A Total Solar Eclipse Revealed Solar Storms 100 Years Before Satellites
Just days from now, on Aug. 21, 2017, the Moon will pass between the Sun and Earth, casting its shadow down on Earth and giving all of North America the chance to see a solar eclipse. Remember that it is never safe to look at the partially eclipsed or uneclipsed Sun, so make sure you use a solar filter or indirect viewing method if you plan to watch the eclipse.
Eclipses set the stage for historic science. Past eclipses enabled scientists to study the Sun’s structure, find the first proof of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, and discover the element helium — 30 years before it was found on Earth..
We’re taking advantage of the Aug. 21 eclipse by funding 11 ground-based scientific studies. As our scientists prepare their experiments for next week, we’re looking back to an historic 1860 total solar eclipse, which many think gave humanity our first glimpse of solar storms — called coronal mass ejections — 100 years before scientists first understood what they were.
Coronal mass ejections, or CMEs, are massive eruptions made up of hot gas, plasma and magnetic fields. Bursting from the Sun’s surface, these giant clouds of solar material speed into space up to a million miles per hour and carry enough energy to power the world for 10,000 years if we could harness it. Sometimes, when they’re directed towards Earth, CMEs can affect Earth’s space environment, creating space weather: including triggering auroras, affecting satellites, and – in extreme cases – even straining power grids.
Scientists observed these eruptions in the 1970s during the beginning of the modern satellite era, when satellites in space were able to capture thousands of images of solar activity that had never been seen before.
But in hindsight, scientists realized their satellite images might not be the first record of these solar storms. Hand-drawn records of an 1860 total solar eclipse bore surprising resemblance to these groundbreaking satellite images.
On July 18, 1860, the Moon’s shadow swept across North America, Spain and North Africa. Because it passed over so much populated land, this eclipse was particularly well-observed, resulting in a wealth of scientific observations.
Drawings from across the path of the 1860 eclipse show large, white finger-like projections in the Sun’s atmosphere—called the corona—as well as a distinctive, bubble-shaped structure. But the observations weren’t uniform – only about two-thirds of the 1860 eclipse sketches showed this bubble, setting off heated debate about what this feature could have been.
Sketches from the total solar eclipse of July 1860.
One hundred years later, with the onset of space-based satellite imagery, scientists got another piece of the puzzle. Those illustrations from the 1860 eclipse looked very similar to satellite imagery showing CMEs – meaning 1860 may have been humanity’s first glimpse at these solar storms, even though we didn’t understand what we were seeing.
While satellites provide most of the data for CME research, total solar eclipses seen from the ground still play an important role in understanding our star. During an eclipse, observers on the ground are treated to unique views of the innermost corona, the region of the solar atmosphere that triggers CMEs.
This region of the Sun’s atmosphere can’t be measured at any other time, since human-made instruments that create artificial eclipses must block out much of the Sun’s atmosphere—as well as its bright face—in order to produce clear images. Yet scientists think this important region is responsible for accelerating CMEs, as well as heating the entire corona to extraordinarily high temperatures.
When the path of an eclipse falls on land, scientists take advantage of these rare chances to collect unique data. With each new total solar eclipse, there’s the possibility of new information and research—and maybe, the chance to reveal something as astronomical as the first solar storm.
The Star-Democrat, Easton, Maryland, January 5, 1951
In 2000 we shall be able to fly around the world in a day.
Google says: The average commercial jet liner travels about 550 mph, and the Earth is around 26,000 miles in circumference. If a commercial plane could make the trip without refueling, it would take over 47 hours. A large commercial jetliner has a range of about 5,000 miles, so it would need to land and refuel several times.
Y'know I loved the ending to 17776 because usually a story has some sort of conclusion. I was kind of expecting them to address the issue of why humans stopped ageing, but they didn’t, which allows you to form your own hypotheses. It leaves so much of the story to you which I haven’t really seen done before. I mean with most forms of media etc. there will be things you can speculate about, but quite a bit of information about the world it’s taking place in and the plot of the story is given to you. However, 17776 is simply a quick glance at what some satellites were doing 15000 years in the future, there’s no major plot or anything it’s just a concept of what life may be like thousands of years from now, and I love that.
Remembering the late Masaya Nakamura (1925 - 2017), founder of Namco.
On January 30th, 2017, Namco announced that its founder and former CEO (from 1955 until 2002), Masaya Nakamura, passed away on 22 January 2017 at the age of 91. The reasoning for the delay in announcing his death was due to Namco requesting respect for his family’s privacy.
