scientific presentation

Zodiac Checklist: Aquarius
  • ☑: Your used to having a 'noisy head'; and can easily get lost in the company of your own thoughts
  • ☑: You have a tremendous imagination but still find yourself applying scientific evidence to everything presented to you
  • ☑: You love humanity but loathe people
  • ☑: It is hard to arouse emotions within yourself; your in relationships, although they just feel as though they are 'closer friends
  • ☑: You will argue something until you have proved your point, and proved to others why they should also value this ideal
  • ☑: You feel at one with the crowd and your friends, then the familiar wave overcomes you and you need to be alone, away
  • ☑: You are more responsible than you seem, you feel intense duty for secret, higher purposes

theroyalpalmtreeofoz  asked:

I want to know more about grave robbing!

well then good news: im a big ol Gothic Romance fuck, and I’ve Got Some Shit For You about 19th century bodysnatching

  • this episode of the BBC “history cold cases” documentary series (watch all of them tbqh). its fucking sad as anything, as the title implies, but also really interesting?
  • grave robbers were called resurrectionists. how unfairly fucking cool is that,
  • grave robbing and 19th century medicine, especially anatomy, are inseparable. grave robbing is an undercurrent through all of dr lindsey fitzharris’s work with the Under the Knife youtube series (and also presumably in her new book The Butchering Art, which I am so fucking stoked to get my hands on). this is the most relevant episode!
  • this documentary on how the victorians viewed death, grave robbing, and burial, and particularly why it was seen as so horrible to be used bodysnatched for dissection.
  • in the same vein, Sawbones, excellent as always, has a graverobbing episode. also, listening to more of Sawbones gives you a healthy appreciation for just how fucking weird medicine got at the time, which is not unrelated.
  • mortsafes and the other many weird ways people came up with to stop the resurrectionists (i’m serious about this, i would probably be a grave robber if people would call me a ‘resurrectionist’)
  • burke and hare! they murdered people because graverobbing was too much effort. burke was punished with dissection after his execution and they made his skin into a wallet! what the fuck!
  • if you find death and burial customs interesting then everything on the Ask a Mortician youtube channel will probably seem cool but these episodes are especially relevant to fucked up things people have wanted corpses for! also they discuss the Romantics, who are a good chunk of the reason why I’m so interested in this
  • a lot of the need for grave robbing went away after the 1832 Anatomy Act, which was great, except that it did so by allowing doctors to claim and dissect the bodies of the poor, which was not great, and really didn’t do any positive things for the public’s already-strained feelings about anatomists.

(to explain my specific interest: I personally believe that fears of grave robbing are closely tied to the complicated feelings about science and scientific ethics present in Frankenstein, and especially to the creation of the creature himself. It’s fascinating that it’s never actually stated directly in the book that Frankenstein builds it from corpses (although it is very clear that he’s been grave-robbing for his anatomy studies), but readers have assumed that since its first publication. Medical history, man. it’s fucked up.)

It’s time to take the ‘great’ white men of science off their pedestals 

Science’s most elite magazine, Nature, published an editorial recently arguing that calling for monuments to figures such as J Marion Sims – often called the “father of gynaecology” – to be removed amounts to “whitewashing” history. Sims is widely praised for developing techniques in gynaecological surgery and founding a women’s hospital in New York in the mid-1800s. But Sims experimented on enslaved black women and infants, operating up to 30 times on one woman to perfect his method. Last month, women wearing bloodied hospital gowns staged a protest by Sims’s statue outside the New York Academy of Medicine.

Nature’s editorial sparked outrage and the magazine has now backpedalled. As critics pointed out, the magazine’s argument was essentially the same as that for keeping Confederate monuments such as the statue of Robert E Lee at the centre of recent protests in Charlottesville, Virginia. The idea that statues need to stay put for history’s sake was also invoked in the debate about Oxford University’s statue of British imperialist Cecil Rhodes, which remains in place despite protests.

As this latest controversy shows, science also has its monuments to white supremacy. Like Confederate monuments, these statues should be removed. They are daggers to the open wounds of communities that have long known that white supremacy reaches far beyond the sphere of conventional politics into medicine and science. But removing these monuments won’t be sufficient on its own. The row about Sims reminds us how hard the scientific establishment works to present an image of science as “apolitical”. What is needed is an honest re-examination of science’s history and politics – an examination of the kind that scientists have often tried to silence.

10

Ripples In Spacetime: From Einstein To LIGO And Beyond

“As you take a journey through the discoveries that have confirmed the existence and properties of gravitational waves, you wind up at the present day, where the future possibilities are clearly laid out at your feet. Pulsar timing arrays are opening up the ability to explore the long-wavelength gravitational waves that no interferometer can measure, and may in fact see the types of waves BICEP2 was seeking. Future observatories on the ground will complement the LIGO array, and are already under construction and coming online. LISA is on its way and will open up gravitational waves in space, and the ripples from supermassive black holes. And in the future, the holy grail of correlating optical and other light-based astronomy with gravitational wave astronomy will be achieved with our planned technology.”

In 2015, for the very first time, gravitational waves were directly detected from the merger of two massive black holes. These ripples in space traveled over a billion light years before they were finally detected. When they were, it validated Einstein’s theory of General Relativity in an entirely new fashion, and proved the physical existence of a phenomenon that was doubted even by Einstein himself. In a stunningly well-researched and well-written book, Ripples In Spacetime, award-winning science writer Govert Schilling takes us on a journey that not only details how these waves came to be detected, but it puts the entire story in historical and scientific context. The past, present, and future of gravitational wave astronomy, plus what it means for humanity and the scientific endeavor, is brilliantly discussed.

Come take an in-depth dive into what wonders this book holds – particularly if you’re a LIGO skeptic – and if you like what you’re reading, pick yourself up a copy and get the full story!

SPN S4 Watch Notes

In case you missed it the first 473 times I mentioned it, season 4 is my favorite season of the entire series. I think the way the story unfolded – even with them changing plans slightly due to their unexpected breakout character – is perfectly paced, wonderfully written (in most places), and the story itself is more engaging than the series has ever been.

I know that there are a ton of fans that hate “brother drama,” but the drama between Sam and Dean is a huge part of what makes me LOVE this season. When something happens to actually make me invested in BOTH SIDES, it just works best for me. Sam-n-Dean versus Evil Brits? Not very interesting. Sam-n-Dean versus Leviathan? Wow, boring. I mean, in cases like those, I know exactly who’s gonna win. I might not know how, but there’s no real huge surprise in the story. Sam-n-Hell versus Dean-n-Heaven? Sign me the fuck up, because I have no idea what the fuck is gonna happen.

