mexicana through introgression. This theory was further confirmed by the 2002 study of Matsuoka et al.[8]
It has been derived from hybridization between a small domesticated maize (a slightly changed form of a wild maize) and a teosinte of section Luxuriantes, either Z. luxurians or Z. diploperennis.
It has undergone two or more domestications either of a wild maize or of a teosinte. (The term “teosinte” describes all species and subspecies in the genus Zea, excluding Zea mays ssp. mays.)
It has evolved from a hybridization of Z. diploperennis by Tripsacum dactyloides.
In the late 1930s, Paul Mangelsdorf suggested that domesticated maize was the result of a hybridization event between an unknown wild maize and a species of Tripsacum, a related genus. This theory about the origin of maize has been refuted by modern genetic testing, which refutes Mangelsdorf’s model and the fourth listed above.[50]:40

The teosinte origin theory was proposed by the Russian botanist Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov in 1931 and the later American Nobel Prize-winner George Beadle in 1932.[50]:10 It is supported experimentally and by recent studies of the plants’ genomes. Teosinte and maize are able to cross-breed and produce fertile offspring. A number of questions remain concerning the species, among them:

how the immense diversity of the species of sect. Zea originated,
how the tiny archaeological specimens of 3500–2700 BC could have been selected from a teosinte, and
how domestication could have proceeded without leaving remains of teosinte or maize with teosintoid traits earlier than the earliest known until recently, dating from ca. 1100 BC.
The domestication of maize is of particular interest to researchers—archaeologists, geneticists, ethnobotanists, geographers, etc. The process is thought by some to have started 7,500 to 12,000 years ago. Research from the 1950s to 1970s originally focused on the hypothesis that maize domestication occurred in the highlands between the states of Oaxaca and Jalisco, because the oldest archaeological remains of maize known at the time were found there.

Connection with ‘parviglumis’ subspecies

Genetic studies led by John Doebley identified Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, native to the Balsas River valley in Mexico’s southwestern highlands, and also known as Balsas teosinte, as being the crop wild relative teosinte genetically most similar to modern maize.[52] This has been confirmed by further more recent studies, which refined this hypothesis somewhat. Archaeobotanical studies published in 2009 now point to the middle part of the Balsas River valley as the more likely location of early domestication; this river is not very long, so these locations are not very distant. Stone milling tools with maize residue have been found in an 8,700-years old layer of deposits in a cave not far from Iguala, Guerrero.[53][54][55]

A primitive corn was being grown in southern Mexico, Central America, and northern South America 7,000 years ago. Archaeological remains of early maize ears, found at Guila Naquitz Cave in the Oaxaca Valley, date back roughly 6,250 years; the oldest ears from caves near Tehuacan, Puebla, date ca. 3,450 BC.[3]

Maize pollen dated to 7300 cal B.P. from San Andres, Tabasco, on the Caribbean coast has also been recovered.[54]

Little change occurred in ear form until ca. 1100 BC when great changes appeared in ears from Mexican caves: maize diversity rapidly increased and archaeological teosinte was first deposited.

Perhaps as early as 2500 BC, maize began to spread widely and rapidly. It was first cultivated in what is now the United States, at several sites in New Mexico and Arizona, about 2100 BC.[56] As it was introduced to new cultures, new uses were developed and new varieties selected to better serve in those preparations. Maize was the staple food, or a major staple (along with squash, Andean region potato, quinoa, beans, and amaranth), of most pre-Columbian North American, Mesoamerican, South American, and Caribbean cultures. The Mesoamerican civilization was strengthened upon the field crop of maize, through harvesting it, its religious and spiritual importance and how it impacted their diet. Maize formed the Mesoamerican people’s identity. During the first millennium AD, maize cultivation spread from Mexico into the US Southwest and during the following millennium into the US Northeast and southeastern Canada, transforming the landscape as Native Americans cleared large forest and grassland areas for the new crop.[citation needed]


Centeotl, the Aztec deity of maize
It is unknown what precipitated its domestication, because the edible portion of the wild variety is too small and hard to obtain to be eaten directly, as each kernel is enclosed in a very hard bivalve shell. However, George Beadle demonstrated that the kernels of teosinte are readily “popped” for human consumption, like modern popcorn. Some have argued it would have taken too many generations of selective breeding to produce large, compressed ears for efficient cultivation. However, studies of the hybrids readily made by intercrossing teosinte and modern maize suggest this objection is not well founded.

