Santa Maria Novella Station (in Italian Stazione di Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy
Photos by Caleb Racicot
My best friend and his husband are in Italy, where he and I have previously traveled on several occasions. He asked me what things I’d like him to bring home for me and among my requests was pictures of Italian Art Deco and/or Modernist and/or Fascist architect.
Since I knew they were going to Florence, I asked for at least a couple pictures of the station, which I recall as being amazing. I love the design of the central hall as well as the shopping arcades and those windows are spectacular.
The station as it is now dates to the 1930s when a mid 19th century station was remodeled. Here is background from Wikipedia on the design, which is a mix of several design schools:
In 1932 through a number of newspaper editorials, published in La Nazione, Florence’s main daily, Romano Romanelli a reputed and influential Florentine sculptor, criticized the original project by the Architect Mazzoni for the new Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station. A constructive debate resulted in the final choice of the project sponsored by the Architect Marcello Piacentini and designed by Gruppo Toscano.
The station was designed in 1932 by a group of architects known as the Gruppo Toscano (Tuscan Group) of which Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini, Berardi, Baroni, Lusanna were among the members; the building was constructed between 1932 and 1934. The plan of the building, as seen from above, looks as if it were based on the fascio littorio, the symbol of Benito Mussolini’s National Fascist Party, many documents give this explanation, but, that shape was forced by the pre-existing station. The “blade” represented by the first two passenger tracks and the postal ones were in fact the extension of the 1861 alignment which included the tracks of the line from Livorno.
The building is a prime example of Italian modernism, but has little to do with the Italian Rationalism movement, being more strongly influenced by the Viennese architecture of Loos and Hoffman, with perhaps a nod to Wright; but it is the building’s complete originality that makes it outstanding. The competition to design the station was controversial but the approval by Mussolini of the Gruppo Toscano project was hailed as an official acceptance of modernity. The station was designed to replace the aging Maria Antonia Station, one of the few example of architecture by I. K. Brunel in Italy, and to serve as a gateway to the city centre.
The Gruppo Toscano was only responsible for the main frontal building of the station. The heating plant, platforms, other facilities and details such as benches were all designed in a contrasting style by the official Ministry of Communications architect, Angiolo Mazzoni. The benches and baggage shelves illustrated on this page were not part of the Gruppo Toscano project. Outside and adjacent to the station is also Michelucci’s white marble Palazzina Reale di Santa Maria Novella, built to host the Royal family on visits to Florence.
While it is of a ‘modern’ design, the use of pietra forte for the station’s stone frontage was intended to respond to and contrast with the nearby Gothic architecture of the church of Santa Maria Novella. The interior of the station features a dramatic metal and glass roof with large skylights over the main passenger concourse, which is aligned perpendicular to the tracks and acts as a pedestrian street connecting one side of the city with the other. The skylights span the passenger concourse without any supporting columns, giving a feeling of openness and vast space and reinforcing the convergence of all the public functions of the station on the passenger concourse.
Nardo di Cione’s 1357 frescoes of the Last Judgment (west wall, top photo), Paradise (south wall, 2nd photo) and Hell (north wall, 3rd photo; detail, 4th photo) in the Cappella Strozzi in the Basilica of Santa Maria Novella in Florence. Nardo’s brother Andrea, popularly known as Orcagna (the Archangel), painted the altarpiece (bottom photo, also shown in context in top photo).
1) Don’t drink cappuccino after 11 A.M. Really, nobody ever does it, here. It’s like plunging a bomb in your stomach. How can you drink it after dinner is still a mystery to me.
2) Don’t ask for parmigiano if you’re eating something like pasta con le vongole (pasta with fish, or clams) or something similar. It’s barbaric.
3) In Italy, pizza margherita comes without ananas. Deal with it.
4) In Italy, if you ask for a pizza with pepperoni you’ll get a pizza with vegetables, not salami. Really, what’s wrong with you people?
5) Don’t be afraid if your bistecca alla fiorentina (florentine steak) is bloody: it’s normal.
6) No, guys. Flip flop ain’t stylish. You know, you’re in the country that, somehow, created haute couture together with France: try to meet its standards.
7) Don’t buy ice creams near Santa Maria Novella station, in Florence. I’m sorry, but it’s one of the worst thing you’ll ever do to your stomach, and it’s a disservice to Italy’s real ice cream that you can find in less central shops, maybe even a few street far from there. Eat a good cream, not a plastic one.