(And then they fix it in season 5, guys – it’s okay.)

But seriously – it is BECAUSE of the brother drama that I love this season. (Cas doesn’t hurt, either… but it’s mostly Sam and Dean.)

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Different anon than the one who asked about Iruka and Urahara, but your response got me thinking of just who else in Naruto-verse, besides Oro, has pulled enough shit to deserve the creepy courting rituals of one Mister Hat-and-Clogs, and my evil, broken brain spat (T)Obito at me, so now I'm sharing the pain. Just imagine them though: two overly-strategic, manipulative bastards with a penchant for trolling everybody by masquerading as happy ditzes. (1/4?!)

The cat-and-mouse game between them would be epic and utterly obnoxious to everyone forced to witness it, but Obito without a mask must have a critically weak pokerface and it’d probably take Kisuke no time to tease out that all he needs to break it with a blush is lay the innuendo on thick. That pale Uchiha skin. The rest of the challenge for Urahara is entirely based on managing to contrive excuses to get in Obito’s personal space without him using Kamui to slip away, because I’m of the opinion that every Obi-pairing ever, in any universe, should include touch-starved!Obito eventually getting scooped up and overwhelmed with cuddles. For a side of angst, they’d have to work through Kisuke’s tenuous grasp of scientific ethics when presented with someone with such a fascinating hodgepodge of ridiculous powers, colliding with Obito’s probable PTSD and body-horror from cave time with Madara and Zetsu. :( 

 But since my real OTP is Obito/ANYbody-big-enough-to-cuddle-him, in any universe, eventually Kisuke’s gotta sneak some snuggles. Maybe right after Obito genjutsus the fuck out of Aizen for being another wannabe-god, and it’s the sexiest thing Urahara’s ever seen. Just. If any Naruto character is enough of a karmic mixed-bag  to deserve being affably harrassed and poked at and force-fed sweets by goddamn Urahara Kisuke, isn’t it Obito?

For the record, I hate you muchly and this is now a thing I ship. Whyyyyy. 


Gin knows he’s going to die.

It’s not as if this was ever in question; betraying Aizen isn’t something survivable, and Gin’s been aware of that from the very first. That doesn’t mean he’s going to stop, though.

Rangiku is worth more than that, and so is getting revenge for what was taken from her.

The Hōgyoku pulses in his grip like a heart torn free, and Gin doesn’t think he’s ever hated anything except Aizen himself more.

In the rubble left behind by Kamishini no Yari, something stirs. Gin glances up, muscles winding tight, because of course it wasn’t going to be as easy as snatching the damned thing from Aizen’s chest and beating a retreat; he’s bought himself some breathing room, a calm like the moment before a hurricane hits, and—

The Hōgyoku trembles like it’s going to wink out, and in the same instant a scarred hand closes over Gin’s, all five fingertips glowing incandescent violet.

Gin jerks, startled into flight, but another hand grabs his wrist as his head snaps up. Not Aizen, because he would be dead if it was, but a complete stranger, scarred and grim with eyes like red-and-black pinwheels.

“Seal,” the stranger commands, not so much as looking at Gin, and Gin yelps as a burning heat races across the skin of his abdomen. The Hōgyoku shivers like struck crystal, then winks out of existence, and simultaneously Gin feels it. There’s a rush of heat through his whole body, a tingling awareness that it’s there just beneath the surface, and he collapses to his knees with a gasp.

In the same moment, there’s a scream of pure fury from Aizen, out of sight beyond the rubble, and Gin realizes that the overwhelming pressure of the Hōgyoku on the town around them is entirely gone.

“Sorry,” the stranger says, releasing Gin’s wrist, though he doesn’t sound all that apologetic. “That was the thing all of this is about, right? The perverted bastard’s pet project?”

Well. Gin’s more used to hearing that phrase used to describe him, but in this context he’s going to assume the man means Urahara. “What did ya do?”

“Sealed it,” he says precisely, as if this answers everything. “If the Kyuubi no Kitsune can’t break an Eight Trigrams Seal, neither can that thing. I’m sorry it had to be you I sealed it into, but I was kind of short on options.”

On the list of things Gin truly Does Not Want, having the Hōgyoku sealed inside of him probably ranks up there with kissing Aizen full on the mouth. Still, it’s definitely better than the alternative, and he gets his feet under him with an effort and pushes upright. His shihakusho is already tattered, and he tugs it aside to find dark, heavy lines written across his stomach, a spiral of black ink surrounded by neat characters.

“I don’ think I want ta be a butterfly,” Gin says, a little faintly.

The stranger blinks, clearly startled, and then snorts. “You’re not going to transform. It’s sealed. You can’t use its power, and neither can anyone else.” Apparently dismissing the matter, he turns away, just as a familiar figure staggers around a broken street corner with seething fury in his face.

“You,” Aizen spits, bringing Kyōka Suigetsu up like a threat. “What have you done?”

Despite himself, Gin almost takes a step back. He’s never seen Aizen truly angry, even at the moment of his betrayal, never seen raw shock on his face like this before. It’s…terrifying.

But the stranger just snorts, facing him squarely. His eyes flicker past Aizen’s figure, to where Urahara Kisuke is just stepping down onto the street with narrowed eyes and an unreadable expression, and he smiles.

It’s not a nice expression.

“You’re not the first would-be god I’ve dealt with,” he says flatly. “And compared to the actual god I’ve faced, you don’t even begin to match up.” A step, and the air warps around him like a vortex. He vanishes, winking out of existence, and Gin shifts forward before he can help himself, not entirely sure what he means to do beyond help, and—

Aizen spins, sword slashing through the air, but it passes right through the stranger ass he reappears. Then he’s abruptly solid again, just in time to whirl and kick Aizen in the gut.

A flicker of flash-step and Urahara appears next to Gin, one hand holding his hat in place and a small, quirked smile on his lips. “My, my,” he says, and the tone is light but his eyes are sharp. “It seems our visitor from another dimension has lots of tricks up his sleeve.”

Gin glances at the stranger just in time to see him slam a hand against Aizen’s chest, fingertips glowing again, and Aizen cries out as every last trace of his reiatsu vanishes from the air. “You were keepin’ the kid in reserve?” he asks, because this is definitely not something Aizen knew Urahara had.