Nakamura was born Dec. 24, 1925, and graduated from what is now Yokohama National University in 1948. His field? Shipbuilding. However, thanks to Japan’s economic recovery following World War 2, shipbuilding fell by the wayside. And so, in 1955, Namco was born! Initially, it was known as Nakamura Manufacturing, then later on as
Nakamura Amusement Machine Manufacturing Company before finally being shortened in to the Namco name that would become recognized internationally.
He initially focused on mechanical amusement rides in the early decades, but in the 1970s, Nakamura saw potential in the field of video games after observing the prototypical arcade games that began to rise forth in the very earliest days of gaming, and he wisely steered the company more towards video gaming.
Mere years later, Namco kicked off its still-ongoing string of gaming hits such as Galaxian in 1979, and most importantly Toru Iwatani’s Pac-Man in 1980. The wild success of Namco helped pave the way for the rising video game industry, and with Nakamura at the helm, he is easily one of the most crucial figures in gaming’s history.
An interesting footnote: When Namco purchased film company Nikkatsu, Nakamura dabbled in movie production; he is even credited as executive producer on many of their films!
After 47 years as CEO of Namco, Nakamura decided to settle in to well-deserved retirement by stepping down from his CEO position in 2002 at the age of 77, remaining loosely involved with the company in a more honorary and ceremonial role. He was Japan’s 68th richest person by the time Namco merged with Bandai in 2005.
In 2007, Japan’s government recognized Nakamura’s accomplishments with a very prestigious award: the Order of the Rising Sun, the highest honor one in Japan can receive without being a head of state, royalty or a politician. It’s very similar in concept to Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. And in 2010, he was inducted in to the
International Video Game Hall of Fame, where he spoke via satellite feed.
62 years after Namco began as a mere
two mechanical horse rides on a department store rooftop, Namco is a global powerhouse and symbol of excellence in gaming. Nakamura’s efforts have brought many people across the world a whole lot of fun over the last several decades, and Namco will continue to do so long after his passing.
What was it like meeting and drawing beside Alex Hirsch?
I didn’t get to talk to him much outside of the stream but he seems like a pretty cool dude, based on my interaction with him and from what I’ve heard about him from others. Like inner-child me was definitely excited to be drawing with another artist I have mad respect for, but reasonable-adult me has enough sense to not freak out about it, haha. Dana Terrace is actually incredibly dope too, like, pretty much all of the most kickass shots in Gravity Falls were her doing. I’ve met her a couple times and we have mutual friends, but I’d be lying if I acted like I was super close with either of them. Super cool people tho!!
- 2MIN were practically inseparable like long-lost brothers reunited after 848362 years.
- Satellite Jeon and Jeonlous in action.
- I mean, just look at Jeon staring at Jimin (who is next to Taemin) in the second pic, looking slightly displeased, no? Hahaha.
- BTS were super hyped and full of energy!
- Jimin’s Pink hair was LIT. A dark pink with an orange base.
- They performed: Medley of Boy in Luv, Danger & Run. Full versions of BST, Spring Day & FIRE.
- Fanchants were loud! SO PROUD.
- JinKook did their signature handshake.
- Jimin, Jin & Hobi provided plenty of fan service.
- Towards the end, Jimin actually ran over to Taemin to smack his butt before they exited the stage.
I’ve got some fancams that I might upload, if I’m not too lazy.
Hey, what's your opinion on the F-15 and it's many variants?
THE fighter jet, interceptor, long-range strike, and even anti-satellite aircraft, for many years the best fighter available for western forces, only surpassed by the equally impressive, if unproven, F-22 Raptor, truly an aircraft to behold!
Born from Cold War paranoia, in essence, the believe that the MiG-25 Mach 3 interceptor was an equally impressive fighter, and as such designed to surpass anything available on the skies, with an almost limitless budget that, in a way, is still getting paid by american taxpayers to this day, Americana incarnate, for better or for worse!
The Mikoyan MiG-25
The fighter with the best combat record of any modern aircraft, the F-14 flown mostly by Iranian pilots only coming second, where most if not all her victories have been against soviet-made, arab-flown aircraft over the skies of the Middle East.
A purebred fighter that was so well-made, it’s still a foe to behold, a with constant upgrades and weapon packages, will continue being so for years to come.
The Sentinel/Guide AU no one ever asked for. Shamelessly inspired by Killjoys, Starfighter, Dark Matter, and other fun space themed shit.