In 2005, research by the USDA Forest Service suggested that the rise in maize cultivation 500 to 1,000 years ago in what is now the southeastern United States corresponded with a decline of freshwater mussels, which are very sensitive to environmental changes.[57]

Production

Methods


Seedlings three weeks after sowing

Because it is cold-intolerant, in the temperate zones maize must be planted in the spring. Its root system is generally shallow, so the plant is dependent on soil moisture. As a C4 plant (a plant that uses C4 carbon fixation), maize is a considerably more water-efficient crop than C3 plants (plants that use C3 carbon fixation) like the small grains, alfalfa and soybeans. Maize is most sensitive to drought at the time of silk emergence, when the flowers are ready for pollination. In the United States, a good harvest was traditionally predicted if the maize were “knee-high by the Fourth of July”, although modern hybrids generally exceed this growth rate. Maize used for silage is harvested while the plant is green and the fruit immature. Sweet corn is harvested in the “milk stage”, after pollination but before starch has formed, between late summer and early to mid-autumn. Field maize is left in the field very late in the autumn to thoroughly dry the grain, and may, in fact, sometimes not be harvested until winter or even early spring. The importance of sufficient soil moisture is shown in many parts of Africa, where periodic drought regularly causes maize crop failure and consequent famine. Although it is grown mainly in wet, hot climates, it has been said to thrive in cold, hot, dry or wet conditions, meaning that it is an extremely versatile crop.[58]

Maize was planted by the Native Americans in hills, in a complex system known to some as the Three Sisters. Maize provided support for beans, and the beans provided nitrogen derived from nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria which live on the roots of beans and other legumes; and squashes provided ground cover to stop weeds and inhibit evaporation by providing shade over the soil.[59] This method was replaced by single species hill planting where each hill 60–120 cm (2.0–3.9 ft) apart was planted with three or four seeds, a method still used by home gardeners. A later technique was “checked maize”, where hills were placed 40 inches (1.0 metre) apart in each direction, allowing cultivators to run through the field in two directions. In more arid lands, this was altered and seeds were planted in the bottom of 10–12 cm (3.9–4.7 in) deep furrows to collect water. Modern technique plants maize in rows which allows for cultivation while the plant is young, although the hill technique is still used in the maize fields of some Native American reservations. When maize is planted in rows, it also allows for planting of other crops between these rows to make more efficient use of land space.[60]

In North America, fields are often planted in a two-crop rotation with a nitrogen-fixing crop, often alfalfa in cooler climates and soybeans in regions with longer summers. Sometimes a third crop, winter wheat, is added to the rotation.

Many of the maize varieties grown in the United States and Canada are hybrids. Often the varieties have been genetically modified to tolerate glyphosate or to provide protection against natural pests. Glyphosate is an herbicide which kills all plants except those with genetic tolerance. This genetic tolerance is very rarely found in nature.

In midwestern United States, low-till or no-till farming techniques are usually used. In low-till, fields are covered once, maybe twice, with a tillage implement either ahead of crop planting or after the previous harvest. The fields are planted and fertilized. Weeds are controlled through the use of herbicides, and no cultivation tillage is done during the growing season. This technique reduces moisture evaporation from the soil, and thus provides more moisture for the crop. The technologies mentioned in the previous paragraph enable low-till and no-till farming. Weeds compete with the crop for moisture and nutrients, making them undesirable.

Before World War II, most maize in North America was harvested by hand. This involves a large numbers of workers and associated social events (husking or shucking bees). Some one- and two-row mechanical pickers were in use, but the maize combine was not adopted until after the War. By hand or mechanical picker, the entire ear is harvested, which then requires a separate operation of a maize sheller to remove the kernels from the ear. Whole ears of maize were often stored in corn cribs, and these whole ears are a sufficient form for some livestock feeding use. Few modern farms store maize in this manner. Most harvest the grain from the field and store it in bins. The combine with a corn head (with points and snap rolls instead of a reel) does not cut the stalk; it simply pulls the stalk down. The stalk continues downward and is crumpled into a mangled pile on the ground. The ear of maize is too large to pass between slots in a plate as the snap rolls pull the stalk away, leaving only the ear and husk to enter the machinery. The combine separates out the husk and the cob, keeping only the kernels.