It’s hard to tell whether he’s getting more satisfaction from that thought or from watching Aizen get his ass kicked by a man who doesn’t even seem to be trying.

Well. Both, probably. Scratch that, both definitely.

Urahara chuckles, tipping his hat down over his eyes a little more, though his gaze doesn’t leave the rather one-sided fight. Gin had known that Aizen had never excelled at hand-to-hand the way he did at kido, because he’s spent decades learning the bastard’s weaknesses, but even knowing that it’s easy to see the stranger is good, on top of his ability to turn intangible. “No, no. Our cute little visitor didn’t even know about Aizen until a few minutes ago. He must have felt the two of you appearing in the real Karakura and come to find me. Such an adorable tsundere, don’t you think?”

Gin watches the adorable tsundere deliver an uppercut to Aizen’s jaw that audible cracks bone, and refrains from commenting.

There’s no need, anyway; without the Hōgyoku, without his reiatsu, the blow knocks Aizen back on his heels, and a final roundhouse kick catches him in the side of the head. He crumples like a puppet without strings, collapsing into a heap on the ground, and the stranger pulls back, breath still even as if he hadn’t just gone up against a man who practically laid the Gotei 13 to waste.

“Oi, pervert,” he calls, without looking away from Aizen. “You want him gift-wrapped or something?”

Urahara laughs merrily, flash-stepping to the strangers side. “My, my, Obito, you’re certainly thorough.”

Obito turns a dark look on him, though it holds more aggravation than true anger. “I just watched him kick your ass. And Yoruichi’s. Was I supposed to go easy on him?”

“Revenge? For our sakes?” Urahara asks cheerfully, and before Obito can dodge he catches him around the waist and pulls him into what’s either a hug or an octopus’s stranglehold—Gin can’t quite tell. “How sweet of you!”

With a squawk, Obito tries to pry him off, but doesn’t get far. “Let go, you damned creep! Hey! Where do you think you’re putting your hands—hey!”

“Ouch,” Urahara says in mild protest, though his wince isn’t entirely faked. “I’ve already been abused once today, you know.”

Tellingly, Obito stops struggling instantly, practically sinking back into Urahara’s hold. “Idiot,” he says, and there’s more relief than anything in his tone. “You know I would have helped if you had just asked.”

“How was I supposed to know out new freeloader had experience taking out gods?” Urahara protests with something that’s probably supposed to be a pout. “How rude, keeping these things from your lover, Obito.”

“Who’s my lover?” Obito retorts without hesitation. “Stop saying when it’s not even true!”

“But it could be—ow.”

“I changed my mind. Go die,” Obito snarls, shoving Urahara back by the face. “Let me go, you can deal with the butterfly bastard—”

“Gin!”

Gin turns quickly, catching a flash of color out of the corner of his eye, and just has time to open his arms before Rangiku plows into him. He huffs, staggering back a step, and feels her hug him impossibly tight for three full seconds. Then she pulls back, expression shading towards fury, and slaps him full across the face.

“You bastard, you knocked me out,” she hisses, though her eyes are distressingly damp. “You can’t just apologize and then disappear, I thought you were going to die!”

“Ah, Ran-chan—”

You were?!”

Rangiku has always been able to read him far too well.

Somehow it’s that thought above all others that makes Gin suddenly realize that—they’re done. Aizen has been beaten, and while Gin won’t relax until the bastard is nothing but ashes, he’s certain Central 46 will take care of that soon enough. The man looks small and pathetic inn defeat, and Gin can’t help but laugh, slumping forward as every muscle goes weak with relief.

Rangiku catches him.

Of course she does.

“It’s over,” he tells her, just in case she missed it.

There’s a long pause, and then a careful kissed pressed to his hair. “It is,” Rangiku agrees. Amusement shades into her tone as she asks, “Their doing?”

Gin doesn’t look to where Urahara and Obito are still bickering, just hums quietly in agreement.

Then, without any warning, a truly massive beacon of reiatsu practically explodes into existence. Gin wrenches around on instinct, shoving Rangiku behind him as he grabs for his zanpakuto, and a figure in black with daylily hair seems to spontaneously appear before them.

There’s a long moment of silence as Kurosaki Ichigo blinks at Gin and Rangiku, at Obito still shoving at Urahara as the exile clings to him, at Aizen unconscious in the dirt. Then, in a tone of utter bewilderment, he says, “What?”

A laugh cracks out of somewhere deep in Gin’s chest. He staggers with the force of his mirth, hanging onto Rangiku to stay upright, and doesn’t stop laughing for a very long time.

It feels better than anything has in almost a hundred years.

Stress-induced changes in maternal gut could negatively impact offspring for life

Prenatal exposure to a mother’s stress contributes to anxiety and cognitive problems that persist into adulthood, a phenomenon that could be explained by lasting – and potentially damaging – changes in the microbiome, according to new research in mice.

When pregnant mice were exposed to stress in the study, it appeared to change the makeup of the bacteria in both their guts and placentas, as well as in the intestinal tracts of their female offspring, researchers at The Ohio State University found. And those microbial changes lasted into adulthood.

On top of that, the mice with stressed mothers struggled in tests aimed at gauging anxiety and cognitive health compared with female offspring of mice that were not stressed during pregnancy. And markers of inflammation increased in the placenta, the fetal brain and the adult brain of the offspring while a supportive protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreased.

“More and more, doctors and researchers are understanding that naturally occurring bacteria are not just a silent presence in our body, but that they contribute to our health,” said Tamar Gur, the lead researcher and assistant professor of psychiatry & behavioral health, neuroscience and obstetrics & gynecology at Ohio State.

“These mice were more anxious, they spent more time in dark, closed spaces and they had a harder time learning cognitive tasks even though they were never stressed after birth.” Gur presented the study on Nov. 14 in San Diego at Neuroscience 2016, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.

Previous studies have found associations between maternal stress in both animals and people to later mental health and behavioral problems in their offspring. This study could begin to explain what’s at play in that relationship.

“We already understand that prenatal stress can be bad for offspring, but the mystery is how,” said Gur, a psychiatrist who is a member of Ohio State Wexner Medical Center’s Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research.

Gur said microbes from a mother’s gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts are the first to colonize in a developing fetus (and in newborns). That makes the bacteria an interesting potential explanation of why and how stress before an animal or person is born could prompt mental illness that can last a lifetime.