This first part is. Ah. Both information dense and light? A lot of things are said and done that may or may not make sense but all will be revealed eventually. I’m 1.3k words into the next bit so some things might even be revealed sometime this year. *gasp*
Promptio, side Ignoct.
Explicit rating, though not in this part
ABO, Sentinel/Guide, special powers (not that special. Lots of people have them, tbh), kinda dystopian, past character death, eventual sex, D/s themes, bdsm, not always safe or sane. Codependent relationships. Space Adventure. Everyone has ptsd and more baggage than you can shake a stick at. Gladio starts out a little ooc but…well. He’s cranky. He’ll mellow out. …maybe.
If someone reminds me I’ll make a post with my inspiration for the tattoos described here when I get home from dinner.
The photograph was taken with the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland developed hyperspectral camera’s secondary camera.
Launched on the morning of 23 June from India, the Aalto-1 satellite’s first month in space has gone according to plan.
‘We have run checks on the majority of the satellite’s systems and found that the devices are fully functional,’ Aalto University’s Professor Jaan Praks, who is heading the satellite project, explains.
So what if years, centuries, millennia from now, after looking out into space and searching as far as we can go, we do it. We find life. We celebrate, we fear, we play it off as a hoax, we hum the x-files theme song in triumph. We can see them. We’ve discovered life on another planet. And they’re an incomprehensible distance away, so far that most people can’t remember what prefix to use. So far that all we can do is watch and wait another twenty years for the next satellite to reach their planet.
While we wait, we map, we research, we listen, we send sounds out into the void. There’s a renewed vigor to see what space has to offer. Countries are competing again, trying to see who can build a sleeker, better rocket. The space version of the World Fair starts up every year. All it took was five pictures, and only one clear shot of what was obviously life.
After twenty years the satellite goes into orbit around our mystery planet. The images take days to load, but they’re there. Crisp and real and absolutely incredible. Massive cities stretch across the globe. The dirt is purple and the creatures are blue, but they create, just as we do. The next goal, of course, is to get there ourselves. We’ve established a colony on Mars, and sent our first astronaut to Pluto. Now it was time to aim higher, farther.
Rockets take time, especially when they’re made to house humans for so long. So while we wait, we send a rover. In another twenty years, it will reach the surface of the planet, and, well, rove. We name it Hello. It has a small compartment on its back full of metal plates inscribed with images. People and places and things. Poetry and chemical formations and art. A short guide to several different languages, one for each country involved in the joint project.
When the rover reaches the planet, everybody stops. They tune in and watch the live feed, the rover entering the atmosphere. It gets bright, impossibly bright, and then… nothing. The camera is down. Billions upon billions, wasted. The manpower, the hope, the expectations, all flattened. But then it keeps sending signals. Atmosphere readings, soil samples. And maybe not all hope was lost. The rover kept sending signals for over a month, so the command was sent to open the hatch, the one with gifts for the other world.
This time we know what the air is like, how it would kill a human in a heartbeat. We know what minerals are found scattered around the planet. We still have images from the satellite, even if it can’t see Hello. We make another rover, this time named Eve. This one carries plants, ones that might survive in the other atmosphere, and a panel with instructions on how to care for them. Giant, blown up images of H2O and O2. Drawings of the plant growing in sunlight. But this time, when we send out Eve, just five years later, before it reaches the planet, they send something back.
Mass hysteria, confusion, doubt, deniers, enthusiasts. A quick trip by a private shuttle overtakes the object. It’s a satellite. It has a camera, and its made out of something entirely different. It’s completely round and smooth, and harder than ours. On the back is what looks like a scribble and a perfectly etched “HELLO”, just like the rover. The astronauts pose in front of the satellite and laugh. Maybe aliens were watching them. Watching us. Watching them.
The Black Knight Satellite is an orbiting body of unknown origin that is estimated to be about thirdteen-thousand years old; If not older. This satellite is seen as an angular black mass and has been transmitting radio signals for over fifty years!
Rumours about this strange satellite say that Nikola Tesla first intercepted signals from this satellite in the year 1899. It was seen shadowing the Sputnik I spacecraft. This was before either the United States or the Soviet Union had the technology or ability to launch satellites into orbit.
A company known as the Grumman Aircraft Corporation has formed a committee that studied the signals coming from this satellite, which orbits the earth in a way unlike any man-made satellite to date, but none of their findings about it have been made readily available to the public.
A Ham Radio operator claimed to have decripted a message sent to Earth by the Black Knight and reported that the message said the satellite originate from the Epsilon Bootes Star System some 13,000 years ago.