For storing grain in bins, the moisture of the grain must be sufficiently low to avoid spoiling. If the moisture content of the harvested grain is too high, grain dryers are used to reduce the moisture content by blowing heated air through the grain. This can require large amounts of energy in the form of combustible gases (propane or natural gas) and electricity to power the blowers.[61]

Quantity

Maize is widely cultivated throughout the world, and a greater weight of maize is produced each year than any other grain.[62] The United States produces 40% of the world’s harvest; other top producing countries include China, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, India, France and Argentina. Worldwide production was 817 million tonnes in 2009—more than rice (678 million tonnes) or wheat (682 million tonnes).[4] In 2009, over 159 million hectares (390 million acres) of maize were planted worldwide, with a yield of over 5 tonnes per hectare (80 bu/acre). Production can be significantly higher in certain regions of the world; 2009 forecasts for production in Iowa were 11614 kg/ha (185 bu/acre).[63][Note 1] There is conflicting evidence to support the hypothesis that maize yield potential has increased over the past few decades. This suggests that changes in yield potential are associated with leaf angle, lodging resistance, tolerance of high plant density, disease/pest tolerance, and other agronomic traits rather than increase of yield potential per individual plant.[64]

Top ten maize producers in 2013[65]
Country Production (tonnes) Note
United States 353,699,441
China 217,730,000
Brazil 80,516,571
Argentina 32,119,211
Ukraine 30,949,550
India 23,290,000
Mexico 22,663,953
Indonesia 18,511,853
France 15,053,100
South Africa 12,365,000
World 1,016,431,783
No symbol = official figure, A = Aggregate (may include official, semiofficial or estimates).[4]
United States


Corn production by county in the United States, 2010
Main article: Corn production in the United States
In 2010, the maize planted area for all purposes in the US was estimated at 35 million hectares (87.9 million acres),[66] following an increasing trend since 2008.[67] About 14% of the harvested corn area is irrigated.[68]

Pests

Uses

Human food

Maize and cornmeal (ground dried maize) constitute a staple food in many regions of the world.

Maize is central to Mexican food. Virtually every dish in Mexican cuisine uses maize. On form of grain or cornmeal, maize is the main ingredient of tortillas, tamales, pozole, atole and all the dishes based on them, like tacos, quesadillas, chilaquiles, enchiladas, tostadas and many more. In Mexico even a fungus of maize, known as huitlacoche is considered a delicacy.

Introduced into Africa by the Portuguese in the 16th century, maize has become Africa’s most important staple food crop.[72] Maize meal is made into a thick porridge in many cultures: from the polenta of Italy, the angu of Brazil, the mămăligă of Romania, to cornmeal mush in the US (and hominy grits in the South) or the food called mealie pap in South Africa and sadza, nshima and ugali in other parts of Africa. Maize meal is also used as a replacement for wheat flour, to make cornbread and other baked products. Masa (cornmeal treated with limewater) is the main ingredient for tortillas, atole and many other dishes of Central American food.

Popcorn consists of kernels of certain varieties that explode when heated, forming fluffy pieces that are eaten as a snack. Roasted dried maize ears with semihardened kernels, coated with a seasoning mixture of fried chopped spring onions with salt added to the oil, is a popular snack food in Vietnam. Cancha, which are roasted maize chulpe kernels, are a very popular snack food in Peru, and also appears in traditional Peruvian ceviche. An unleavened bread called makki di roti is a popular bread eaten in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan.

Chicha and chicha morada (purple chicha) are drinks typically made from particular types of maize. The first one is fermented and alcoholic, the second is a soft drink commonly drunk in Peru. Corn flakes are a common breakfast cereal in North America and the United Kingdom, and found in many other countries all over the world.


Maize can also be prepared as hominy, in which the kernels are soaked with lye in a process called nixtamalization; or grits, which are coarsely ground hominy. These are commonly eaten in the Southeastern United States, foods handed down from Native Americans, who called the dish sagamite.