This study is pointing to alterations in the microbes that live in the placenta and outlines changes found in the placentas of fetal mice that had stressed mothers.

Gur and her colleagues found significant microbial changes to the placentas of the female offspring of stressed mice. They also found alterations in inflammation and growth factors in the placenta, pointing to changes in how the microbes were influencing important dynamics before birth.

And in the female offspring of the stressed mice, the researchers found a lower ability to learn and higher anxiety-like behavior compared to the offspring of non-stressed mother mice. Gur said the team found interesting changes in the male offspring as well, but the details of that part of the study are still in the works.

Gur said she wants to know more about the links between the brain and the bacteria that live in the gut, and she and her colleagues have plans to expand their investigation to pregnant women and their babies. Perhaps one day the work will lead to knowledge about how probiotics could help mitigate the effects of stress and the downstream repercussions, but it’s too soon now to say if they would have any impact, she said.

The stressed mother mice underwent two hours per day for seven days of restraint meant to induce stress. For comparison, the researchers left another group of pregnant mice undisturbed during gestation. Gut bacteria were assessed using fecal samples from the mice.

Gur stressed that the message here is not that mothers are to blame should their children suffer mental illness later in life. Rather, she said, this scientific development presents an opportunity to talk more about the importance of mental health in general and during pregnancy.

“As a psychiatrist who treats pregnant women, if you’re stressed, anxious or depressed, I think pregnancy is a prime time for intervention,” Gur said. “And what’s good for mom is good for the baby.”

The Mind Cage - Epilogue

Title: The Mind Cage
Summary: In another world, Stanford Pines places a metal plate in his skull far too soon. In another world, Bill Cipher is in the wrong place at the wrong time.
Characters: Bill Cipher, Ford Pines, Stan Pines, Fiddleford McGucket
Rating: T
COMPLETE.
Click here for the first chapter, warnings and links to all chapters up so far.

A/N:  And here’s the epilogue - if you read the Journal, you’ll definitely know which scenario it’s based on!
(If you haven’t: it’s from a parallel reality where Stan left with Jornal 1 when told to, Ford reconnected with McGucket and together they made interdimensional travel possible without allowing Bill access to their world. Happy ending for everyone… except Stan, clearly. So I had to fix that.)

***

The Astonishing Anomalies of Gravity Falls

Fiddleford H. McGucket, PhD
Stanford F. Pines, PhD

– To Stanley Pines, without whom none of this would have seen the light of day.

Introduction

Nikola Tesla once said that the history of science shows that theories are perishable; with every new truth that is revealed, we get a better understanding of Nature and our conceptions and views are modified.

Much of what is written in this paper defies what most believe to be real; research on the cause of these phenomena is still ongoing. Only by keeping an open mind on the scientific evidence presented in this work, and abandoning all preconceptions…

***

Stan had seen it coming from a mile away.

Keep reading

“… present day scientific analyses of capital proclaim a complete disregard for human beings who, for some, are nothing but a residue without consistency. this means that the discourse of science is the discourse of capital, or that science is possible only after the destruction of human beings; it is a discourse on the pathology of the human being. thus it is insane to ground the hope of liberation on science…”

- jacques camatte, the wandering of humanity

have some haikyuu 3rd year captains in a same high school au:

  • okay, so as a disclaimer i will have them not play volleyball in this, okay? an abomination, i know so yeah… here we go
  • so say that they’re in an exclusive boys school and they all belong in the same class, so they’re classmates, but their group was formed because they kind of know a person or another, outside of the school
  • like bokuto and kuroo are childhood friends, who are neighbors with daishou, who happened to go to the same middle school as okudake, who is neighbors with oikawa who went to summer camps with ushijima, when they were children, an event annually sponsored by nakashima’s family, who are like business partners of sawamura’s family, who also delivers ingredients to moniwa’s family restaurant, who is next door neighbors to akimiya’s family flower shop. yeah.
  • in their group there are different designations, so to speak, like, you have the team dad made up by sawamura and okudake, with ushijima as an honorary member
  • of course you’ll have the team mom, which are composed of moniwa, akimiya and nakashima is an honorary member
  • (honorary because it’s only in the absence of the first two would they take up the mantle)
  • (but ushijima mostly likes to keep to himself, and nakashima is sort of a floater that is happy to join whichever cause he feels like it)
  • then they have the wayward children in the form of the Formidable Four: bokuto, kuroo, oikawa, and daishou
  • of course, the main troublemakers are kuroo and bokuto, who are always ‘responsible’ for the different shenanigans the group members get into
  • you also have the team Salt&Sass ™ which, you guessed it, formed by oikawa and daishou, and its a miracle that they dont drag each other or are not actual enemies, but their cat fights could get nasty, and no one really wants to deal with that except maybe kuroo 
  • (only for a chance to drag the both of them because hey, killing two birds with one stone, the cat gets the canary)
  • so like he’s an honorary member or something. yeah
  • it’s universally accepted that moniwa, akimiya, and bokuto must be protected at all costs. PROTECT AKIMIYA AND HIS AHOGE AT ALL COSTS.
  • so because of that, kuroo is actually one with sawamura and okudake, and they just want to rest.
  • but hey, big groups of friends are fun, but the most unlikely friendships formed were between ushijima and moniwa (a certain 7 minutes in heaven game instigated by the Formidable Four may have been the culprit)
  • daishou has all but adopted akimiya, and he will fight, and drag to hell and back those who would lay even a nasty pinky finger on him
  • oikawa baptized okudake as ‘the ushijima that i can more or less stand’
  • and bokuto is just so happy to have nakashima understand, and out of all of them, he’s pretty much the only one who can match his energetic nature
  • (kuroo is good for ideas, but he’s physically weak af and he would rather hangout in the lab than outside)
  • and since they don’t necessarily play volleyball in this, have some sport swap/respective electives/clubs AU: 
  • daichi - archery; okudake - baseball; nakashima - track and field; ushijima - kendo; bokuto - karate
  • kuroo (the nerd) - advance classes in chemistry; daishou - writer for the school paper; moniwa - wind music; akimiya - painting; oikawa - theater
  • and yeah, they are each other’s cheerleaders, like they make it a point to watch the games as much as they can, and support scientific presentations, recitals, and exhibits, and shows, and trust that they more or less have a section dedicated to them in the school newspaper.
  • overall its a riot, but its family and its fun and as much as they want to throw each other outside of a moving car on occasion, they would make sure to cushion the fall
  • (not that they would admit it out loud even when tortured)
My interest in the ethical issues surrounding the use of non-human animals grew out of my investigations into the phenomenon of dehumanization- the tendency to conceive of groups of people as creatures that are less than human. Dehumanization is a common feature of war, genocide, slavery, and other atrocities (Smith, 2011). Its purpose is to disinhibit violence against the dehumanized group by excluding them from the universe of moral obligation.
Dehumanization raises deep metaphysical and ethical questions about the human/non-human binary…
[…]
…Speciesism is parasitic on the category of “species”. It refers to the moral privileging of certain biological kinds… [I]t is generally supposed that “human” straightforwardly refers to the species Homo sapiens, and therefore that “human” is a name for a biological kind. If this assumption is correct then it provides a clear basis for demarcating humans from non-humans. Only Homo sapiens are human, and all other species are non-human. But what if this isn’t correct? If “human” and “Homo sapiens” are not equivalent terms, then this upsets certain suppositions about the human/non-human dichotomy as well as the moral implications that supposedly flow from them.
[…]
What is it to be human? …[T]he dictionary gives us three options (Homo sapiens, some proper subset of genus Homo that includes Homo sapiens among its members, or all of genus Homo); the scientific literature presents us with even more. Although for the most part paleoanthropologists identify humans with Homo sapiens, or with the genus Homo, some restrict it to the subspecies Homo sapiens or enlarge it to include all of the hominin lineage (for a range of views, see e.g. Leakey and Lewin, 1993; Falgueres et al., 1999l Potts, 2003; Schmitt, 2003; Lewin and Foley, 2004; Mikkelsen, 2004; Pollard, 2009).
These differences of opinion are not due to the scarcity or ambiguity of empirical evidence. They are due to the complete absence of such evidence- or, to put the point with greater precision, the absence of any conception of what sort of evidence would settle the question of which primate taxa or taxon should be counted as “human”. Biological science can specify, with a reasonable degree of accuracy, the taxon to which an organism belongs, but it cannot tell us whether an organism is a human organism. The epistemic authority of science does not extend to judgements about what creatures are human because “human” is a folk category, not a scientific one.
[…]
…Claims like “an animal is human only if they are a member of the species Homo sapiens” are stipulated rather than discovered. Neither you nor anyone else has sifted through the available data (what data?) to emerge with the finding that humans are Homo sapiens. Rather, in deciding that all and only Homo sapiens are humans, you are expressing a preference about where the boundary separating humans from non-humans should be drawn (Clark and Willermet, 1997; Corbey, 2005; Bourke, 2011).
— 

