scandinavian church

bluesoilder4710  asked:

Ok so i just went through this entire blog and i love it too much already and holy crap its been a few hours and i haven't seen any or many posts or asks about the bells chiming its in the comic and i was wondering about it

In Irish and Scandinavian folklore particularly, church bells had the power to drive away trolls/the Fair Folk/the Devil/other supernatural dangers. It seemed to me that on university ground, where the acquisition of knowledge is worshiped, the library bells would have a similar effect.

gospel-of-yggdrasil  asked:

Greetings, I am searching for sources exploring the slow process of Christianization of the north lands and the resulting unique brand of Christianity; can you recommend any resources? Thanks-in-advance

Komdu blessaður (eða blessuð), vinur minn!
(Come blessed, my friend!)

I deeply apologize for the length of time that I have made you wait for this response. May your patience be thanked and rewarded. I will stay true to your wishes in this request, and so I shall provide you a plentiful amount of sources to explore, but leave them untainted by my commentary. Hopefully I am able to offer resources that you are not already aware of.

I have categorized the following sources by geographical relevance, but also by source type (primary versus secondary); they are not listed in particular order beyond that (i.e. alphabetical, chronological, etc). I have also offered links to each source, either to where it can be bought, or to where it can be freely read. I must also mention that, although I am singling out Christian-related sections of larger works, you would benefit greatly from also understanding the non-religious aspects of these societies, which inevitably played a considerable role in the formation of unique brands of Christianity.

Regardless of what sources I have not included (for I cannot possibly included everything), these 26 sources, both primary and secondary, should keep you busy for a while. I recommend you read them carefully and keep in mind the inherent bias and perspective being told. Also, in regards to further research beyond these 26 works, I highly recommend investigating not only the scholars directly involved, but also the footnotes and works that they have used in constructing these sources. Such a process will surely lead you to even more resources to discover.


ICELAND:

Primary Sources:

  1. Ari Thorgilsson, The Book of the Icelanders, translated by Siân Grønlie (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2006), 3-34. See also pages ix-xxix for historical background regarding Ari and this work. You will also notice that this source includes the source mentioned below.
  2. Ari Thorgilsson, The Story of Conversion, translated by Siân Grønlie (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2006), 35-74. See also pages xxx-xliv for historical background.
  3. “The Journey of Abbot Nikolas Bergsson from Iceland to Jerusalem,” in The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition, edited by Angus A. Somerville and R. Andrew McDonald (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014), 416-21.
  4. Andrew Dennis, Peter Foote, and Richard Perkins trans., “Christian Laws Section,” in Laws of Early Iceland: Grágás I (repr., 1980; Winnipeg, CA: University of Manitoba Press, 2012), 23-52.
  5. Helen Carron trans., Clemens saga (The Life of St. Clement of Rome) (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2005).
  6. Kellinde Wrightson ed., Fourteenth-Century Icelandic Verse on the Virgin Mary (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2001).
  7. Ármann Jakobsson and David Clark trans., The Saga of Bishop Thorlak (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2013).

Secondary Sources:

  1. Gunnar Karlsson, “Christianization,” “The Church,” “The Victory of the Church,” “Reformation,” and “Lutheran Society,” in The History of Iceland (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000), 33-37, 38-43, 96-99, 128-33, and 134-37.
  2. Jesse L. Byock, “A Peaceful Conversion: The Viking Age Church” and “Bishops and Secular Authority: The Later Church,” in Viking Age Iceland (Penguin Books, 2013), 292-307, 324-40.
  3. Dag Strömbäck, The Conversion of Iceland, translated by Peter Foote (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 1975).

NORWAY:

Primary Sources:

  1. Snorri Sturluson, Ólafs saga Tryggvassonar, in Heimskringla, Vol. 1: The Beginnings to Ólafr Tryggvasson, second edition, translated by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2016), 137-233.
  2. Snorri Sturluson, Ólafs saga Helga, in Heimskringla, Vol. II: Ólafr Haraldsson (the Saint), translated by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2014).
  3. Snorri Sturluson, Magnússona saga, in Heimskringla, Vol. III: Magnús Ólafsson to Magnús Erlingsson, translated by Alison Finlay and Anthony Faulkes (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2015), 145-169. See chapters 3 through 13 for the travels of King Sigurd (Jerusalem-Farer) to Jerusalem. For this section, see also The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition, pages 408-16.
  4. The Saga of Hallfred the Troublesome Poet; written in Iceland, but largely concerning events in Norway — keep the bias and perspective in mind, though! See Diana Whaley, Sagas of Warrior-Poets (Penguin Books, 2002), for an easily accessible copy.
  5. Devra Kunin trans., A History of Norway and The Passion and Miracles of the Blessed Óláfr, edited with an introduction and notes by Carl Phelpstead (Viking Society for Northern Research, University College London, 2001).

