science-notes

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handwritten physics notes from grade 11 🔭💫🌎 i wrote these notes during class (hence the post-its for additional info the teacher would mention here and there 😅) & i honestly enjoyed taking the class even though the tests were so difficult?? i guess that’s just me aaa

in case u didn’t know, i’m on studygram: thecoffeedesk ☕️ follow me!!!! hehe

[09.02.16] art notes & ap enviro notes !i’ve got to stop sleeping at 3am…

{4/100 days of productivity}

It’s been a pretty empty week. Today I was supposed to have a German test but the rest of the class managed to have it posticipated to tuesday!
Here get some notes about volcanoes 🌋
Don’t forget to check my Studygram! The link is in the bio 💟

(1k followers???? You guys are CRAZY!! 🌹🌹)

5

8.21.16

had our senior class retreat this weekend- came home and made a physics study guide for a unit test tomorrow!

(inspired by @studyguideverified)

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[10.26.16] chapter 5 anatomy notes! (Types of tissues) im so tired these days :( but i did pretty well on my anatomy test so im proud!

{58/100 days of productivity}

8/21/17

More science notes!

Today is also the solar eclipse! There are five people in my family and two pairs of glasses😬 But that shouldn’t matter because its cloudy outside, so I probably won’t see the eclipse that the whole fucking country is going crazy about. Thanks, Chicago weather!

The Human Body-An Overview
Form and Function of A&P
  1. Anatomy: study of the structure of body parts and their relationships
  2. Physiology: Study of body parts’ functions and how they work
  3. Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function:
    1. Function reflects structure
    2. Structure’s capabilities depend on form

Levels of Structural Organization

  1. Chemical: atoms comp.→molecules
  2. Cellular: cells made of molecules
  3. Tissue: groups of cells with common function and type
  4. Organ: different tissues performing different function
  5. Organ System: organs working together
    1. Ex. Cardiovascular System: heart, blood, blood vessels
  6. Organismal: made of organ systems

Organ Systems Interrelationships

  1. Integumentary System: forms external body covering, protects deeper tissues from injury, synthesizes Vitamin D and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat/oil glands
    1. Hair
    2. Skin
    3. Nails
  2. Skeletal System: protects and supports organs, provides framework for muscles to move.  Blood cells are made in bones.  Bones store minerals
    1. Bones
    2. Joints (Articulations)
  3. Muscular System: allows manipulation of environment, locomotion, and facial expression.   Maintains posture and makes heat.
    1. Muscles
  4. Nervous System: fast-acting control system, responds to internal and external changes by activating muscles and gland
    1. Brain
    2. Nerves
    3. Spinal Cord
  5. Endocrine System: glands secrete hormones that regulate life processes, i.e. growth, reproduction, and metabolism
    1. Pineal gland
    2. Thyroid gland
    3. Pituitary gland
    4. Adrenal gland
    5. Pancreas
    6. Thymus
  6. Cardiovascular System: blood vessels carry blood (carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.), heart pumps blood
    1. Heart
    2. Blood vessels
  7. Lymphatic/Immune System: Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood.   Disposes of debris in lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity.   Immune response mounts attack against foreign substances
    1. Red bone marrow
    2. Thymus
    3. Lymphatic vessels
    4. Thoracic duct
    5. Spleen
    6. Lymph nodes
  8. Respiratory System: keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.  Gaseous exchanges occur through walls of air sacs of lungs
    1. Nasal cavity
    2. Pharynx
    3. Larynx
    4. Lung
    5. Bronchus
  9. Digestive System: breaks food into absorbable units that enter blood for distribution to cells.  Indigestible=feces
    1. Oral cavity
    2. Esophagus
    3. Liver
    4. Stomach
    5. Intestines
    6. Rectum
    7. Anus
  10. Urinary System: eliminates nitrogenous wastes from body.  Regulates water, electrolyte, and acid base balance of blood
    1. Kidney
    2. Ureter
    3. Urinary bladder
    4. Urethra
  11. Male Reproductive System: production of offspring, testes make sperm and male sex hormone, male ducts and glands deliver sperm to female reproductive tract
    1. Prostate
    2. Penis
    3. Testes
    4. Scrotum
    5. Ductus Deferens
  12. Female Reproductive System: production of offspring, ovaries make eggs and female sex hormones, remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of fetus, mammary glands make milk to nourish newborn
    1. Mammary glands
    2. Uterus
    3. Vagina
    4. Ovary
    5. Uterine tube