The Politics of Species (2013) -Chapter 3 (Idexically Yours: Why being human is more like being here than like being water)- David Livingstone Smith on the politics of human identity and “human” as a social construct and folk category versus a biological fact. // Part I.

“We exclude other animals from the moral community by conceiving of them as essentially different from ourselves.”

The Bundy Express - Part 1

Contrary to popular belief, the courts moved Bundy as fast as they could. Never - not once - did any court, anywhere, decide a single issue in his favor. Even the prosecutors acknowledged that Bundy’s lawyer never employed delaying tactics. Though people everywhere seethed at the apparent delay in executing the archdemon, Ted Bundy was actually on the fast track.

Bundy’s lawyers lodged their required appeals to the Florida Supreme Court within two months after each of his trials. Then Robert August Harper filed full briefs within the allotted time. Newt, the State of Florida was given time to digest and respond to Harper’s appeals. In spring 1982, the first of the two cases was put on the docket for oral argument.

Two and a half years may have seemed like a very long time, but in context, it was entirely understandable. The Florida Supreme Court was dealing with roughly one death case per week. Scores of condemned prisoners were ahead of Bundy in line, and each had a complicated appeal based on a large trial record. Each record had to be scrutinized, each appeal contemplated. And when the court finally got to Bundy, the justices were faced with the combined records of two trials comprising some twenty-eight thousand pages. Bundy’s was the largest and most complicated criminal case in the court’s history.

At least one of Harper’s arguments deeply concerned the justices. Harper challenged the use of hypnosis to “refresh” the memories of witnesses. He presented scientific evidence to suggest that hypnotism is unproven and unreliable. 

Based on the Bundy trials, the justices decided to outlaw the use of hypnotically refreshed testimony in Florida courts, but after long contemplation they carved a narrow exception for Bundy himself. In 1984 and 1985, they rejected the Chi Omega and the Leach murder trial appeals, saying that Bundy’s cases contained “sufficient evidence…. absent the tainted testimony, upon which the jury could have based its convictions.” Therefore, the erroneous use of hypnosis was, in these cases, “harmless.Technically, the court was applying an invalid test to deny Bundy’s demand for new trials. The proper test for deciding whether an error is “harmless” is whether the “tainted testimony…. might have contributed to the conviction. In the two Bundy cases, the hypnotically refreshed testimony provided the only eyewitness links; surely it “might have contributed” to the conviction. The Florida Supreme Court had bent over backwards to affirm Bundy’s convictions - creating a “Bundy exception” to the law. Each appeal took five years to complete, but in keeping with a larger sense of justice, the court found a way to preserve the death sentences.

Hidden Histories: The Lesser-Known Aspects of Manned Spaceflight

FLATs/Mercury 13

There have been many successful and influential American women astronauts over the past three decades- Sally Ride, Mae Jemison, Peggy Whiston. But these ladies were the byproducts of an unrecognized and often uncredited group of gals known as the FLATs, or First Lady Astronaut Trainees. Given that they were active during the Mercury program, they are more commonly known today as the Mercury 13.

Note: This is in no way meant to degrade the importance of or criticize certain historical figures mentioned who act as the antagonists of the story.