SWEDEN:

Primary Sources:

  1. Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, translated by F.J. Tschan and with new introduction by T. Reuter (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 208-10, see also The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition, pages 406-7.

DENMARK:

Primary Sources:

  1. Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, translated by F.J. Tschan and with new introduction by T. Reuter (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 49-51, 55-57. This source concerns the conversion of the Danes under Harald Bluetooth, see also The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition, pages 383-86. For more about the Church of Norway, see pages 214-15 of Bremen.

ALL (GENERAL):

Primary Sources:

  1. C.H. Robinson trans., Anskar: The Apostle of the North, 801-865, translated from the Vita Anskarii by Bishop Rimbert his fellow missionary and successor (London 1921); revised by P.E. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, 2nd ed. (Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2004), 407-40. The sections most relevant to the North can also be found in The Viking Age: A Reader, second edition, pages 372-83.

Secondary Sources:

  1. John Haywood, “The Early Scandinavian Church” in The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Viking Age (London: Penguin Books, 1995), 132-33.
  2. Margaret Cormack, “Christian Biography,” in A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture, edited by Rory McTurk (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), 27-42.
  3. Katrina Attwood, “Christian Poetry,” in A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture, edited by Rory McTurk (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), 43-63.
  4. Svanhildur Óskarsson, “Prose of Christian Instruction,” in A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture, edited by Rory McTurk (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), 338-52.
  5. James C. Russel, The Germanization of Early Medieval Christianity: A Sociohistorical Approach to Religious Transformation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).
  6. Sverre Bagge, Cross and Scepter: The Rise of the Scandinavian Kingdoms from the Vikings to the Reformation (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014).
  7. Anders Winroth, The Conversion of Scandinavia: Vikings, Merchants, and Missionaries in the Remaking of Northern Europe (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011). See him and a few of his other works on this page.
  8. Tracy Marie Legel, “The introduction of Christianity into Scandinavia, Iceland, and Finland” (2006). Electronic theses and Dissertations. Paper 810.

Unfortunately my academic bias does show a bit in this list, for I am primarily a historian of Iceland (and thus also of Norway), which is why most of the resources that I know about are for those regions specifically (but also where much of our native literature survives from). I also have not included other potential areas for research that you may find useful, such as several sections of sagas that concern religion and conversion. I omitted these potential resources because it would be far too expensive for you to acquire those sagas just to read a small portion of the overall tale. One such example would be The Tale of Thorvald the Far-Travelled, which I have personally used in a paper regarding Christian attitudes about feud and similar violent behavior in Iceland. It is not easy, however, to obtain an English translation of that work, and so it would not be fruitful for me to include it.

I have also not included several articles that have been written by scholars, for I cannot assume that you have proper access to such academic journals. I could, however, provide you with a few of their names if you believe that would be useful for you — but do feel free to investigate any of the scholars above for even more resources!

I also must admit, for the sake of friendly conversation, that this is a subject that has grown more prevalent in my mind recently. It cannot be helped, for I too find the introduction of Christianity to the medieval North to be a fascinating subject. That said, I do hope for the best in your studies; I’d be open to discussion if you ever felt the need or desire to do so.

I hope for the best in your research, and may you be enlightened by whatever wisdom that may befall you in such a quest.

Bonā fidē,
(In good faith,)
— Fjörn

Legendary Creatures [G]

From Wikipedia, See the Full Alphabet HERE.

2

St Alban, North Harrow (1937) by AW Kenyon

This church in North Harrow was consecrated on 12th June 1937. Designed by AW Kenyon in an austere Scandinavian style, the church is constructed of brown brick around a concrete frame, with a sparse white interior and a square church tower.

Image from A Jewel For Metroland by Dennis G.J. Caddy