The Brazilian dessert canjica is made by boiling maize kernels in sweetened milk. Maize can also be harvested and consumed in the unripe state, when the kernels are fully grown but still soft. Unripe maize must usually be cooked to become palatable; this may be done by simply boiling or roasting the whole ears and eating the kernels right off the cob. Sweet corn, a genetic variety that is high in sugars and low in starch, is usually consumed in the unripe state. Such corn on the cob is a common dish in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Cyprus, some parts of South America, and the Balkans, but virtually unheard of in some European countries. Corn on the cob was hawked on the streets of early 19th-century New York City by poor, barefoot “Hot Corn Girls”, who were thus the precursors of hot dog carts, churro wagons, and fruit stands seen on the streets of big cities today.[73] The cooked, unripe kernels may also be shaved off the cob and served as a vegetable in side dishes, salads, garnishes, etc. Alternatively, the raw unripe kernels may also be grated off the cobs and processed into a variety of cooked dishes, such as maize purée, tamales, pamonhas, curau, cakes, ice creams, etc.

Maize is a major source of starch. Cornstarch (maize flour) is a major ingredient in home cooking and in many industrialized food products. Maize is also a major source of cooking oil (corn oil) and of maize gluten. Maize starch can be hydrolyzed and enzymatically treated to produce syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup, a sweetener; and also fermented and distilled to produce grain alcohol. Grain alcohol from maize is traditionally the source of Bourbon whiskey. Maize is sometimes used as the starch source for beer. Within the United States, the usage of maize for human consumption constitutes about 1/40th of the amount grown in the country. In the United States and Canada, maize is mostly grown to feed livestock, as forage, silage (made by fermentation of chopped green cornstalks), or grain. Maize meal is also a significant ingredient of some commercial animal food products, such as dog food.

Nutritional value

In a 100 gram serving, maize kernels provide 86 calories and are a good source (10-19% of the Daily Value) of the B vitamins, thiamin, niacin, pantothenic acid (B5) and folate (right table for raw, uncooked kernels, USDA Nutrient Database). In moderate amounts, they also supply dietary fiber and the essential minerals, magnesium and phosphorus whereas other nutrients are in low amounts (see table on right).

Maize is the subject of genetic engineering research to improve levels of carotenoids, such as provitamin A, beta-carotene.[74]

Chemicals

Starch from maize can also be made into plastics, fabrics, adhesives, and many other chemical products.

The corn steep liquor, a plentiful watery byproduct of maize wet milling process, is widely used in the biochemical industry and research as a culture medium to grow many kinds of microorganisms.[75]

Chrysanthemin is found in purple corn and is used as a food coloring.

Bio-fuel

“Feed maize” is being used increasingly for heating;[citation needed] specialized corn stoves (similar to wood stoves) are available and use either feed maize or wood pellets to generate heat. Maize cobs are also used as a biomass fuel source. Maize is relatively cheap and home-heating furnaces have been developed which use maize kernels as a fuel. They feature a large hopper that feeds the uniformly sized maize kernels (or wood pellets or cherry pits) into the fire.

Maize is increasingly used as a feedstock for the production of ethanol fuel.[citation needed] Ethanol is mixed with gasoline to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted when used to fuel motor vehicles. High fuel prices in mid-2007 led to higher demand for ethanol, which in turn lead to higher prices paid to farmers for maize. This led to the 2007 harvest being one of the most profitable maize crops in modern history for farmers. Because of the relationship between fuel and maize, prices paid for the crop now tend to track the price of oil.[citation needed]

The price of food is affected to a certain degree by the use of maize for biofuel production. The cost of transportation, production, and marketing are a large portion (80%) of the price of food in the United States. Higher energy costs affect these costs, especially transportation. The increase in food prices the consumer has been seeing is mainly due to the higher energy cost. The effect of biofuel production on other food crop prices is indirect. Use of maize for biofuel production increases the demand, and therefore price of maize. This, in turn, results in farm acreage being diverted from other food crops to maize production. This reduces the supply of the other food crops and increases their prices.[76][77]

Maize is widely used in Germany as a feedstock for biogas plants. Here the maize is harvested, shredded then placed in silage clamps from which it is fed into the biogas plants. This process makes use of the whole plant rather than simply using the kernels as in the production of fuel ethanol.

A biomass gasification power plant in Strem near Güssing, Burgenland, Austria, began in 2005. Research is being done to make diesel out of the biogas by the Fischer Tropsch method.