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Thirteen Women and Only One Man in Town

That one man was Dr. Randy Lovelace- a former doctor at NASA who took part in the medical examinations and testings of those who would become the Mercury 7 Astronauts (as well as Pete Conrad and Jim Lovell- I can’t leave out Shaky). And that town was Albuquerque, New Mexico, home of the Lovelace Clinic. The first of these women was Jerrie Cobb, a young record-breaking pilot who had been flying since she was only twelve. Lovelace and Donald Flickinger, an early expert on space medicine, asked her if she was willing to be their first subject for female astronaut training a few months earlier. While in New Mexico, she became the first woman to undergo the same tests as the Mercury candidates did. The doctors told her she had passed the tests and even performed better than the men during some. Later that year, Dr. Lovelace presented his findings to an international space conference in Stockholm, Sweden. But NASA didn’t take the bait. The multiple tests she underwent proved multiple theories- everything from pain tolerance to coping with stress. Lovelace determined that one woman undergoing experiments and tests wasn’t enough. He rounded up another eighteen accomplished women pilots- the youngest of the group was only 21 years old- to do the same as Jerrie. From January to August of 1961, they made Albuquerque their new home. They were poked, prodded, spun, tilted, and put through every other grueling task the docs could come up with. But none of them showed any sign of weakness. As Jerri Sloan Truhill once said, “We never stopped until they told us to stop. We didn’t even say ouch and, boy, they hurt us.” They were tough and determined and took whatever was thrown at them. Once those tests, the phase one tests, were over, Lovelace went over the results and concluded that thirteen of the nineteen passed with flying colors. Some did better than the men. Even at the time it was known that Ginger Rogers was just as good as Fred Astaire, but she did all the steps backwards and in high heels. Over the next months, the ladies who would become known as the Mercury 13- Myrtle “K” Cagle, Jerrie Cobb, Jan Dietrich, Marion Dietrich, Wally Funk, Sarah Gorelick (Ratley), Jane Hart, Jean Hixson, Rhea Hurrle (Woltman), Irene Leverton, Jerri Sloan (Truhill), Bernice “B” Steadman, and Gene Nora Stumbough (Jessen)- continued through the remaining phases of testing. Later on, however, the phase of testing that went on at the Naval School of Aviation Medicine in Pensacola, Florida, was cancelled and NASA expressed its decision of not considering sending women into space. The organization felt there was no need to. To clear things up, I would like to state here that NASA was in no way affiliated with the Lovelace testings.

Jerrie Cobb at the MASTIF (multiple-axis space test inertia facility)

Right Stuff, Wrong Sex and Time

Now that it was proven that women were capable of being astronauts, the Mercury 13 needed to prove that women had the right to be astronauts. Jerrie Cobb and Jane Hart flew around the country in order to influence people that women could also benefit from the space program. Although President John F. Kennedy was on their side, NASA still wasn’t. Jane used her status as the wife of Senator Phillip Hart to write to members of the Senate and House space committees. She found an ally in Liz Carpenter, who was Vice President Lyndon Johnson’s executive assistant. Carpenter soon got on board and drafted a letter for Johnson to send NASA Administrator James Webb in favor of sending women into space. But Johnson, however, took the letter and wrote “Let’s Stop This Now!” in large letters across the bottom and demanded that it be filed away, never to be known about for forty years. He was determined to cease any possibility that women would fly into space. Why? Johnson felt that if women were to be allowed in space, everyone, meaning minorities, had to be allowed in space as well. And at the time, that just wasn’t something that could be done. Now, we know that’s not a problem now, but in 1962, it was. If that wasn’t bad enough, some of the Mercury 7 weren’t on their side either. Jerrie and Jane were no longer challenging just the American view that women belonged at home, but now the view that American heroes had to be white. But it wasn’t until 1983 that Guy Bluford became the first African American in space. Additionally, NASA astronauts needed to be jet pilots, an occupation women simply weren’t allowed to have. But Jerrie and Jane continued to win support from the public and the fight became a little less uneven.

Jerrie Cobb with a Mercury capsule mockup (?)

Whose Program is this, Anyway?

If NASA really believed women didn’t have a part in the space program, they would have to prove it- publicly. On July 17, 1962, Cobb and Hart sat at the witness table in front of eleven US representatives, two of which were women, to testify. Nowadays, no one questions whether or not women should still be astronauts, but in the early 60s, people couldn’t seem to wrap their heads around the idea that women could perform any of the jobs men could, much less become an astronaut. The entire country now knew the names of the other eleven FLATs. Jerrie and Jane presented the scientific data that Lovelace and his team had acquired and used it to inform the representatives that it would not cost NASA a significant amount of money to involve women in the space program. Jerrie also made it very clear that this was not a battle of the sexes but a battle for women to be part of space exploration. For a while, Jerrie and Jane were winning that battle, doing their best to convince the subcommittee that women belonged in space just as men did. But things were about to change. Enter Jackie Cochran, the first woman to break the sound barrier. Now, Cochran seems like she would be a supporter of Jerrie and Jane, right? Wrong. Just as Chuck Yeager wasn’t a fan of the space program, Jackie wasn’t a fan of the FLATs. And for the same reason- she wasn’t part of it. She was in support of Lovelace from the very start and assumed he was bringing her in for a leadership role. Also, she wanted to be tested as well. When Lovelace denied her the opportunity to be tested due to her age and previous health issues, she became furious. She also disliked all the attention Jerrie received from not only Lovelace but from the media as well (though it wasn’t always a positive thing). Jackie hated that Jerrie was viewed as the leader of the pack although in all respects she was. And so the famed pilot came to testify against the FLATs; there is no discrimination against women in the space program, there are plenty of male test pilots to do the job, and there needs to be a big enough group of abled women in order for a group of women trainees to be selected. It seemed to be a losing battle. But Jackie proposed an entirely different project, one that would study a large group of women over a long period of time. In doing so, she changed the conversation entirely. This was no longer about the FLATs, but about her own project. But this was just day one of the hearings.