Necessary Life Functions

  1. Maintaining boundaries: internal environment remains distinct from external environment
    1. Cellular level: accomplished by plasma membranes
    2. Organismal level: accomplished by skin
  2. Movement: locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis: internal movement) and contractility
  3. Responsiveness: ability to see changes in the environment and respond to them
  4. Digestion: breakdown of ingested foods
  5. Metabolism: all chemical reactions in the body
    1. Catabolism: breaking things down
    2. Anabolism: building things up
  6. Excretion: waste removal
  7. Reproduction: cellular and organismal levels
    1. Cellular: an original cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells
    2. Organismal: sperm and egg unite to make a new human
  8. Growth: increase in size of body (part)

Survival Needs

  1. Nutrients: needed for energy and cell building
  2. Water: provides necessary environment for chemical reactions
  3. Oxygen: metabolic reactions
  4. Normal body temperature: chemical reactions occur at life sustaining rates
    1. 98.6℉=37° Centigrade
    2. Sum of all heat that all chemical reactions in your body produce
    3. Sleeping=low temp
    4. Exercise or fever=high temp
  5. Atmospheric Pressure: required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs

Homeostasis

  1. Homeostasis: ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing environment
  2. The internal environment of the body is in dynamic state of equilibrium
  3. Chemical, thermal, and neural factors internal to maintain homeostasis
  4. Control mechanisms: negative and positive feedback
    1. Variables produce a change in the body
    2. Three interdependent components
      1. Receptor: “radar,” monitors environment and responds to changes (stimuli)
      2. Control center: finds set point where variable is maintained
      3. Effector: provides means to respond to stimuli
  5. **Response isn’t always the same-the body wants subtle changes

Negative Feedback

  1. Output shuts off original stimulus
  2. “Stepping off the gas”
  3. Ex. Regulation of room temperature

Positive Feedback

  1. Output exaggerates original stimulus
  2. “Stepping on the gas”
  3. Ex. Blood clot regulation

Homeostatic Imbalance

  1. Disturbance of homeostasis or body’s normal equilibrium
  2. Overwhelming usual negative feedback allows destructive positive feedback to take over

Anatomic Position

  1. Body erect
  2. Feet slightly apart
  3. Palms facing forward
  4. Thumbs away from the body

Anatomical Variability

  1. Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy
  2. Over 90% of anatomical structures match textbook description, but:
    1. Nerves or blood vessels may be out of place
    2. Small muscles may be missing
  3. Extreme anatomical variations are seldom seen
    1. Not compatible with life

Body Cavities

  1. Dorsal cavity: protects nervous system and is divided into 2 parts
    1. Cranial cavity: with skull, encases brain
    2. Vertebral cavity: runs within vertebral column; encases spinal cord
  2. Ventral cavity: houses internal organs (viscera), divided into two parts:
    1. Thoracic Cavity:
      1. Pleural cavities: each houses a lung
      2. Mediastinum: contains pericardial cavity; surrounds remaining thoracic organs
      3. Pericardium: encloses heart
    2. Abdominopelvic Cavity: separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm
      1. Abdominal cavity: spleen, liver, stomach, intestines, etc.
      2. Pelvic cavity: within pelvis, bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
  3. **An organ can be in multiple cavities

Ventral Body Cavity Membranes

  1. Double layer of protection with fluid filled cavity
  2. Parietal serosa: lines internal body walls
  3. Visceral serosa: covers internal organs
  4. Serous fluid: separates serosae
  5. **Friction lowers, saves energy

Memory

  1. Memory: storage and retrieval of info
  2. 3 Principles:
    1. Storage: occurs in stages, continually changing
    2. Processing: accomplished by hippocampus and surrounding structures
    3. Memory traces: chemical or structural changes that encode memory
      1. **Changes to neuron when memory is made

Stages of Memory

  1. Short term memory (STM): working memory, a fleeting memory of the events that continually happen
    1. Lasts seconds to hours
    2. 7-8 pieces of info
  2. Long term memory (LTM): limitless capacity
  3. Factors that affect transfer of memory from STM to LTM include:
    1. Emotional state: we learn best when we are alert, motivated, and aroused
    2. Rehearsal: repeating material enhances memory
    3. Association: associating new info with old memories