Increasingly, ethanol is being used at low concentrations (10% or less) as an additive in gasoline (gasohol) for motor fuels to increase the octane rating, lower pollutants, and reduce petroleum use (what is nowadays also known as “biofuels” and has been generating an intense debate regarding the human beings’ necessity of new sources of energy, on the one hand, and the need to maintain, in regions such as Latin America, the food habits and culture which has been the essence of civilizations such as the one originated in Mesoamerica; the entry, January 2008, of maize among the commercial agreements of NAFTA has increased this debate, considering the bad labor conditions of workers in the fields, and mainly the fact that NAFTA “opened the doors to the import of maize from the United States, where the farmers who grow it receive multimillion dollar subsidies and other government supports. (…) According to OXFAM UK, after NAFTA went into effect, the price of maize in Mexico fell 70% between 1994 and 2001. The number of farm jobs dropped as well: from 8.1 million in 1993 to 6.8 million in 2002. Many of those who found themselves without work were small-scale maize growers.”).[78] However, introduction in the northern latitudes of the US of tropical maize for biofuels, and not for human or animal consumption, may potentially alleviate this.

As a result of the US federal government announcing its production target of 35 billion US gallons (130,000,000 m3) of biofuels by 2017, ethanol production will grow to 7 billion US gallons (26,000,000 m3) by 2010, up from 4.5 billion in 2006, boosting ethanol’s share of maize demand in the US from 22.6 percent to 36.1 percent.[79]

Ornamental and other uses

Main article: Corn construction
Some forms of the plant are occasionally grown for ornamental use in the garden. For this purpose, variegated and colored leaf forms as well as those with colorful ears are used.

Corncobs can be hollowed out and treated to make inexpensive smoking pipes, first manufactured in the United States in 1869.

An unusual use for maize is to create a “corn maze” (or “maize maze”) as a tourist attraction. The idea of a maize maze was introduced by the American Maze Company who created a maze in Pennsylvania in 1993.[80] Traditional mazes are most commonly grown using yew hedges, but these take several years to mature. The rapid growth of a field of maize allows a maze to be laid out using GPS at the start of a growing season and for the maize to grow tall enough to obstruct a visitor’s line of sight by the start of the summer. In Canada and the US, these are popular in many farming communities.

Maize kernels can be used in place of sand in a sandboxlike enclosure for children’s play.[81]

Stigmas from female maize flowers, popularly called corn silk, are sold as herbal supplements.[citation needed]

Maize is used as a fish bait, called “dough balls”. It is particularly popular in Europe for coarse fishing.

Additionally, feed corn is sometimes used by hunters to bait animals such as deer or wild hogs.

Fodder

Maize produces a greater quantity of biomass than other cereal plants, which is used for fodder. Digestibility and palatability are higher when ensiled and fermented, rather than dried.

Commodity

Maize is bought and sold by investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity using corn futures contracts. These “futures” are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) under ticker symbol C. They are delivered every year in March, May, July, September, and December.[82]

United States usage breakdown

The breakdown of usage of the 12.1-billion-bushel (307-million-tonne) 2008 US maize crop was as follows, according to the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates Report by the USDA.[83]

Use Amount
million bushels million tonnes percentage
livestock feed 5,250 133.4 43.4
ethanol production 3,650 92.7 30.2
exports 1,850 47.0 15.3
production of starch, corn oil, sweeteners (HFCS, etc.) 943 24.0 7.8
human consumption—grits, corn flour, corn meal, beverage alcohol 327 8.3 2.7
Comparison to other staple foods

Hazards

Pellagra

Main article: Pellagra
When maize was first introduced into farming systems other than those used by traditional native-American peoples, it was generally welcomed with enthusiasm for its productivity. However, a widespread problem of malnutrition soon arose wherever maize was introduced as a staple food. This was a mystery, since these types of malnutrition were not normally seen among the indigenous Americans, for whom maize was the principal staple food.[87]

It was eventually discovered that the indigenous Americans had learned to soak maize in alkali-water—made with ashes and lime (calcium oxide) since at least 1200–1500 BC by Mesoamericans and North Americans—which liberates the B-vitamin niacin, the lack of which was the underlying cause of the condition known as pellagra.[88]

Maize was introduced into the diet of nonindigenous Americans without the necessary cultural knowledge acquired over thousands of years in the Americas. In the late 19th century, pellagra reached epidemic proportions in parts of the southern US, as medical researchers debated two theories for its origin: the deficiency theory (which was eventually shown to be true) said that pellagra was due to a deficiency of some nutrient, and the germ theory said that pellagra was caused by a germ transmitted by stable flies. A third theory, promoted by the eugenicist Charles Davenport, held that people only contracted pellagra if they were susceptible to it due to certain “constitutional, inheritable” traits of the affected individual.[89]