Cobb and Hart during the congressional hearings

Straighten Up and Fly Right

It was July 18- only a year after Gus Grissom’s historic Mercury-Redstone 4 flight. But Grissom wasn’t the astronaut at this hearing. Rather, there were two of them- John Glenn and Scott Carpenter. If there was one thing NASA was good at doing, it was using its all-star astronauts for advocating. And who better to chose for a job like this than John Glenn? Now it was NASA’s turn to prove their point. The issue of test pilots was brought up again, as it was over the past few years, this time by two actual test pilots. Women were simply not allowed to be these kind of pilots and therefore not allowed to be astronauts. It seems logical, but then why weren’t women allowed to be test pilots to begin with? For that matter, why weren’t they largely allowed to join the military? But the thing is, NASA had already bent its own rules. It was a requirement for astronauts to have college degrees. Their very own spokesman John Glenn did not but they accepted him anyway. These women did have degrees and were all accomplished pilots like Glenn. NASA could’ve figured out a way to include the FLATs, but simply chose not to. After all, it wasn’t NASA’s fault women couldn’t be test pilots, nor was it NASA’s decision that only test pilots could be astronauts (it was President Eisenhower’s). It was then that Glenn put into words the reasons behind all the problems. “I think this gets back to the way our social order is organized, really. It is just a fact. The men go off and fight the wars and fly the airplanes and come back and help design and build and test them. The fact that women are not in this field is a fact of our social order.” This much was true, but why was it true? Why did it have to be that way? What about all the WASPs contributed? Cobb and Hart and the FLATs and protesters in the South and everywhere else knew that the social order as a whole needed to change. But it was the people like Glenn, Johnson, and all those who used rules and regulations to prevent change- to keep things the way they were. Despite the little jokes and jabs that were made throughout the hearings, no one ever argued that women were not strong enough or capable enough or smart enough to be astronauts. And just like that, the trials were over. No third day testimony. The subcommittee suggested to NASA that it continue what it was doing just the way it currently was. James Webb swore Jackie Cochran in as a consultant to replace Cobb, who had let her contract expire months earlier. And if that wasn’t bad enough, once again the Soviet Union had beat the United States in the Space Race: In 1963, Valentine Tereshkova became the first woman in space. One would think Soviet competition would fuel even this American feat just as it fueled every other American space goal, right? Jerrie, Jane, Dr. Lovelace, and the rest of the Female Lady Astronaut Trainees had lost the battle. Well, they lost their battle.

Cobb, Senator Victor Anfuso, and Hart hold an Atlas-Centaur model

Ride, Sally, Ride

Scott Carpenter once said the Mercury 13 were ahead of their time. He was right. The social order changed dramatically in the 1960s, and by 1978, women were finally ready to be accepted into the astronaut corps The first astronaut class to be selected after the Space Race had ended was the Thirty-Five New Guys, or TFNG. Chief Astronaut John Young and Director of Flight Operations George Abbey selected a very diverse group- an Asian American, three African Americans, and finally, six women. I bring up John Young not only because he is my favorite, but because he was selected as an astronaut the same year as the congressional hearings. Now he was willing to turn and face the changes. These six girls- Sally Ride, Shannon Lucid, Judy Resnick, Rhea Seddon, Anna Fischer, and Kathy Sullivan- became what the Mercury 13 never had a chance to become. They still had to prove that they were not only as good as, but could be better than the men, just as the FLATs did. And they were successful. But it wasn’t until 1983, twenty years after Tereshkova’s flight, that Sally Ride became the first American woman in space on STS-7. It wasn’t until 1999 that Eileen Collins would become the first woman to command a Space Shuttle mission. No longer were women the passengers. Women got to truly fly.

(L-R top) Kathy Sullivan, Shannon Lucid, Anna Fischer, and Judy Resnik (L-R bottom) Sally Ride and Rhea Seddon

(L-R) Gene Nora Jessen, Wally Funk, Jerrie Cobb, Jerri Truhill, Sarah Rutley, Myrtle Cagle and Bernice Steadman in front of Space Shuttle Discovery at LC-39B, 1995. This was Eileen Collin’s first flight even though she didn’t command it.

Info about the Mercury 13 from the US Air Force Space and Missile Museum, Launch Complex 26 on Cape Canaveral.

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So there you have it, the true story of the Mercury 13. The book I used for reference was the first space history book I ever read and I give it credit for getting me interested in it. Before I had John Young and Jim Lovell, I had Jerrie Cobb and Jane Hart. This is also the first of this series-type thing I’ll be doing from now on every Saturday. I wanted the Mercury 13 to be first because of how important they are to me personally. Plus today, September 2, is both Christa McAuliffe’s birthday and the return to Earth of Peggy Whitson, the first female commander of the ISS and the current American record holder for most days spent in space. Anyway, I hope y’all enjoyed this and learned something! The last time I read this was before I had any idea what the Mercury program and the Space Race were, so it’s nice to read it again with plenty of background knowledge. Tune it (or log on I guess) next week for the next Hidden History, one of my personal favorites: the Manned Orbiting Laboratory program.

(Sources below the cut)

Keep reading

OK but the anti-vaxxer movement is deeply offensive on so many levels and not just because it adamantly refuses to accept reality, screams over anyone who presents scientific evidence as to why they are literally causing innocent children to needlessly die, and comes up with more absurd claims. Vaccines cause autism, now cancer? Get fucked you idiots. It’s offensive for more than the obvious core element that is willful neglect and child abuse. It’s offensive that they saw the idea of an autistic child as a nightmare scenario they’d rather risk harming their child than submit them to. What utter ableist fuckery. As a person who is on the autistic spectrum it’s this uncomfortably personal position where an entire movement of people are masquerading as “concerned parents” who want what’s best for their kids but what it really says is “we hate you, we don’t understand you, but we think being like you is disgusting and we will do anything we can to stop our child from being like you - including abusing them.” I will not be shamed by the anti-vaxxer movement into thinking of myself as someone who needs to be cured of some life-destroying impediment because I’m fucking not. Even if there was some magical fantasy alternative reality where vaccines sometimes caused autism then the idea that not giving a child a vaccine to prevent autism is still not being a concerned parent. It’s being an ableist asshole.

Fuck you. Fuck your denial of reality. Fuck you for causing premature deaths in children from preventable diseases. Fuck you for your willful neglect. Fuck you for spitting on the humanity of every person with autism out there and treating us like we’re diseased and unwanted.

Fuck. You.

So dcuniversewatchtower just asked me some questions about applying to grad school (school psychology or clinical psychology specifically) and I hope you don’t mind me making the answers public, because I feel these are questions every grad school hopeful asks and I would love to help out as many people as I can!

How do you think I should approach my professors when or comes to letter of recommendations? Is an email good or should I make an appointment with them? Any tips for applying to grad school? I’ve researched the schools I’m interested in and I meet the requirements except the GRE which I haven’t taken yet. My GPA isn’t excellent but it isn’t bad either.

