science laureate

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The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 – David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane, J. Michael Kosterlitz – “for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

They revealed the secrets of exotic matter

This year’s Laureates opened the door on an unknown world where matter can assume strange states. They have used advanced mathematical methods to study unusual phases, or states, of matter, such as superconductors, superfluids or thin magnetic films. Thanks to their pioneering work, the hunt is now on for new and exotic phases of matter. Many people are hopeful of future applications in both materials science and electronics.

The three Laureates’ use of topological concepts in physics was decisive for their discoveries. Topology is a branch of mathematics that describes properties that only change step-wise. Using topology as a tool, they were able to astound the experts. In the early 1970s, Michael Kosterlitz and David Thouless overturned the then current theory that superconductivity or suprafluidity could not occur in thin layers. They demonstrated that superconductivity could occur at low temperatures and also explained the mechanism, phase transition, that makes superconductivity disappear at higher temperatures.

In the 1980s, Thouless was able to explain a previous experiment with very thin electrically conducting layers in which conductance was precisely measured as integer steps. He showed that these integers were topological in their nature. At around the same time, Duncan Haldane discovered how topological concepts can be used to understand the properties of chains of small magnets found in some materials.

We now know of many topological phases, not only in thin layers and threads, but also in ordinary three-dimensional materials. Over the last decade, this area has boosted frontline research in condensed matter physics, not least because of the hope that topological materials could be used in new generations of electronics and superconductors, or in future quantum computers. Current research is revealing the secrets of matter in the exotic worlds discovered by this year’s Nobel Laureates.

30 writers talks about God

  1. Sir Arthur C. Clarke, Science Fiction Writer
  2. Nadine Gordimer, Nobel Laureate in Literature
  3. Professor Isaac Asimov, Author and Biochemist
  4. Arthur Miller, Pulitzer Prize-Winning Playwright
  5. Wole Soyinka, Nobel Laureate in Literature
  6. Gore Vidal, Award-Winning Novelist and Political Activist
  7. Douglas Adams, Best-Selling Science Fiction Writer
  8. Professor Germaine Greer, Writer and Feminist
  9. Iain Banks, Best-Selling Fiction Writer
  10. José Saramago, Nobel Laureate in Literature
  11. Sir Terry Pratchett, NYT Best-Selling Novelist
  12. Ken Follett, NYT Best-Selling Author
  13. Ian McEwan, Man Booker Prize-Winning Novelist
  14. Andrew Motion, Poet Laureate (1999-2009)
  15. Professor Martin Amis, Award-Winning Novelist
  16. Michel Houellebecq, Goncourt Prize-Winning French Novelist
  17. Philip Roth, Man Booker Prize-Winning Novelist
  18. Margaret Atwood, Booker Prize-Winning Author and Poet
  19. Sir Salman Rushdie, Booker Prize-Winning Novelist
  20. Norman MacCaig, Renowned Scottish Poet
  21. Phillip Pullman, Best-Selling British Author
  22. Dr Matt Ridley, Award-Winning Science Writer
  23. Harold Pinter, Nobel Laureate in Literature
  24. Howard Brenton, Award-Winning English Playwright
  25. Tariq Ali, Award-Winning Writer and Filmmaker
  26. Theodore Dalrymple, English Writer and Psychiatrist
  27. Roddy Doyle, Booker Prize-Winning Novelist
  28. Redmond O’Hanlon FRSL, British Writer and Scholar
  29. Diana Athill, Award-Winning Author and Literary Editor
  30. Christopher Hitchens, Best-Selling Author, Award-Winning Columnist
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Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников // Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov  (15 May 1845 – 15 July 1916)

Russian (Ukrainian) biologist, zoologist and protozoologist, best known for his pioneering research into the immune system. … In 1882 he resigned his position at Odessa University and set up a private laboratory at Messina to study comparative embryology, where he discovered phagocytosis after experimenting on the larvae of starfish. He realized that the process of digestion in micro-organisms was essentially the same as that carried out by white blood cells.

His theory, that certain white blood cells could engulf and destroy harmful bodies such as bacteria, met with skepticism from leading specialists including Louis Pasteur, Behring and others.   Nonetheless, in 1888 Pasteur gave him an appointment at the Pasteur Institute, where he remained for the rest of his life.

Mechnikov received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1908, shared with Paul Ehrlich, for his work in immunology. He is also credited by some sources with coining the term gerontology in 1903, for the emerging study of aging and longevity.

SOURCE:  Wikipedia 
IMAGES:  [1] and [3] Wikimedia   ||   MIDDLE IMAGE: A macrophage white blood cell (centre) engulfs and destroys bacteria (orange) and spews out the remnants. DAVID MACK/GETTY, via Life sciences: Industrial immunology : Nature



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Advice to Young Scientists - L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Laureates 2014

“Follow your dreams and never set yourself any limits” - Our 2014 L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Laureates have some advice for young scientists.

Uploaded by: For Women in Science.