Once alkali processing and dietary variety were understood and applied, pellagra disappeared in the developed world. The development of high lysine maize and the promotion of a more balanced diet have also contributed to its demise. Pellagra still exists today in food-poor areas and refugee camps where people survive on donated maize.[90]

Allergy

Maize contains lipid transfer protein, an indigestible protein that survives cooking. This protein has been linked to a rare and understudied allergy to maize in humans.[91] The allergic reaction can cause skin rash, swelling or itching of mucous membranes, diarrhea, vomiting, asthma and, in severe cases, anaphylaxis. It is unclear how common this allergy is in the general population.

Art

See also

Notes

References

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Now people are claiming that Jurassic World is racist because they called the Pachycephalosaurus‘s Pachys, which sounds like the racial slur for people from Pakistan. Pachycephalosaurus is the freaking name of a dinosaur derived from the Greek words for “head” and “thick” that means thick headed dinosaur.  It is in no way related to the racial slur for people who are from Pakistan.  Also the dinosaur Pakisaurus is being confused with the Pachycephalosaurus and being called a racial slur.  The Pakisaurus was a lizard-like dinosaur that lived in Pakistan and the name Pakisaurus literally means Pakistani lizard.  They’re freaking dinosaurs people, do you not understand how scientific classification works?!  If they had used the racial slur then this would be a very different post, but they didn’t. So everyone calm down.   


Tylopilus formosus by Steve Reekie
Via Flickr:
Scientific classification Kingdom:Fungi Division:Basidiomycota Class:Agaricomycetes Order:Boletales Family:Boletaceae Genus:Tylopilus Species: Tylopilus formosus

Fact Sheet: GREATER INDIA HILL MINAH - Gracula Religiosa intermedia
(Original Title: Rainforest Birds - Greater India Hill Mynah)


Bird Name: Greater India Hill Mynah
Latin Name: Gracula Religiosa intermedia Status: Least concern
Scientific Classification: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Passeriformes Family: Sturnidae Genus: Gracula Species: G. Religiosa Subspecies: G. Religiosa intermedia
General information: Commonly known as the Talking Mynah, the Greater India Hill Mynah is one of 10 subspecies of G. religiosa, and is considered the northern subspecies. The Greater India Hill Mynah is an extremely vocal bird and is renowned for its ability to imitate. Along with the Java Hill Myna (G. religiosa religiosa) they are the most commonly captured and imported of the Hill Mynahs for the pet trade. Described by many as the best talking bird in the world, Hill Mynahs can choose to imitate any human voice and speak in high or low tones.
Physical Description: The Greater India Hill Mynah averages 27 cm in length but can reach up to 35 cm. It is much larger in size than the Lesser Hill Mynahs. It has glossy black feathers which turn purple-blue when exposed to the sunshine. The wings show a white band and there is obvious yellow skin behind and below the eyes. The eye and nape patches are connected, which distinguishes it from the other subspecies. The bill is orange with a yellow tip. The feet and legs are also yellow. Males and females are similar. Juveniles also resemble adults, except their coats are dull and may have a ragged appearance before their first molt.
Diet: The diet consists of fruits, berries and seeds of various shrubs and trees. They are also known to eat insects and small lizards.
Habitat: The Greater India Hill Mynah inhabits north India, China, Burma, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and the northern through central part of Thailand. They prefer areas of high rainfall and humidity and spend most of their lives in trees. They are known for inhabiting dense jungles near the forest edge, although they are now commonly found on tea and coffee plantations with many flowering shade trees. While not breeding large flocks accumulate, but couples are obvious.


Reproduction: The Greater India Hill Mynah nests in small tree holes usually located at the forest edge. Several pairs may nest in the same tree without territorial aggression. The monogamous pair searches together for the nesting site. Both sexes fill the hole with twigs, leaves, and feathers. Females instigate copulation by stretching horizontally and flapping their tails up and down quickly. The average clutch is 2 eggs which are blue with brown spots. Incubation lasts 13-17 days and the majority is done by the female. Parents will feed the nestlings together and they will leave them unattended when searching for food. The young fledge after a month and the pair will begin a new clutch. Hill mynas average 2-3 clutches per year, with the most occurring in warmer climates. Breeding is between April and July, although it does vary slightly by region.