Letters of Rec

  • Email is fine. Professors are oftentimes hard to catch during the day. But make sure the professor knows who you are! You may want to jog their memory by reminding them of any special projects you did for them, if you TA’d, or volunteered in their lab, etc. If all you did was sit in lecture and get good grades, the professor won’t know who you are. And you also want the professor to know you well so they can write a genuine letter. You can also let them know what qualities you would like them to highlight in your letter. For example, if you helped them design exam questions for a special projects, ask them to describe your critical thinking and attention to detail, and experience in teaching. The more you outline your letter of rec for them, the happier they’ll be. 
  • Attach to your email the following things: your resume/CV and your personal statement. The personal statement is important because they can tailor their letter to what your goals and aspirations are for grad school. 
  • Then let them know if they’re willing to write a letter of rec for you, instructions from each university’s application will come via email. Grad school applications aren’t like common app for undergrad; every school is a separate application. And on it will be instructions for you to fill out 3 or more names and contact info for letters of rec. The application will then email those professors, and in turn the professors will submit the letters electronically. It helps to give your professors a list of the schools you’re applying to, so they can check off letters they’ve submitted.
  • Send out your requests for letters at least 3 months before the applications close. This will give your professors plenty of time to write the letters. Professors are very busy people. If you approach them 1 week before the deadline, they’ll be very angry and most likely won’t write the letter. 
  • It’s okay to email your professors reminders as the application deadline nears and they still haven’t submitted the letters. You’ll be able to see on your application who’s submitted letters and who hasn’t. 2 weeks before the application closes, send a courtesy email to those professors who haven’t submitted theirs yet. Professors are just like us and will forget things all the time, so trust me that they appreciate your reminders. 
  • Be sure to thank them afterwards with a quick email or thank you card. And also let them know if you got admitted to any schools! Professors love to be proud of their previous students :)
  • More tips: make sure at least one (though all would be better) of the professors writing you letters of rec is in the field you’re applying to. They know what it takes to succeed in that specific program, so a recommendation from them shows the school you’re legit stuff. Also, those writing you a recommendation should have a graduate degree themselves. This also shows authenticity in their words. 

General application tips

I have a few on my grad school blog here, but I can jiggle a few more out of my brain!

GRE

  • Word Power Made Easy by Norman Lewis is the sole reason I did so well on the reading part of the GRE. It has fun worksheet-style activities that help you learn vocabulary a gazillion times better than any flashcards. I highly recommend it. 
  • When writing the essays, keep your words and sentences concise, and try to argue both points for the argumentative essay (have your main opinion but also be able to see it from the other point of view at the end, followed by a very strong rebuttal). And focus on facts; not emotion. Do not do what I did the first time and treat it like writing a novel and slapping all sorts of descriptive flowery junk to my sentences. 
  • That being said, try to pick up as much random factoids as you can. If you can slap in a date or name or a specific court case or historical event into one or both your essays, then man oh man will the graders love it. 

The personal statement (my experience is only in personal statements for science programs. so this may not apply to everyone)

  • Focus on your previous experience in the field to highlight why you’re a good fit for the program. This should be the main chunk of your essay. In undergrad we could get away talking about practically anything. Can’t do that anymore! The purpose of the grad school personal statement is to show the following: a) your commitment to the field, b) reasons why that particular school and program is a good fit for you, and c) what you can contribute to that particular school and program. Point A should be the most important, and talk about what you learned from that experience too, and how it expanded your knowledge and passion for the field. 
  • But of course also pay attention to the prompt. It may ask that you don’t talk about your specific past experience at all, and highlight other things. 
  • If you published any scientific papers, or presented any posters at conferences or showcases, be sure to include that!
  • Revise revise revise! Never send in your first draft as your final. Give it to others to proofread and give feedback. It helps the most if you give it to other grad students already in the program or similar as they know what works. 

Organization

Because every school’s application is separate and unique, the process can become pretty chaotic! Here’s how you can better keep track of everything. 

  • Make an Excel sheet with all the schools, and create separate columns for their deadlines and requirements that you can check off as they get done. This is an easy all-in-one place to check statuses of letters of recs and deadlines. Also helpful to put your usernames and passwords here too for logging into applications. 
  • Have a separate folder on your computer for each school, so when you go to submit documents online, you don’t accidentally send University A’s personal statement to University B. 
  • Some schools require hardcopies of transcripts to be mailed to them, while others are okay with electronic scans. Be sure to keep track of this. And keep in mind requesting official transcripts costs $$ and may take a few days. 
  • Back up all your personal statements/etc onto an external hard-drive, or electronic backing system such as Google Docs or Dropbox frequently. Nothing worse than losing all that 2 weeks before the deadline!

I think that’s all I can think of regarding application tips. As for your GPA, I wouldn’t worry too much as long as you meet the required overall GPA and science GPA (if the schools ask for it). Undergrad grades aren’t as important as previous experience for grad school. I got a C in 2nd semester OChem and I still got into grad school :) During interviews, no one asked me about my grades at all. They just wanted to know about my previous lab experience and why I wanted to go to that particular school. 

I think the most important thing about applying for grad school and even getting through grad school is to always have faith in yourself. Even if there are others who doubt your skill, you should always pay attention to your own voice first. After all, you’re doing this for you. This is your life. Not theirs. It will never be theirs. So this degree you’re seeking, this opportunity to further your education, to one day help others with your experience–this is all yours. And if you believe in yourself, and work hard to achieve it, then no one else can ever keep you from achieving your goals. 

I had an orchestra director in high school who told us something one day in class that’s always stuck with me. She said: “People were always telling me that as a black woman, I should be staying home and having kids, not going to college. Well you know what, I proved them all wrong. I got my Bachelors. I got my Masters. And then I got my PhD.” 

I wish you all the best, and if you have any further questions, or just need someone to listen to you or believe in you, you know where to find me :)

So the event I’m working today is a 60th birthday party for one the professors at my school and I guess a whole bunch of people in his department pooled together a bunch of money so he could REALLY celebrate how he wanted to which is, apparently, with a 10 hour day of academic panels and scientific presentations 

so i’ve been working this weird science conference all day and it’s this dude’s BIRTHDAY PARTY. students are showing up to get extra credit for listening to lectures. his friends set up this poster showing the professor’s “academic heritage” and it’s like a family tree with a bunch of scientists like newton and galileo leading down to him. this is some of the most weirdly endearing nerdy bullshit i’ve seen in my life and i go to anime conventions

I picked off nearly all of my nail polish during the post presentation q&a when my professor said “you actually presented specifically on my area of expertise, let me ask you a follow up about this neurotransmitter,” but I think I handled myself well and a couple different people came up to say how smart I sounded so the first advanced scientific presentation of my life went pretty well

no you don’t get it
the best thing about that arthur hurricane that’s going to hit florida soon
like
i’m not making fun of the situation because obviously that’s really awful and i hope people will all be safe

but
arthur is going to blow florida on america’s birthday