Went to an art museum today & got some cute stationery for my birthday!! 📄🌿
ASC 02 - ‘Favourite teacher & why’
≫ I genuinely get along SUPER well with all of my teachers, but I’d say my fave(s) would be my french teachers! They’ve known me the longest, we have weekly chats in french, and they bring in loads of treats for me and my classmate!
64 days in heaven and hell (154) Day 62 ctd. - At the gates of hell The weather was still bad in the afternoon and kept both painters inside. The atmosphere was tense. Gauguin had nothing to do and was restless. Van Gogh was brooding over the unfinished hands of ‘La Berceuse’ and even more over Gauguin’s possible departure. All of a sudden, they had a fierce argument over a serial killer who was haunted by horla-like nightmares while he waited for his execution. Towards the evening, Gauguin prepared their dinner in the kitchen behind the studio, gobbled his food in a brooding silence and left the house. Perhaps he just went out for a breath of air between two downpours, perhaps he wanted to drown his misery in the Café de la Gare. But when Van Gogh heard the door slam, he must have believed that Gauguin was leaving for good. He ran out, caught up with him in the middle of the park in front of the Yellow House and asked him point-blank if he was going away. The reply was yes. Perhaps Gauguin only confirmed that he wanted to leave in due course, but his answer was understood as the dreaded definitive verdict. In silence, Van Gogh handed the ‘traitor’ a piece of paper, torn from a page of L’Intransigeant. It was the article about a murderer on the run.
For Gauguin, this frightening episode came on top of Vincent’s increasingly bizarre behaviour of the last couple of weeks. He didn’t dare to go back to the house and spent the night in a hotel. When he returned to the Yellow House in the morning, it was surrounded by a crowd and by police.
Inside the house, blood was everywhere.
Gauguin was immediately questioned as the possible perpetrator of a terrible attack on his friend, who was found upstairs in his bed, motionless, in a fetal position and his head covered with cloth.
Francis Bacon, Study for a Portrait of Vincent Van Gogh I, 1956. Oil on canvas, 154 x 116 cm. Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, Norwich, Norfolk, UK (on loan)
The Sainsbury Laboratory, an 11,000 sq.m. plant science research centre set in the University of Cambridge’s Botanic Garden, brings together world-leading scientists in a working environment of the highest quality. The design reconciles complex scientific requirements with the need for a piece of architecture that also responds to its landscape setting.
Brain’s GPS system influenced by shape of environment
Patterns created by the brain’s grid cells, which are believed to guide navigation, are modified by the shape of the environment, according to UCL researchers. This means grid patterns aren’t a universal metric for the brain’s GPS system to measure distance, as previously thought.
Grid cells in the brain appear to form an internal map of the local environment by signalling periodically to create a ‘grid-pattern’ that helps animals to navigate, even in the dark. Until now, it was believed that all grid patterns were hexagonal, providing the brain with uniformly spaced regions across which distances could be measured. The new research dispels this theory as it shows grid patterns distort to align with the local environment’s geometry, changing the distances between grid-regions.
The leading author, Dr Julija Krupic (UCL Cell & Developmental Biology), said: “If you imagine the pattern made by grid cells is a ruler for our brains to measure distance, we’re seeing the ruler bending and stretching depending on the geometry of our external environment. This causes grid patterns to change markedly between enclosures of different shapes and within the same enclosure.”
The study in rats, published in Nature today and funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Gatsby Charitable Foundation, shows that the structure of the grid pattern is responsive to environmental shape to such an extent that highly polarised trapezoid-shaped environments cause the usual hexagonal grid pattern to break as the grid aligns to the enclosure walls.
The scientists studied the grid patterns created in the entorhinal cortex part of the brain of 41 rats as they foraged in circular, square or trapezoid shaped environments. They found grid patterns aligned at an angle of 8.8° to the walls in polarized enclosures and discovered that this influence was strong enough to cause distortions in trapezoid shaped spaces.
The team investigated whether the changes in patterns were caused by external cues such as visual landmarks, textures and smells, or altered behaviour in the speed or directional movement of the rats, and found the primary influence was the impact of environmental geometry.
Co-first-author, Dr Marius Bauza (UCL Cell & Developmental Biology), said: “We were surprised to see how important environmental boundaries are in permanently changing grid patterns and just how local the activity of grid cells is. We found those anatomically close to each other in the entorhinal cortex responded coherently. We’re planning to use this new information to refine the mathematical models we’ve developed to help us understand the behaviour of grid cells and how grid patterns form.”
Professor John O’Keefe (UCL Cell & Developmental Biology, Director of the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre and Nobel Prize laureate in Medicine or Physiology 2014), senior author on the paper, said: “We know that other cells involved in the brain’s GPS system such as place cells and boundary cells are affected by environmental geometry and now we see the same is true for grid cells. It might be that grid patterns aren’t used as a ruler by the brain and are doing something different. Of course, they may still be trying to measure distance in trapezoids but this is now distorted, leading to the interesting idea that our brains perceive distance differently in environments with polarised geometry. Our next step will be to find out why grid patterns change based on our environment and what this means for the role of grid cells in helping us navigate and form memories.”