8) Try and learn some words in italian: i swear it’s fun. Nobody expects you to speak italian, you’ll see some funny reactions.
9) Here, dinner is usually at 8, 8:30 P.M., lunch is at 1, 1:30 P.M.. At 6 P.M. it’s early even for an aperitif. At 6 you can…why, what about a light snack?
10) With fish, you drink white wine. With meat, you drink red wine. With pizza we usually drink beer, but you can have whatever you like. BUT if you go to Livorno and eat Cacciucco (a dish made with fish, mollusks and shellfishes) ask for RED wine. You don’t drink white wine with Cacciucco, ever. They might kill you.
11) In Italy, if you ask for a coffee you’ll get an Espresso. If you want something else you’ll have to specify. Hey, I’d like an american coffe, thank you! Or a macchiato (it comes with milk) or, even better a caffè corretto (hey, it comes with brandy, usually).
12) It is said that italian people talk with their hands, and it’s true: our gesticulation is famous and pretty meaningful. So, don’t worry if our hands fly while we speak, we’re not having a seizure. Also, if someone gives you the middle finger, remember that it’s an international gesture. They’re not being nice to you.
13) If someone tries to tell you that vaffan*ulo means hello, don’t believe them. They’re liars.
The classical scholar and poet Angelo Ambrogini, known as Poliziano, died on 24 September 1494 at the age of 40. His nickname derived from the Latin name for his hometown of Montepulciano (Mons Politianus). Known for his translations of ancient texts and original poetry, Poliziano served as private secretary to Lorenzo de'Medici (d. 1492) and tutor to his children. He appears alongside the young Giuliano, Piero, and Giovanni in a fresco painted by Domenico Ghirlandaio in the Sassetti Chapel at Santa Trinita, Florence. It depicts the Confirmation of the Franciscan Rule, which was granted by Pope Honorius III in 1223 in Rome, as if it had happened in Florence with late fifteenth-century luminaries in attendance, including Lorenzo and Poliziano.
Ghirlandaio honored Poliziano again in a fresco painted for another prominent family’s chapel, the Tornabuoni chapel at Santa Maria Novella. Ghirlandaio included the humanist among the crowd gathered to witness Zachariah’s message from the Angel Gabriel that he would have a son. The inscription on the arched gate at the right of the composition has been attributed to Poliziano, who was Medici court poet at the time: “In the year 1490, when the most beautiful of cities, owing to its wealth, its conquests, its undertakings, and buildings, enjoyed prosperity and peace” (translation from Steffi Roettgen, Italian Frescoes: The Flowering of the Renaissance 1470-1510, p. 174.)
Sassetti included members of the Medici family and entourage in his chapel’s decoration as a way to honor his employer Lorenzo; the Tornabuoni included numerous family members, friends, and luminaries in the crowds that witness the religious events displayed on their chapel’s walls as a reflection of their social status and importance. That Poliziano was included in both images attests to his his reputation and esteem during his short but productive life.
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Confirmation of Franciscan Rule, fresco, ca. 1485, detail showing Angelo Poliziano and Giuliano di Lorenzo de'Medici, Sassetti Chapel, Santa Trinita, Florence
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Confirmation of Franciscan Rule, fresco, ca. 1485, Sassetti Chapel, Santa Trinita, Florence
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Apparition to Zechariah, fresco, ca. 1490, detail showing Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Demetrius the Greek, and Angelo Poliziano (according to Vasari), Tornabuoni Chapel, Santa Maria Novella, Florence
Domenico Ghirlandaio, Apparition to Zechariah, fresco, ca. 1490, Tornabuoni Chapel, Santa Maria Novella, Florence
Visited the official perfumery of Santa Maria Novella in Firenze. This perfumery dates back to 1612 and was originally formed by the monks of the monastery of Santa Maria Novella. The building was incredible and the perfumes capture true Italian simplicity.
This was from the foundry at Santa Maria Novella, Florence. The water was taken with a cup of coffee with a third of a cup of water and a little sugar. This created an aromatic drink that calms nervous excitation.
Monasteries often produced such simple remedies and cures for general sale. In the 1800s, hysteria was a broad diagnosis applied to women with ‘nervous’ condition